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scraping mountains, was discovered (1646) by St. the alignment of Manhattan Island itself. The altiIsaac Jogues, French Jesuit missionary later mar- tudes toward the northern limits of this section tyred by the Indians and recently canonized by are 300 ft. or more. the Catholic Church as the first American saint. Along the west bank of the Hudson River are the

Lake Placid is an internationally known summer Palisades, a ridge of resistant rock, the cliff faces and winter resort. Here is the great Mt. Van of which viewed from points along the east bank Hovenberg Olympic Bobsled run, designed and con- of the Hudson are of superb beauty and constitute structed by the State Olympic Winter Games the most imposing scenic feature of the New York Commission. Here also are toboggan slides; skat- City region. They may be seen to good advantage ing rinks (notably the Olympic arena, now the along the whole course of Riverside Drive. scene of famous hockey games); ski jumps; stables The chief economic interests of the State are the for skijoring horses, and kennels for sled dogs. national and international financial community of

There are hundreds of places in New York New York City, the foreign commerce in New York ideally adapted for winter sports and each winter Harbor, now the heaviest in the world; the large sees an increasing number of railroad trains manufacturing, and the rich agricultural resources. thronged with ski enthusiasts bound from the Because of the demands of the large urban popucities for the snow-impacted hill lands.

lation, agriculture is a huge industry in New York. Saranac Lake, home of the famous Trudeau The leading type of farming is dairying and the sanitarium where the treatment of tuberculosis State ranks high in production of cheese. Fruits was first started on a large scale, is world-famed and vegetables are grown extensively. Principal as a health resort as well as winter and summer crops in recent years have been corn, wheat, oats, sports center.

barley, hay, apples, peaches, pears, cherries, Manhattan Island is bounded on the west by grapes, cabbage (New York leads in cabbage prothe Hudson River, on the south by the Upper Bay, duction), onions. potatoes, beans, buckwheat. on the east by the East River, which connects the maple sugar, maple syrup. Upper Bay with Long Island Sound, and on the The City of New York, with its universities, north by the small waterway known as the Har- and other schools, its cathedrals, churches, mulem River, which connects the Hudson with the seums, libraries, hotels, palaces, skyscrapers, East River. The traveler coming by sea to New subways and bridges, its parks and driveways, is York enters the Lower Bay by a dredged channel, one of the great wonders of the modern world. The finds deep water in the Narrows between the lower largest ships in the world are a part of its comBay and the Upper Bay, and by an inspection of merce. More than 100.000 visitors enter and leave the map may note the deep water of the Upper every day. Food and clothing are brought to the inBay and in the Hudson River adjoining Manhattan habitants from every part of the globe. It is one Island.

of the three great money cities of the earth. Many The importance of New York as the seaport points of interest in New York City are treated which handles the great bulk of the tonnage com- elsewhere in the Almanac at greater length. ing to the United States is because the Hudson is Coney Island, Brooklyn, is an internationally A drowned river. The coast line of the region at known seaside playground on the Atlantic Ocean the mouth of the river has subsided, and the for- with five miles of bathing beach, a boardwalk and mer course of the river has been traced seaward multiple amusement devices. Brighton and Manfor approximately 100 miles by soundings across hattan Beaches, adjoining Coney Island, attract the Continental Shelf. The silting up of the Lower thousands of bathers. Bay with sediments brought south by the Hudson Long Island is one of the best known summer and the action of the tides have made necessary the and all-year regions in the East. It has many dredging of the Ambrose Channel in the Lower famous bathing beaches including Riis Park. Bay. This provides a depth of 40 ft. for vessels Rockaway, within the limits of and maintained entering the port, and almost unlimited anchorage by the City of New York, Long Beach and Jones is available in the Upper Bay, as well as docking Beach Southampton is the scene of a noted facilities of the first rank in Manhattan and society colony, and like other exclusive resorts on Brooklyn and along the New Jersey shore opposite both the North and South Shore, has a private Manhattan Island.

bathing beach. The topographic features of the New York City Staten Island (Richmond) has a number of sumregion show small relief. Between the Hudson Riv. mer resort beaches, chief of which is Midland. er, the East River and Long Island, there is a Others include South, Graham, Woodland, New series of flat-topped ridges whose direction is in Dorp and Oakwood beaches, all on Lower New York general parallel with that of the Hudson River and Bay, an indentation of the Atlantic Ocean.

North Carolina Capital, Raleigh-Tar Heel State-State Flower, Dogwood-Motto: Esse Quam Videri (To Be Rather

Than to Seem)-Area, 52,712 sq. mi.; rank, 27th-Population, 3,571,623; rank, 11th. North Carolina, a South Atlantic State, of the in tobacco production, growing 70 per cent of Original Thirteen, is bounded on the north by Vir- all the bright leaf cigarette crop produced in the ginia, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the United States, for which the farmers receive an south by the Atlantic, South Carolina and Georgia, average of $150,000,000 a year. Cotton and cotton and on the west by South Carolina and Tennessee. seed rank next, the yield valued at approximately

The topography of the State consists of three $39.000,000 yearly. Corn, which ranks third, has distinct types--the coastal plain, the central Pied- more acres planted to that than any other single mont area (which attains an elevation of about

crop it amounts to about $35,000,000 yearly. 1,000 ft. and from which spring the Blue Ridge Other crops in the order of their importance are Mountains); and the Appalachian Highlands. Geo- hay. peanuts, commercial truck crops. sweet pologically the mountains in western North Carolina

tatoes. Irish potatoes, peaches and apples. North are the oldest on the continent. Mount Mitchell Carolina ranks third in the nation in the value (6.684 ft. high) is the tallest peak east of the of its farm crops. Mississippi and affords unexcelled scenic views. A great variety of minerals is found in North On its summit is the grave of Dr. Elisha Mitchell Carolina, principally clay products, mica, barytes, who first measured the height of the mountain and kyanite, talc, kaolin, olivine and coal. It is the lost his life exploring it. There are many rivers country's chief source of mica, feldspar and resiin North Carolina, principally the French Broad, dual Koalin clay. There are also several rare Catawba, Yadkin, Roanoke, Tar and Neuse.

minerals such as monazite and zircon, used in Great Smoky Mountains National Park com- the manufacture of incandescent light mantles, prises 687.5 square miles of mountain beauty in columbite, allamite and wolframite. extreme northwestern portion of


State, Asheville, with an elevation of 2,300 feet, is a about half in North Carolina and half in Ten- popular resort city. A point of interest nearby is nessee. The park is 54 miles long and 19 miles the Biltmore House, palatial mansion built at a wide. The Great Smokies meander through the cost of several million dollars by the late George park for 71 miles and for 36 consecutive miles W. Vanderbilt and now open to the public. Beare more than 5,000 feet in altitude. There are cause of its magnitude, remarkable grounds and 16 peaks in the park more than 6.000 feet high. gardens, paintings, antiques, and other objects of The area contains more than 200,000 acres of vir- art, Biltmore House is unique among country esgin hardwoods of which some 50.000 acres are tablishments in America. of red spruce, the largest stand of this spruce on Charlotte and Winston-Salem are important the continent. There are 56.5 miles of motor commercially. In Charlotte was signed the first roads, 25 miles of secondary roads and 510 miles American Declaration of Independence (May 20, of horse and foot trails within the park, also 600 1775), antedating the national Declaration by more miles of trout streams.

than a year. North Carolina is primarily an agricultural State, In the St. James Episcopal Church, Wilmington. although it has many important industries, par- is a 450-year-old painting of Christ taken from a ticularly the manufacture of cigarettes, cotton pirate ship in the old town of Brunswick across goods and knit goods.

South River (1748). Agricultural produce is varied. The State leads The long windswept barrier beach of North Carolina including Cape Hatteras, so-called "graveyard of the Atlantic' has been developed 11.CO & V&st park and recreational area. Eventually the area will include 100.000 acres and will take in a series of narrow islands running from near the Virginia State line southward to Ocracoke Inlet. Rounake Island, inside the border and historically important as the site of the first English colony in America (1585), will be included as will KII Devil Hill National Memorial, the site of the first mechanical airplane fight by the Wright Brothers (1903). The Roanoke Island settlement became the "Lost Colony" of the Roanoke. Virginia Dare was born there (Aug. 18, 1587), the first white child of English parentage born in the New World. The first Christian baptismal sacrament known to have been administered in America took place on Roanoke Island with the baptism of the friendly Indian chief Manteo.

North Carolina was next to last of the Thirteen Original Colunies (1789) to enter the Union, de minding a clause guaranteeing religious freedom belore ratifying the constitution. Fort Fisher, at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, was the scene of the heaviest naval bombardment in the Civil War, falling (Jan. 15, 1865).

North Carolina's losses by death in battle, from wounds, and from disease surpassed those of any other state in the Civil War.

The chief institutions of higher learning are the University of North Carolina, the first State university in the United States, with three unitsthe university proper in Chapel Hill, he State College of Agriculture and Engineering in Raleigh, the State College for Women in Greensboro, and Duke University, Durham. Other institutions of higher learning include Davidson, Davidson; Guilford, Guilford; and Wake Forest, Wake Forest.


North Dakota Capital, Bismarck-Flickertail State--State Flower, Wild Prairie Rose-Motto: Liberty and Union, One and Inseparable Now and Forever-Area, 70,665 sq. mi.; rank, 16th-Population, 641,935; rank, 39th.

North Dakota, in the West North Central group, stopped (late October, 1804) and asked for a is bounded on the north by Canada, on the east by guide to lead them through pass over the Minnesota, on the south by South Dakota, and on

Rocky Mountains. The only person in the Sioux the west by Montana. It is drained in part by the

tribe who knew the trail was Sakakawea, then Missouri River and in part by the Red River, which

20 years of age, remembering it from childhood,

With her few-weeks-old papoose over her back, stream is the line between North Dakota and Min- she led the Lewis and Clark Expedition over nesota, and the alle of which, an old lake bed, is

treacherous trails for many weeks until they exceedingly fertile. "Number One Northern Hard"

reached a pass at the eastern base of the Rockies. wheat originated there, and is a premium grade About five miles southeast of the spot where of that cereal. The suriace in the eastern two

the American expedition met Sakaka wea, historic thirds is a vast rolling plain, once with scant rain- Fort Lincoln was built and it was from this fort fall, but now, since cultivation advanced west- that Gen. George Custer and his troops many years ward, having precipitation enough usually for the later (May 17, 1876) rode out to the battle of large crops produced.

the Little Big Horn in Montana, where Custer The state leads in the production of spring and all his men were massacred. wheat and rye; of durum wheat and of flax seed. Explorations in what is now North Dakota were Potatoes, wild hay, oats, barley and corn are grown made (as early as 1780) by French-Canadians. Alextensively.

though the Sioux and Chippewa predominated, A vast proportion of the western part is under- there were several other tribes in North Dakota laid with lignite coal, which is produced quite such as the Blackfeet, the Gros Ventres and the extensively for domestic as well as foreign con- Mandans, who figured in the State's early history, sumption. The State also has two briquetting It was near Medora, a Bad Lands town in the plants that manufacture briquetts and other by- western part of the State, that Theodore Roosevelt products from lignite. The State to some extent made his headquarters when a rancher. His origdepends on the mines of other States for its coal inal cabin, made from logs cut along the banks supply, but local manufacture increases from year

of the Little Missouri River and floated down to to year Fine clay's adapted to the manufacture Medora, has been preserved and stands today on of pottery are also found in extensive areas of the Capitol grounds in Bismarck. western North Dakota, with two major sources of Originally named Bad Lands by the Indians and manufacture in existence, a commercial plant in the early settlers because they were "bad lands Dickinson, and the ceramics department of the to travel through," this section has been made State university,

accessible by automobile over all-weather highways. On the State Capitol grounds in Bismarck is a The Turtle Mountains of North Dakota are statue by Leonard Crunelle or Sakakawea, an in- known for the greatest variety of song birds of dian girl whose name means "bird woman. She any place of like extent in the United States. А was Shoshone, which tribe lived in the joint American-Canadian Commission voted to northwestern part of what is now Wyoming, but set aside 3.000 acres on the northern border of was captured when ten years of age by a roving these mountains to be known as the Peace Garden, band of Indians of the Sioux tribe and taken to commemorating the long years of continuous peace their home on the banks of the Missouri 40 miles between Canada and the United States. north of Bismarck. There she grew up and at an The University of North Dakota in Grand Forks; early age was married to Toussant Charbon- the North Dakota Agricultural College in Fargo, neau, a French-Canadian trapper. It was near and Jamestown College in Jamestown are among her home that the Lewis and Clark Expedition the higher institutions of learning.

Ohio Capital, Columbus-Buckeye State--State Flower, Scarlet Carnation-Motto: Imperium en Imperio (A Government within a Government)-Area, 41,222 sq. mi.; rank, 35th---Population, 6,907.612;

rank, 4th. Ohio, an East North Central State, is bounded on vehicles and parts. Meat packing output is exthe north by Michigan and Lake Erie, on the east tensive. by Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on the south

Ohio leads in limestone and clay products. by West Virginia and Kentucky, and on the west

Other minerals are coal, pig iron, petroleum, gypby Indiana. It has no considerable elevation,

sum, salt. being highest in the center, and sloping in each

Agriculture is carried on extensively. The prin

cipal crops are corn, oats, winter wheat, potatoes, direction to the lake on the north and to the Ohio

hay, tobacco and grapes. Millions of gallons of River, a great traffic route, on the southern bound- wine are made from Ohio grapes. The annual ary line. Its climate is characteristic of the north woolclip is large. temperate zone, with abundant rainfall.

The State has many institutions of higher learnOhio has navigable waterways for the 430 miles ing including Ohio State University, Columbus: of the Ohio, the 230 miles of lake frontage and Cincinnati University: Ohio Wesleyan University, 100 miles up the Muskingum River in the south- Delaivare: Ohio University, Athens; Western Reeast.

serve in Cleveland, Oberlin College, Oberlin; MiManufacturing, mining and oil are the chief ami University, Oxford; Municipal University, Akinterests. The iron and steel ore and reduction ron; Wittenberg College, Springfield, and Toledo and machinery industries lead all others.

University. Oberlin College was the first in the Cleveland, Youngstown, Canton, Steubenville world to admit women on equal terms with men and Middletown have the principal iron and steel and the first in the United States to admit negroes working plants. Manufacturing is extensive in on equal terms with whites. flher lines, including rubber tires and motor Ohio is distinguished among the States for the tenseness of its political life. It is regarded as a ters in the territory, organizing “counties" as politically pivotal State, and has given the United units of government. He established his headStates five Presidents, all native born, while two quarters (1791) in Cincinnati, which came to be reothers, elected as residents of other States, were garded as the capital. Here were organized the exborn in Ohio.

peditions against the Indians--the disastrous ones The pre-historic Mound Builders who once in- in St. Clair and Harmar, and Wayne's successful habited the country from the Great Lakes to the campaign. Gulf of Mexico have left more traces of their Congress designated Chillicothe as the capital and work in Ohio than in any other State. The best the legislature met there (Nov. 1800). known is Serpent Mound, the form of a serpent The village's one meeting place was Abrams 1,300 ft. in length on an embankment near Locust Big House, a two-story log cabin with a doubleGrove, Adams County, It was built as an ad- decker annex. The main floor, where the legislajunct to religious or ceremonial worship and is the ture met, was the Athenaeum, used for singing largest and most impressive pre-historic effigy on schools, dances and Presbyterian Church services: the American continent. It is now the property the upper floor was a barroom. The chief duty of of Harvard University. The largest conical mound the sergeant-at-arms was to keep enough members in Ohio is the Miamisburg. 68 it. high and about downstairs to constitute a quorum, This second 850 ft. in circumference. Though a shaft was session was the last meeting of the Territorial sunk a short distance from the top, it has never legislature in Ohio. been explored. In all of Ohio, there are 10,000 The constitution had provided that Chillicothe mounds and 2,000 earth enclosures, many of them be the capital until 1808, but left the site of the of extensive dimensions.

permanent seat of government for the legislature Other points of scenic and historic interest are to decide. When the people of Muskingum County the George Rogers Clark Park containing the site erected a building for the State offices (1809) the. of the Battle of Piqua and birthplace of the legislature accepted Zanesville as the temporary Indian chief Tecumseh; the house in

which capital. But before moving there it appointed a Ulysses S. Grant was born in Point Pleasant, and commission to locate the permanent capital "not Thomas Edison's birthplace is Milan Hocking more than 40 miles from the common center of County contains more places of scenic interest than the State." any other in the State. Rock House, Ash Cave, James Johnson, John Kerr, Alexander McLaughCedar Falls, Conkles' Hollow, Old Man's Cave and lin and Lyne Starling offered (Feb. 1812) to the Natural Bridge at Rockbridge are in this one lay out a town on the east bank of the Scioto river county, all but the latter having been made State opposite Franklinton, convey to the State a tract Parks.

of 10 acres for a statehouse and a similar tract for During the Northwest Territory regime the Gov- a penitentiary, erect thereon State buildings to the ernor and judges also constituted the legislative value of $50,000 and have them ready for use (by body, and the capitol, in effect, was wherever they Dec. 1, 1817). This offer the legislature accepted happened to be. Governor St. Clair and his aide and (Feb. 14) it voted that (after Dec. 1, 1817) went to Marietta (July, 1789) and instituted gov- the capital should be on "the high bank of the ernment under the Ordinance. From Marietta St. Scioto." Clair went to Cincinnati and thence to other cen- The new capital city was named Columbus.

Oklahoma Capital, Oklahoma City-Sooner State-State Flower, Mistletoe-Motto: Labor Omnia Vincit (Labor

Conquers All Things)--Area, 69,619 sq. mi.; rank, 17th-Population, 2,326,434; rank, 22nd. Oklahoma, in the West South Central group, is Petroleum was known to exist near Chelsea (1889) bounded on the north by Colorado and Kansas, on but there was little development until 1903. the east by Missouri and Arkansas, on the south by The famous Glen Pool near Sapulpa was brought Texas, and on the west by Texas and New Mexico. into production (1906). The State reached first The surface is a vast rolling plain having a gentle rank as a producer (1927) but yielded that place to southern and eastern slope and a mean elevation of Texas, and (1929) dropped to third place, below 1,300 ft.

California. Other minerals commercialized are zinc, The western plains are treeless, but the Ozark lead and natural gas. Mountains in the eastern part are heavily wooded. Oil lifted on land owned by Indians, wards of the Further west are the Wichita Mountains, and then Nation, brought them riches. The Osage Indians the Chautauqua, while the extreme northwest is a received $22,000,000 (1926) at the peak of their lofty tableland (altitude about 4,700 ft.). The oil riches; each "headright" drew $13,400. Arkansas River flows eastward through the middle

Manufactures are few in Oklahoma. The leading of the State, and small rivers in the southern part industry is petroleum refining. Zinc smelters and drain into the Red River, which forms the southern boundary. The prevailing type of soil is a deep

refineries are important, and the flour mills and dark-red loam. The climate shows great variations large output.

cotton seed oil, cake and meal factories have a of temperature, and the rainfall in the west is scanty, though generally sufficient in the east.

Among the institutions of higher education are In northwest Oklahoma are the Great Salt

the University of Oklahoma, in Norman, and the Plains, an area of dazzling white salt six by eight

Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater. miles in size and as level as a table top. This Except for a small strip of land north of Texas, gigantic deposit is said to be the residuum of

that territory now known as Oklahoma was ora great, prehistoric inland sea, from which the ganized (1834) as an Indian Territory. White water drained to form the present salt plain.

people were barred as settlers. Although there was Two Territories were combined to make the

& large influx of Indians from other parts of the State, Oklahoma and Indian Territory, which was country, a considerable area in the central part of the home of the Five Civilized Tribes-Chero

the territory remained unoccupied. This section kees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles.

was purchased by the United States Government The more than 30 tribes in Oklahoma compose and opened to the public. (April 22, 1889). More 36% of the Indian population of the United States.

than 50,000 persons entered in one day. The State The dances and festivals range from the religio- has 27 Indian Reservations. political Sacred Fire Ceremony of the Cherokees, The No-Man's Land Strip just north of the said to have been established more than 2,000 years Texas Panhandle and West of the 100th meridian, ago, to the modernized Armistice Day Celebration was a strip of public land west of the Cherokee of the Osages. There are many war dances and Strip of Indian Territory. Efforts were made to peyote dances, Indian fairs and festivals, stomp include the strip in Kansas and in New Mexico and green corn dances, and scores of others, and without success. The people who lived there conalmost every locality is host to one or more of sidered it a part of Indian Territory in which it them during the year.

was finally included when opened to the public Oklahoma is primarily agricultural. The State (1889). It has been said it was a passageway for leads in the production of broom corn. Other im- Indians going eastward or westward. The stris ported crops are corn, wheat, oats, grain sorghums, is now a part of Oklahoma and has been di. potatoes, hay, fruits and cotton. The annual wool. vided into three counties, Beaver, Texas and clip is great.


Oregon Capital, Salem-Beaver State-State Flower, Oregon Grape-Motto: The Union-Area, 96,981 sq. mi.;

rank, 9th-Population, 1,089,684; rank, 34th. Oregon is bounded on the north by Washington, areas where rainfall is abundant, to the large on the east by Idaho, on the south by California stretches of semi-arid lands of the southeastern and Nevada and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. parts, with a touch here and there of almost desert.

It has every character of climate and soil and The coast climate is salutary. never very cold. production known to the temperate zone, the and seldom very hot. That part of the State east lands ranging from the heavily vegetated coast of the Cascade Range, drier and often colder, is &

vast plateau greater in area than that of the and canning region. The State leads in the producNew England States combined.

tion of hops. Other crops are winter wheat, oats, It has very important navigation facilities- hay and potatoes. The annual wool-clip is abunthe Columbia River flowing into the Pacific with dant. a width at the mouth of about 14 miles, the river The salmon isheries, centering in Astoria, at the carrying tonnage along the whole of the 400 miles mouth of the Columbia, are among the world's of its seaward course from the Idaho line; and the greatest. Snake, running along the northern half of the Although undeveloped, all the basic minerals are eastern boundary, already conveying much traffic found in Oregon. Gold, silver and copper are and being susceptible of greater development. mined, with also stores of lead, oil, quicksilver, navigation project, is situated on the

Columbia gold output exceeds $2,000,000 a year. The Bonneville Dam, & gigantic power and chromic iron ore, platinum, and all the clays. The River at Bonneville, 42 miles east of Portland. There are several colleges, the State University It has created a deep lake 50 miles inland to The in Eugene, the Agricultural College in Corvallis. Dalles on which ocean-going vessels may navigate. Reed Institute in Portland, and others.

Into Oregon pour the products of "The Inland The Columbia Highway, unexcelled for scenic Empire," a region comprising 250,000 square miles beauty, running up the river from Portland: Mt. in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington and Hood (11.253 it.) the highest point in the State. Northern Idaho, the Columbia being the waterway Other lofty mountains, and Crater Lake, 6,000 ft. outlet, and the railways following the water grades up in the Cascade Mountains, are points of tourfrom the Empire through the Columbia River ist interest. Gorge to Portland, the "Rose City," which is Crater Lake, in Crater Lake National Park, reactually on the Williamette River, ten miles from poses in what was once a gigantic volcano. of an the Columbia, but economically, on the Columbia. unusual sapphire blue, it is six miles in diameter

The part of Oregon west from the Cascade and 2,000 feet deep. Mountain range, which has peak elevations up to Carrying sea letters granted by George Wash12,000 ft., is slashed north and south by the Coast ington. Captain Robert Gray in his ship, the Range, a very aged ridge now eroded to lower Columbia (May 11. 1792). sailed into the river levels. The whole of the western one-third of the which is named after his vessel. He gave the State has abundant rainfall, the average precipita - United States by right of discovery sound argution at Portland being about that of Chicago or ment for claiming the vast region drained by the New York.

river--the Oregon country. Oregon has almost one-half of the more than Through President Thomas Jefferson's efforts one trillion ft. of timber standing in the three Lewis and Clark were commissioned to explore the Coast States, Oregon, Washington, and California, country (1803). They reached the mouth of the Some of the trees are more than 300 ft. high. In Columbia (Nov. 11, 1805); built Fort Clatsop, a the southwest are found forests of the redwoods. site near where Astoria stands today. The ruins with at least 20 other varieties of timber in of a cairn where they reduced salt from sea water abundance, some of it excellent for furniture may be visited in Seaside manufacture, which is a considerable industry John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur company (April The cut of timber is the second in the United 1811) established & fort, the beginning of Astoria, States, Washington only exceeding. The lumber which fell into British hands during the War of cut averages more than 3 billion board feet an- 1812 nually and is shipped to all foreign markets.

A provisional government was formed at ChamThe State produces walnuts, and, in the Willa- poeg (May 2. 1843). mette Valley, filberts. Long-fiber flax is grown in The territorial government of the Oregon country the Salem district, which is also the fruit, berry. was proclaimed (March 3, 1849).

Pennsylvania Capital, Harrisburg-Keystone State-State Flower, Mountain Laurel--Motto: Virtue, Liberty and

Independence--Area, 45,333 sq. mi.; rank, 32nd-Population, 9,900, 180; rank, 2nd. Pennsylvania, of the Middle Atlantic group, is Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh; bounded on the north by Lake Erie and New York, Lafayette College. Easton; Lehigh University,

Temple on the east by New York and New Jersey, on the Bethlehem;

University, Philadelphia south by Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia, lege, Carlisle: Franklin and Marshall College,

Bucknell University. Lewisburg: Dickinson Col and on the west by West Virginia and Ohio. It is

Lancaster; Allegheny College, Meadville: Duquesne one of the Thirteen Original States.

Coilege, Pittsburgh; Grove City College, Grove It is of varied topography. like most Atlantic City: Haverford College, Haverford: Swarthmore States, having leveler lands to the east, and rising College, Swarthmore. There are also three colto higher altitudes to the westward. The Ap- leges for women, in Bryn Mawr, Pittsburgh and palachian range traverses the central part from Chambersburg. northeast to southwest, a higher mountain region Pennsylvania was named in honor of Admiral being in the extreme west, and another lower plain William Penn, the founder of the province. Wilrunning down to the shores of Lake Erie. It has liam Penn, a Quaker, received a charter (1681) rivers important in navigation---the Susquehanna, from Charles II of Great Britain for land in the Delaware and the Allegheny and the Mononga- America that was given the name of "Pensilvania" hela, which unite at Pittsburgh to form the Ohio. (Penn's Woods) by the King. The name “PensilThe Cominonwealth's mountains and lakes are vania" was used for many years by William Penn well adapted to winter sports.

and his sons, Thomas and Richard, to designate The Commonwealth has built its industries the province. The grant was made in settlement largely on the basic elements. It produces nearly of a debt of 16,000 pounds which King Charles and hall the steel of the country, shipping it to all the British Government owed Admiral Penn. The parts of the world. Pittsburgh is the center of the charter was granted (March 4, 1681). greatest metal production ever attained in one lo- The founder of the province convened a General cality. Its supplies of Iron ore come mostly from Assembly in Chester (Dec. 4, 1682) when three Minnesota, and its operations have made more laws were enacted during a session of four days. millionaires than any other single industrial center The province and territories (Pennsylvania and in the country. The perfected tonnage from Pitts- Delaware) were divided into three counties each. burgh is the heaviest, excepting at New York and Philadelphia, Chester and Bucks for the former, Chicago. Electrical goods and equipment are made and New Castle, Kent and Sussex for the latter. in Pittsburgh in large quantity.

The first General Assembly was convened by The bituminous coal annual output averages ap- proclamation issued by the proprietor who set proximately 350.000.000 tons; anthracite averages forth that the assemblage was to include all resi45,000,000 to 50,000,000 tons; and the Common- dents of the province. wealth produces high-grade petroleum, iron ore, pig Penn granted three charters; one (1682), the iron, steel for rails and structural purposes, lime, second one (1683) and the third (1701. Pennsylslate, and other metals and minerals.

vania was governed under the latter charter until Scranton is the greatest hard coal center of the the Constitution of 1776 was framed during the country, and makes much steel.

period of the Revolution. Pennsylvania leads in the production of buck- Penn's invitation to Continental Europeans to wheat. Other important crops are winter wheat, come to his province brought to Pennsylvania a rye, oats, corn, potatoes, tobacco, apples, peaches, mixture of English. Scotch-Irish, Scotch. Irish, pears and grapes.

Welsh, Dutch, French, Swedish and German, In educational facilities the Commonwealth The terms Commonwealth" as applied to the rank high. The principal higher educational in- province and "General Assembly" as the official stitutions are the University of Pennsylvania in name for the law-making body of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (founded in 1740); Washington and were originated by Penn and remain in the ConJefferson in Washington (founded 1780): Pennsyl- stitution in force. vania State College University of Pittsburgh; The United States was born on Pennsylvania soil. In Philadelphia was adopted the Articles of middle south, Lake Erie in the northwest, and the Confederation; the Declaration of Independence Genesee in the middle north section. Natural lakes was written and signed there; the Treaty of Peace and ponds are relatively small and are found in that ended the Revolutionary War was ratified in the glacial areas in the northern part of the that place, and there also later the Constitution Commonwealth, more especially in the northeast of the United States formulated.

portion. The largest is Conneaut Lake in Crawford The Commonwealth is rich in historic land- County, with an area of 928 acres. The largest marks, including Valley Forge and the Battlefield artificial body of water is the Pymatuning Lake in of Gettysburg, now national shrines. At Gettysburg Crawford County, covering 17,200 acres, built to (July 1-3, 1938) elaborate exercises commemorated regulate the flow of the Shenango and Beaver the 75th anniversary of the battle. An "eternal" Rivers. light peace memorial (to burn only at night) was The first water works system operated in Penndedicated by President Roosevelt.

sylvania was built to supply Schaefferstown, in The site of Benjamin Franklin's original printing Lebanon County (1732). The first water works shop in Philadelphia was marked (May 4, 1938) pumping plant was built in Bethlehem (1754). with a bronze tablet, cemented into the sidewalk and the third system to be built was a steam in front of a building at 135 Market street, Phila- pumping plant in Philadelphia (1801). delphia. In the time of Franklin it was 51 High The Pennsylvania Turnpike, a 160-mile long austreet.

tomobile highway from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh Pennsylvania is drained by three important river was completed (July, 1940) at a cost of $70.000.000 systems: the Delaware in the east, the Susque-Legislation was passed (1941) to extend the Turnhanna in the middle, and the Ohio in the west; pike to the Ohio state line. An extension to Philaand three minor systems; the Potomac in the delphia was authorized (1940).

Rhode Island Capital, Providence-Little Rhody, also Plantation State-State Flower, Violet-Motto: Hope-Area,

1,214 sq. mi.; rank, 48th-Population, 713,346; rank, 36th. Rhode Island, smallest of States, of the Original the William, valued at £61,930; and many famous Thirteen, and in New England, is bounded on the others. north and east by Massachusetts, on the south by

Captain Charles Hall of the Virgin Queen, one

of the smallest of the privateers, captured and the Atlantic Ocean and on the west by Connecticut.

sacked a Spanish town in Cuba which yielded the With 674.2 persons per square mile, it is the most densely populated State. It exceeds all others in

sailors at least a_hundred dollars apiece, while

Captain Simeon Potter with his sloop Prince per capita industrial output; it is 91.6 per cent

Charles made an extraordinary attack upon a urban.

The textile mills account for nearly half the French settlement to the windward of Surinam, value of the products, and the state has important

laying waste and destroying the whole county for Jewelry factories. The first cotton spinning works

a hundred miles up the Wyopoke River, capturing

the fort and sacking the town, of this country were established in Pawtucket in the 18th century. Providence, Woonsocket, and

The first settlement in Rhode Island was made Pawtucket are the chief centers of industry.

by Roger Williams (1636). Banished for his politThe State enjoys extensive educational facilities,

ical and religious opinions, to escape deportation

to England he fled in the winter to the shores of with Brown University. Rhode Island State Col.

Narragansett Bay, where he founded Providence. lege: Rhode Island College of Education and Provi

The second settlement was made at Portsmouth by dence College among the important institutions.

William Coddington and his associates (1638), the Newport, on Narragansett Bay, has been for decades a famous watering place. The Astors,

third at Newport by Coddington and seceders from

Portsmouth (1639); these two islands uniting Vanderbilts, Goelets and other New York families

(1640) under a single government. The fourth have mansions there. Eastons Beach is the center of Newport's summer activities, though an

settlement was made in Warwick by Samuel Gor

ton (1642) exclusive colony is found at Baileys Beach on the

These four settlements united under a patent Ocean Drive.

granted (1643-44) to form the Colony of Providence The Naval War College is in Newport.

Plantations. When (1651) Coddington obtained a The America Cup Races are sailed off Newport, commission appointing him governor for life of and many other regattas are held there,

the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut, the Many of the early settlers in Rhode Island embraced the sea as a means of livelihood and from ing governed by Governor Coddington, while the

infant colony was disrupted, the two islands beold Newport and other towns have come tales of mainland, Providence and Warwick, continued as exciting adventures in whaling and the slave trade, the Colony of Providence Plantations, but with the in privateering and in general warfare. More than 80 commissions or letters of marque to capture

revocation of Coddington's commission (1654) the

colony was reunited. vessels and merchandise of the enemies of the

The General Assembly of Rhode Island adopted King of England were issued by Rhode Island in

(May 4, 1776, four months before the American King George's War (1739-1748) and more than 60 Declaration of Independence, a resolution

rein the French and Indian war (1756-1763). The nouncing allegiance to the British King and govaverage size of these privateers was 115 tons, some ernment. The vote was almost unanimous. were 390 tons and some as little as 33. The goy- The official name of the State (since July 20, ernment paid a bounty of £5 ($25) for each man on 1776) is "The State of Rhode Island and Provi. a captured vessel.

Common seamen on Rhode dence Plantations.' Island privateers made as much as $5,000 & trip. It was in Pawtucket that Samuel Slater, after Captured vessels were taken to the nearest British working for a time in the cotton spinning mill of Admirality Court, and if judged legally seized were Moses Brown, designed new machines and began condemned and sold with their cargoes and the the first real cotton manufacturing plant in the proceeds apportioned among the owners, officers United States (1790). Old Slater Mill, restored to and crew. Outstanding financial successes in the its original appearance, is a point of tourist interRhode Island privateering business were the San est, In Providence, on North Main Street, is the Francisco, valued at £68,000; the Vigilant, £28,625; oldest Baptist Church in America (founded 1775).

South Carolina Capital, Columbia---Palmetto State, State Flower, Yellow Jessamine-Motto: Dum Spiro, Spero (While

I Breathe I Hope)-Area, 31,055 sq. mi.; rank, 39th-Population, 1,899,804; rank, 26th. South Carolina, in the South Atlantic group of The cotton mills are a great and growing textile the Original Thirteen States, is bounded on the industry. north by North Carolina, on the southeast by the The principal minerals are phosphate rock, granAtlantic Ocean, on the southwest by Georgia. Its ite, clay products, gold, silver, manganese, iron topography is, like that of North Carolina, moun- ore, lime, and monazite. tainous, 3,548 ft. the maximum, in the western

The University of South Carolina in Columbia is part, a plateau in the central strip, and w-lying the leading higher educational institution, Clemson and sandy toward the 200-mile sea front. The climate westward is comparatively cool, in (1898) the first textile school in the United States,

Agricultural College being next. Clemson opened the central part medium, and nearer the coast sub

which has achieved much in training technical mill tropical and humid.

workers and foremen. Tobacco, cotton, and rice are the chief crops. Corn, oats, sweet potatoes, peanuts, peaches are

Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon of Hispaniola secured also grown

(Dec. 1520) a license from Spain and sent out The forests supply lumber to the East and South, a caravel under Francisco Gordillo to explore principally yellow pine. Turpentine is an abundant the continent of America north of the St. Johns product.

River, Florida. Several months later Gordillo fell

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