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to France (1801) and included in the Louisiana the capital of Wisconsin (1838) when Iowa was Purchase (1803). The region was successively separated and the territorial seat of government part of Louisiana (1805), Missouri (1812), Michi- was established, later to go to Iowa City and from gan (1834) and Wisconsin (1836). It became & there (1857) to Des Moines. The gold seekers and distinct territory (1838) and was admitted to the Mormons traveled the stage routes across the Union (Dec. 28, 1846) as a State. Burlington was State and the first railroad came in 1853.
Kansas Capital, Topeka-Sunflower State, also Jayhawk State-State Flower, Sunflower---Motto: Ad Astra per Aspera (To the Stars Through Dificulties ) --Area, 82, 276 sq. mi.; rank, 13th--Population, 1,801,028;
rank 29th. Kansas, a West North Central State, in almost | Indian School, Lawrence, is the largest Indian the exact geographical center of the United States, school in the United States. is bounded on the north by Nebraska, on the east
Archeologists have found remains of interesting
forms of life that existed in Kansas in the distant by Missouri, on the south by Oklahoma, and on the west by Colorado. It is varied in topography fox terrier and ancient birds with teeth once made
past. Three and four-toed horses no larger than a About one-third of the eastern boundary is fol
that part of the country their habitat; and skelelowed by the Missouri River; within the State tons of flying reptiles with a wing-spread of 25 ft. flow the Kansas and Arkansas Rivers. Toward have been found in the chalk beds of western the west the prairies increase in elevation up to Kansas. Swimming reptiles 50 feet long ca vorted 4,000 feet above sea level. Much of the land is
in the seas that once covered the area, which has flat with some low hills in the western portion.
been inundated many times. Ferns 100 feet high
once grew in Kansas. The climate is variable with rather severe winters
The State was traversed by many of the great and hot summers. Included in the Louisiana Purchase it was a part of the Territory of Missouri
pioneer trails, including the Oregon Trail and
the Santa Fe Trail. Some of the towns in Kanand later (1821) became an extension of Indian
sas were settled by pioneers who arrived in Territory. Kansas was made a Territory (1854)
boats, notaby Manhattan. The steamer Hartand a State (1861). Agriculture is extensive. The products include ready-cut houses; steamed down the Ohio, up the
ford left Cincinnati (1854) with 80 persons and wheat, corn, potatoes, the hardier fruits, and fax. Mississippi and Missouri and Kansas rivers, ran Kansas normally produces one fourth of all the
aground at Lecompton and lay on the bar three wheat in the United States and ranks first among
days until rain raised the river. The boat ran the flour milling states. The largest grain elevator ashore again just above the mouth of the Blue in the country is in Kansas City and the world's river and those aboard decided to settle there and largest broom corn market is in Wichita. It is one put up their homes. of the four leading cattle raising states. Dairy and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado headed a Spanish poultry production are great.
exploring party that entered Kansas (1541) seeking Coal underlies more than 15,000 square miles. gold in the fabled cities of Cibola. When Coronado The State ranks high in oil and natural gas pro- returned to Mexico he left behind Father Juan de duction. Other mineral products are lead, zinc, Padilla, who founded a mission among the Indians Portland'. cement. Large quantities of salt are and became the first Christian martyr to die on found.
United States soil. The Quiviran Indians killed State supported are the University of Kansas, him because he was about to leave them to esLawrence: the Kansas State College of Agricul- tablish another mission among a rival tribe. ture and Applied Sciences, Manhattan, and three Spanish explorations in Kansas gave way (1682) other schools. There are other large institutions to the French when La Salle laid claim to all the for higher education, including Washburn College, land drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries. Topeka; Wichita Municipal University and South- France ceded the territory to Spain (1763); rewestern College, Winfield. The nation's largest gained it (1800); and sold it to the United States cavalry school is located in Fort Riley. The Haskell (1803).
Kentucky Capital, Frankfort-Blue Grass State-State Flower, Goldenrod-Motto: United We Stand, Divided We
Fall-Area, 40,395 sq. mi.; rank, 36th-Population, 2,845, 267; rank, 16th. The region now constituting Kentucky was orig- The principal resources of Kentucky are bituinally a part of Fincastle County, Virginia. The minous coal, petroleum, natural gas, fluorspar, first white men known to have discovered this ter- natural cement. Bituminous coal is the most imritory were Marquette and Joliet (1673). Daniel
portant output, Kentucky ranking high among the Boone and his companions (shortly after 1760)
coal-producing states. Petroleum and gas rank
second in importance. explored the region. The first settlement was at
More than half of the inhabitants of Kentucky Harrodsburg (1774). Boonesborough was founded
are engaged in agriculture. Corn is the largest (1775). For a long time Indian wars harassed the and most valuable crop with wheat and oats next. settlement. A code of laws was formed (1775) by The wheat is grown both in the Blue Grass region the settlers, but it was not recognized by Virginia. and farther west. In the eastern part of the State, A year later, the district was organized as Ken- where crops are generally light, Indian corn, oats, tucky County. The three counties which had been
and potatoes are the principal products, but tobacformed since 1776 in Kentucky County were united co, flax and cotton are also raised. The culture of (1783) into Kentucky District. Virginia passed tobacco, which is the second most valuable crop in (1786) the first of four enabling acts giving con- the State, was begun (about 1780) in the northern ditional consent to the organization of Kentucky part. Kentucky is excelled by North Carolina only. as a separate State. Kentucky with its present in this product. The two most important tobaccoboundaries was admitted (1792) to the Union. growing districts are the Black Patch, in the ex
The surface of Kentucky rises gradually from an treme southwest corner of the State, where a altitude of about 300 feet along the Mississippi black, heavy leaf is produced and sold largely to River to the western edge of the Appalachian Central Europe, Spain and Italy: and the Blue Mountain province, in which parallel ridges of Grass region, with the hill country south and east, folded mountains, the Cumberland and the Pine. where the product, the red and white Burley, is a have crests in excess of 2,000 feet. The region fine-fibered light leaf peculiarly absorbent of west of the Tennessee is low, and broken only by licorice and other adulterants used in the manucreek and river valleys. The central portion is facture of chewing tobacco. Kentucky is the rolling to undulating, being part of the westward principal hemp-growing state in the Union. Fruits slope of the Allegheny Mountain Region. The of fine quality are produced. entire eastern part is much dissected. In the The livestock industry is an important branch southeast is a mountainous region with small of agriculture in Kentucky, and large numbers of limestone valleys.
horses, sheep, cattle, and swine are raised. KenKentucky possesses a somewhat milder and tucky has long been noted for its fine horses. more even temperature than that of the neighbor- There are extensive forests of oak, maple, beech, ing States. The mean annual temperature, 50 walnut, ash, pine, and cedar. Oak and yellow degrees on the mountains in the southeastern poplar are the principal hardwoods cut for compart. and 60 degrees west of the Tennessee, is mercial purposes, and yellow pine the principal about 55 degrees for the entire State.
softwood The soil of Kentucky is well adapted to agricul- The value of the manufactured products of ture. The Blue Grass region is composed of Kentucky has been steadily increasing. Among heavy loams, clay loams and stony loams, derived the great industries are the flour mills and gristfrom the almost pure Silurian limestone.
mills, the tobacco manufactures, and the manufacture of men's clothing. The lumber industry & relative of Foster. In the rear of Federal Hill, includes the logging plants, sawmills, and the to the southwest and east, the high tableland various wood-working establishments, especially of the plantation stretches beyond sight. There those making railroad ties, spokes, handles, barrel were the slave cabins on whose foors the young staves, and headings. Cotton goods are also im- folks roll, all merry, all happy and bright!" portant. Kentucky was one of the first states to The Abraham Lincoln National Park, comprisengage in tobacco manufacturing on a factory ing 110 acres, lles three miles south of Hodgenville, basis. The factories are chiefly employed in mak- Ky. The Lincoln Farm Association bought the ing chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff. Other site (1906) and began the erection of a granite manufactures of importance are foundry and building in which to place a log cabin said to be machine-shop products. Iron and steel, slaughter that in which Lincoln was born. ing and meat-packing and railway shops, and The cabin is 12 feet wide and 17 feet long, 11 printing and publishing.
feet from the floor to the eaves, and 14 feet from Educational institutions include the University the floor to the highest point of the roof. The of Kentucky, Lexington; Louisville University, memorial building, for which Theodore Roosevelt Louisville; Berea College, Berea; Centre College, laid the cornerstone (1909) on the centennial of Danville; and Transylvania College, Lexington. Lincoln's birth, is of Connecticut granite lined
Kentucky contains many natural curiosities of with Tennessee marble. Its inside dimensions are unusual interest. Mammoth Cave has been the 44 feet in width, 34 feet in depth, and 45 feet in wonder and admiration of those who have tra- height. The Association (1916) transferred title versed its subterranean passages. In extent and to the farm and the memorial to the United beauty It is almost equaled by the Colossal Cave. States, to be administered by the War DepartBoth are situated in Edmonson County. Natural ment. The property was transferred (1933) to Bridge, in Wolfe County, connects two portions the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. of a chain of mountains, spanning a chasm 60 ft. At this place, Sinking Spring Farm, near the wide and 40 ft. high. Sinking Creek, in Breckin- Big South Fork of Nolin Creek in what is now ridge County, suddenly disappears and traverses Larue County, Abraham Lincoln was born (Feb. an underground course for several miles and re- 12 1809) to Thomas and Nancy Hanks Linappears as a great spring flowing from under a coln. When Abraham was about four years old hiu. In Ice Cave, Caldwell County, ice remains the family moved to another farm, and, a few during the entire year. There are several Indian years later to Indiana, and thence to Illinois, folmounds in Anderson County. At Covington is lowing the frontier with its promise of land. the smallest church in the world, Monte Casino freedom, and opportunity, R. C. Church, with seating accommodations for only three worshippers.
out is apresinteresting coincidence that both
opposing of Cumberland Waterfalls, 18 miles southwest of were born in the same state and in the same Corbin, is famous as the only waterfalls in the section. An obelisk rises 351 ft. at Fairview in Western Hemisphere where a moon-bow may be Todd county to mark the place where Jefferson seen. The only other place in the world where & Davis, President of the Confederate States, was similar phenomenon may be observed is in South born (1808). Africa. “At Cumberland Waterfalls the Cumber- Like Lincoln, Davis left Kentucky in his youth land River takes a leap of 68 ft. over a precipitous but he returned to Kentucky for four years of rock ledge.
schooling before he entered West Point. When The house in which Stephen C Foster wrote Jefferson Davis was an infant the family moved "My old Kentucky Home and the estate sur- to Mississippi and became cotton planters. A rounding it known as Federal Hill, situated one park of 20 acres surrounds the Davis obelisk, mile east of Bardstown, have been preserved as which is second in height to the Washington & state park. It was originally the home of Monument. The custodian's house is said to be a Judge John Rowan, U. S. Senator from Kentucky. replica of the house in which Jefferson was born.
Louisiana Capital, Baton Rouge-Pelican State, also Creole State--State Flower, Magnolia-Motto: Union, Justice,
Confidence-Area, 48,523 sq. mi.; rank, 30th-Population, 2,363,800; rank, 21st. Louisiana, situated in the South Central region, with 280 men who perished with him. on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the The actual room in which final terms of the Mississippi River, is bounded on the north by transfer of Louisiana to the United States were Arkansas and Mississippi, on the east by Mississippi made still exists. It is called the "Sala Capitular" State and the Gulf, on the south by the Gulf, and
and is the main, or largest, chamber in the Cabildo,
in New Orleans, The Cabildo, former seat of on the west by Texas.
government and later of justice, now is owned by There are no hills of importance, and much of
the State, and in it repose archives and historical the land is lower than the immediate banks of
treasures of the State. The Cabildo, the Presthe Mississippi. A powerful system of levees and
bytere, and the Lower Pontalba building, also spillways obviates the danger of annual floods.
owned by the State, are units of the State Museum. The western part, immediately next to Texas.
Jean Baptiste Lemoine Bienville, some twenty shades off toward the drier character of climate
years after his brother, Iberville, a French naval and soils, the climate of Louisiana for the greater
officer, discovered the Mississippi river (March 2, part being warm in summer, with little of winter
1699), founded New Orleans, the first settlement in cold. It is serni-tropical.
Louisiana proper, although some time previously, The Sabine River bounds the State on the west.
with the aid of Le Blonde de la Tour, he settled & and with the Red River and the Mississippi, Louisi
number of Canadians on the site. Under de la ana has 4,794 miles of navigable waterways, much
Tour's supervision the city of New Orleans took of them being on the large bayous in the south.
shape. A church and houses were built, levees There are more than 6,000 square miles water
thrown up and ditches made, and a great canal dug covered, suitable for the propagation of oysters: in the rear for drainage. Bienville arrived and took the shrimp catch is valuable, and commercial
his residence there (Aug. 1722). The Louisiana fishing an important industry. Trappers market colony received new inhabitants and new strength muskrat, opossum, raccoon, mink and other furs from John Law's settlers. There were Indian wars. in great quantities. In the heavily wooded sections Slaves were introduced and the Black Code there are occasionally found cougar, or panther; 1ormulated. lynx or wildcat; gray fox; timber woli and black A hospital was established (1799). A humble bear.
French sailor, Jean Louis, left his savings to estab. Louisiana leads in the production of sugar cane, lish & center of medical attention for the poor. sugar cane syrup and rice. Other important crops This hospital still exists in New Orleans. It is are corn, sweet potatoes and pecans. Cotton is Charity Hospital, one of the largest institutions of grown extensively. The State ranks high in lumber
its kind in the world. It is owned and administered production.
by the State. There are rich sulphur mines; also four of the The world famous and colorful New Orleans largest salt mines in the world. The output of Mardi Gras, which attracts thousands of tourists, petroleum and natural gas is large.
occurs annually on the day preceding Ash WednesDiscovered (1528) by the Spanish explorer day. Narvaex, the history of Louisiana divides into two Unzaga was governor of Louisiana during the major periods--the colonial, extending from the early years of the American Revolution against Arst attempts at colonization (about 1712, to the England and through this Spanish colony passed cession in 1803) and the American from the latter much contraband to the American colonies. Undate to the present time. The colonial period com- zaga was succeeded by Galvez, during whose prises the French domination, down to 1769: the administration Spain declared war upon England, Spanish domination, (1769-1803); and a brief siding with the American colonies and France. period of French rule in the latter year.
Galvez distinguished himself by capturing Baton La Salle claimed the territory in the name of Rouge from the British. A major fire started France (1682) and attempted colonization (1687) (Good Friday, 1788) in New Orleans, destroying most of the city. The rebuilt city followed the British gold offered to him to guide warships to Spanish trend in architecture. Of the French built within striking distance of New Orleans. Jackson. residences, escaping the fire, the most notable is the Tennesseans, Kentuckians, Creoles and pirates that made famous by George W. Cable, in “Ma- won a great victory at Chalmette, when they dame John's Legacy."
turned back the tide of Red Coats-men who had The Revolution and Reign of Terror in France won with Wellington at Waterloo. Pakenham, an (1789-1791) was followed by no less bloody oc- English general, fell fatally wounded on the battlecurrences in France's West Indian holdings, and field. His body was sent back to England embalmed many refugees from Haiti and Santo Domingo in & cask of rum. settled in Louisiana.
There are several institutions of higher learning Not the least picturesque of those who fought including Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge: under the American flag at the Battle of New Tulane University and Loyola University (R. C.), Orleans (Jan. 8, 1814) was Jean Lafitte, the pirate, New Orleans, and, for negroes, Southern Univerand his crew. Lafitte, upon whose head a price sity in Scotlandville, Dillard University and Xavier had been set by Louisiana authorities, spurned | University, both in New Orleans.
Maine Capital, Augusta-Pine Tree State-State Flower, White Pine Cone and Tassel-Motto: Dirigo
(I Direct)-Area, 33,215 sq. mi.; rank, 38th-Population, 847,226; rank, 35th. Maine, in New England, northeasternmost State, ash, and basswood or linden. Maine leads the Is bounded on the north by Quebec, Canada, on the nation in the production of pulp and paper. Along east by New Brunswick, Canada, and the Bay of
the rivers are many water power motived textile, Fundy, on the south by the Atlantic, and on the
tanning, oilcloth, boots and shoes, canning, flour
and machinery works. west by New Hampshire and Quebec.
The coast of Maine, like every other boldly West Quoddy Head, long. 66° 56' 48", is the ex
beautiful coast region in the world whose origin is treme eastern point of the United States and non-volcanic, has been formed by the flooding of Maine's northernmost point is lat. 47° 27' 33". an old and water-worn land surface, which has Eastport is the easternmost city in the United turned its heights into Islands and headlands, its States.
stream courses into arms and reaches of the sea, Maine is heavily wooded, mostly with coniferous its broader valleys into bays and gulfs. trees, is of broken topography, rising to moun. At the center of this coast there stretches an tainous elevations in the northwest, Mount Katah- archipelago of islands and island-sheltered water. din, 5,273 ft., being the highest point, and slopes ways and lakelike bays, and at its northern end, in broken form toward the coast, which is rugged, with its mountainous uplift, lies Mount Desert tortuous, picturesque and indented with many Island, whereon the national park is located. Ultiharbors. There are ten mountains more than 4,000 | mately it is intended that the park shall be exft. high and hundreds more than 2,000 ft.
tended to other islands in this archipelago and Mount Katahdin, situated approximately in the points upon the coast, and become, ultilizing these geographical center of the State, is the first spot landlocked ocean waters with their limitless recreain the United States to greet the rising sun. tional opportunities, no less a marine park than a
Maine's waters abound in fish, its forests in wild land park. animals, and it has a climate rather intensely Mount Desert Island was discovered by Chamcold in winter but beneficent in summer. It has plain (Sept. 1604) 16 years and over before the 2,465 lakes and twice as many rivers and streams arrival of the Pilgrim Fathers at Cape Cod. comprising one-tenth of its surface. Moosehead He had come out the previous spring with the Lake (35 miles long and two to ten miles wide) Sieur de Monts, a Huguenot gentleman, a soldier, is the largest body of fresh water entirely within and the governor of a Huguenot city of refuge in the borders of a single state. There are five large southwestern France, to whom Henry IV — "le rivers--Androscoggin, Kennebec, Penobscot, St. grand roi"-had intrusted, the December previous, John and St. Croix. The coastline is 2,486 miles establishment of the French dominion in America, long. Maine has 1,300 wooded islands, one, Mount Maine was visited by Sebastian Cabot (1496) and Desert, of 60.000 acres, on which is Acadia National settled by Popham colonists (1607) at the mouth Park and a notable summer colony.
of the Kennebec river. It was the first region in The deer is by far the most important game the United States to build a church, the first to animal in the State. There is much grouse-shoot- build a blockhouse and the first to build a shiping The black bear is pretty much at home in the Virginia constructed at the mouth of the Maine, as well as numerous other fur-bearing Kennebec (1607). The first chartered city in animals.
America was founded by Sir Ferdinando Gorges The chief crop is the potato, and its home county (1641) in the present town of York and called is Aroostook, up north. As many as 55 million Gorgeanna. The first naval engagement of the bushels are grown some years. Other crops are Revolutionary War was fought of Machias. Ofr hay, oats, buckwheat, apples. Poultry flourish, also Monhegan Island was fought the historic battle blueberries. The fisheries are of great importance. between the Enterprise and Boxer in the War of
Granite is quarried to pave streets and build 1812. houses all over the North Atlantic coast.
The University of Maine in Orono; Bowdoin Lumber is the principal manufactured product College in Brunswick; Bates College in Lewiston and Maine forests provide much white pine, spruce, and Colby College in Waterville are institutions hemlock, balsam, birch, cedar, oak, maple, beech, of higher learning.
Maryland Capital, Annapolis--Cockade State, also Old Line State-State Flower, Blackeyed Susan-Motto: Fatti Maschii Parole Femine (Manly Deeds and Womanly Words)--Area, 10,577 sq. mi.; rank, 41st-Population,
1,821,244; rank, 28th. Maryland, a South Atlantic border State, is one Baltimore, the chief city, is a ranking foreign of the Original Thirteen, and is bounded on the trade port. north by Pennsylvania, on the east by Delaware The State produces pig iron, coal and coke, clay and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south and west by
and asbestos. Important agricultural products are Virginia and West Virginia. It is penetrated from packs more tomatoes than any other State in the
tobacco, wheat, corn, hay and potatoes, Maryland the south by Chesapeake Bay, a wide arm of the Atlantic, and an important channel of water-borne tomatoes put up in the United States.
Union, amounting to approximately 35% of all commerce which has made Baltimore a great sea- Maryland and Massachusetts are the only two
The Potomac River, which flows along the states with Capitol buildings dating from before southwestern boundary, is also important in com- the Revolution. The present building is the third merce. The topography is varied, low and flat in on the same site. The first (built in 1697) was the portions toward the ocean, and rising to moun- destroyed by fire, and the second (built in 1704) tain levels in the western sections. Great Back- was torn down to make room for the present strucbone Mountain, 3,340 feet, is the highest point. ture. The State is distinctly separated by the bay into Fort McHenry National Park borders the water Eastern and Western shore parts, each having so- front of Baltimore. It contains 47 acres, approxieial and industrial individuality.
mately five of which are covered by the fort. During The original charter for Maryland was granted the American Revolution Baltimore was an im(1634) to Cecelius Calvert. Lord Baltimore, and portant naval center. A battery of 18 guns was the first settlement was made at St. Mary's. It erected (Spring of 1776) on Whetstone Point to was named after Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of guard the entrance to its harbor. This was the Charles I of England.
beginning of Fort McHenry. The depredations of
54 U. S.-Descriptive; Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan
It was during the British attack on Baltimore tietam battlefield-near Hagerstown-scene of &
Maryland retains the whipping post for punishJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, has won ) ment of certain crimes.
sq. mi.; rank, 44th-Population, 4,316,721; rank, 8th.
America. by Vermont and New Hampshire, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Rhode Island, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachu
Other noted institutions of higher learning are: Connecticut and the Atlantic, and on the west by setts State,
Amherst, Tufts, Williams, Clark, Boston New York.
University, Holy Cross, Boston College and NorthThe highest elevations, about 3,500 ft. maximum, eastern University. Institutions for women include are in the west, in the Berkshires, a summer area. Wellesley. Smith, Radcliffe (an offshoot of Har
Massachusetts was once wooded in all portions, vard). Mount Holyoke, Wheaton and Simmons but retains only a fraction of the original forest colleges. wealth; and has become a leading industrial State As with all New England, the State is a great with huge developed and potential water power. summer resort, the North Shore above Boston being
The leading industry is the manufacture of cot- the resort of vacationists and many artists, and the ton goods, and woolens and worsteds, and of great long hooklike Cape Cod and adjacent islands atimportance are the boot and shoe factories and tract thousands. At Provincetown, at the tip of the tanneries, the foundries and machine, shops, the Cape, the Mayflower made its first landing (1620) electric equipment works, the paper mills and the sailing thence to Plymouth. New Bedford was the printing and publishing houses. The state has abundant rail and coastwise ship- ing industry was at its height. It is now one of the
leading whaling port in the world when the whalping facilities.
largest yachting and fishing centers on the coast. In value, hay is the leading crop, tobacco and Nantucket was also a leading whaling port. Regular potatoes next, others being wheat, corn, oats, rye, boat services at New Bedford and Woods Hole are buckwheat, apples, maple sugar, and small fruits, maintained with Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. cranberries abounding in the lands along the coast. The early history of Massachusetts is so much &
Massachusetts is the leading fisheries State of history of America itself that the state is replete New England and Boston is the greatest fishing with historical landmarks of national interest. port in the country.
Plymouth Rock and the town of Plymouth still Mineral products consist chiefly of quarry out- stand and both attract thousands of sightseeing puts, including granite for paving blocks. Lee tourists. Boston boasts of many points of historic marble--the handsome white Dolomite-is famous. importance-Faneuil Hall, the Cradle of Liberty, Some of it is in the Capitol in Washington, in the Bunker Hill Monument, Paul Revere's Home and Washington Monument; and in Grant's Tomb. many other landmarks associated with the Revolu
Harvard College in Cambridge, the nucleus of tionary War.
rank, 22nd-Population, 5,256, 106; rank, 7th.
fishing and summer sports attract many. The State
maintains 16 fish hatcheries. ern peninsula has, on the north, Lake Superior,
Educationally, Michigan has its State University and on the south, Wisconsin; the southern penin
in Ann Arbor, which was first to admit women sula has Lake Michigan on the west, Lake Huron,
matriculates; Michigan State College of AgriculOntario, Canada, and Lake Erie on the east, and
ture and Applied Sciences in East Lansing, which is Indiana and Ohio on the south. The interests of the oldest agricultural college in the country: the northern peninsula are mostly copper, iron and Michigan College of Mining, and Technology in timber. In the southern there are also minerals Houghton; and many normal schools, and timber, but manufacturing has grown to chief An act of Congress (approved March 3, 1931) proimportance Michigan ranks first in automobile vided for the establishment of a national park of production.
Isle Royale in Lake Superior about 40 miles south The State is mostly rolling clay loam, with large
of Port Arthur. It is about 45 miles long and five areas of cut-over timberlands, mostly coniferous,
miles wide, and contains 133,405 acres, including with rugged topography in the north. The State,
some 40 odd adjacent islands. the Federal Government and large private enter- state bids strongly for metropolitan repute and
Beautifully situated along many waterways, the prises are now making great efforts for the re
constantly attracts newcomers from home and forestation of the land.
abroad. In summer time, the numerous islands, No State has greater water boundary lines pro- lakes and rivers are popular resorts. portioned to area; transport naturally is great by The principal minerals are coal, natural gas, that means. Rail facilities are abundant, lines cement, iron ore, gypsum, copper, silver, petroleum. having sought the heavy tonnage of the recently The State leads in production of salt. developed industries. The Sault Ste. Marie Ship The chief crops are oats, corn, wheat, clover Canal, between Lakes Huron and Superior, ac- seed, hay, potatoes, sugar beets, cherries, apples, commodates more tonnage than the Suez Canal. peaches, pears, grapes, beans.
Michigan (until 1763) was a part of New France. French population and customs predominated French occupation has left its mark on the State until the opening of the Erie Canal (1825) introin the presence of French geographical names, duced the dominant New England and New York French population, French traditions and French stock. The population increased from about 30,000 land tenure in some sections.
(1830) to 212.000 (1840). The oldest settlements (Sault Ste. Marie, Mack- Detroit was connected by rail with Chicago inac, and Detroit) are of French origin.
(1852) and with New York (1854). The fur trade flourished during both periods, Copper and iron mining in the Upper Peninsula Michilimackinac being a famous center of the began (1845). The first railroad to the iron mines trade and Sault Ste. Marie an important outfitting (Marquette and Negaunee) was opened (1957) point for the northwest.
and direct rail connection with the Lower PeninMichigan was comprised within the territory sula via the Straits of Mackinac was established covered by the famous Ordinance of 1787, in ac- (1881). The mining industry was promoted by the cordance with whose provision it became a terri-construction of the canal at Sault Ste. Marie tory (1805) and a State (1835).
Minnesota Capital, St. Paul-Gopher State-State Flower, Pink and White Moccasin Flower-Motto: Etoile du Nord
(The Star of the North)-Area, 84,068 sq. mi.; rank, 11th-Population, 2,792,300; rank, 18th. Minnesota includes the geographic center of early 20th century. First the southeast and middle North America. The State is bounded on the south sections of the State were settled, then the south by Iowa, on the west by South and North Dakota,
and west, and, finally, the northeast, which still on the north by Canadian provinces of Manitoba
remains sparsely populated. The building of railand Ontario, and on the east by Wisconsin and
roads in the State began (1862) with ten miles Lake Superior. The neadwaters of three great (later Minneapolis). The first road to connect
completed between St. Paul and St. Anthony river systems are found in its limits, the Missis
Minnesota with the Pacific coast, was the Northern sippi, Red River of the North, and the St. Law- Pacific, (1883). rence. Few states are so well watered. Its navigable
During the years following the Civil War the rivers are the Mississippi, the Minnesota, the St. lumber resources of the State were intensively exCroix. the Rainy, the Red River of the North and ploited. Minneapolis and Duluth owed their rapid the Red Lake River, all of which, at their sources, growth during the seventies and eighties in part have valuable water powers. There are numerous to the milling and shipping of lumber. The prosmaller streams. About two-thirds of the state is duction of lumber reached its peak (1905) with prairie but in the northern portion there are ex- the cutting of two billion feet. tensive pine forests. Minnesota, west of the Mis- The State has become one of the world's great sissippi River, was part of the Louisiana Purchase. wheat-producting centers, and even today the larg
The shore of Lake Superior is the lowest land in est flour mills in the world are in Minneapolis. But the State (602 feet above sea level). The Missis- wheat gradually gave way (1880) to corn as the sippi River, having its chief source in Lake Itasca staple produce. Dairying did not become an im(1,462 feet elevation), leaves the state at 620 feet portant industry until the early eighties, but its above sea level. The Red River of the North. development since then has been rapid, especially beginning near Itasca, at 1462 ft. elevation, leaves during the last two decades and the State now the state at an elevation of 750 ft. The highest produces more butter than any other. There has elevation in the Misquah hills. is Cook county, been a remarkable growth of marketing through (1,630 feet above Lake Superior; 2.230 feet above farmers' co-operative creameries. Meat-packing the sea).
has become an important industry. Minnesota contains more than 11,000 lakes. The Minnesota is among the first States in production state and national forests, as well as the many of barley, rye and flax seed. Other crops besides state parks, make it an ideal recreational area and wheat and corn are, oats, hay, potatoes. the summer vacation mecca for thousands of Rich beds of iron ore are in the northeastern tourists. Itasca State Park (32,000 acres) is of section of the State. The first shipment (1884) of particular historic and geographic interest. since ore was made from the Vermilion Range. Duluth it contains the source of the Mississippi River developed into an important lake port for the discovered by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1832). shipment of ore (1890) from the Mesabi Range, There are more than 300 lakes within its boundary and the Cuyuna Range. Minnesota is a national where good fishing abounds. It contains virgin center for iron mining and produces 60% of all stands of white and Norway pine and an abun- iron ore in the United States. Manganese is andance of wild life native to the region. The only other mineral produced in large quantities. herd of caribou in the United States is found in The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis is northern Minnesota.
the principal Institution of higher education, others French explorers found their way into the terri- being Hamline University. St. Paul; St. John's tory that became Minnesota shortly after the R. C. University. Collegeville; Carleton and St. middle of the seventeenth century and established Olaf College, Northfield, Gustavus Adolphus, St. forts and trading posts for carrying on an ex- Peter, and St. Catherine's College for women, St. tensive fur trade with the Indians. Control of this
Paul. trade later passed into the hands of the British, Pipestone National Monument in the extreme who dominated the region until after the War of southwestern corner of the State, is a region still 1812. American occupation was secured by the rich with the lore of Indian days, with many establishment of Fort Snelling (1819) and after interesting relics of their existence. Here is the several treaties and cessions of land by the Indians Great Stone Face, a perfect Indian head profile. eastern and southern sections were open to settle- 30 it. high, which nature has carved. Minnehaha ment. Territorial government was organized (1849) Falls, 53 ft. high, immortalized by Longfellow in with St. Paul as a capital.
"The Song of Hiawatha" are a part of Minnehaha The settlement of Minnesota continued until the State Park, Minneapolis,
Mississippi Capital, Jackson-Magnolia State, also Bayou State-State Flower, Magnolia-Motto: Virtute et Armis
(By Valor and Arms)--Area, 47,716 sq. mi.; rank, 31st-Population, 2,183,276; rank, 23rd. Mississippi, one of the States of the East South
Delta are the world's premier cotton country. Central group, is bounded on the north by Tennessee,
Planted in April, the cotton is cultivated through on the east by Alabama, on the south by Louisiana
May and June and "laid by in August. Picking
begins in September, and in bumper crop years, as and the Gulf of Mexico, and on the west by Loui
in 1937, continues into January. At Scott is the siana and Arkansas; the Mississippi River is the
world's largest cotton plantation, 35,000 acres in western boundary line, The State is hilly but not
one unit. rugged, and in general slopes downward to the Following the harvests come the town and county Mississippi and the Gulf shore. The climate and fairs. The Delta Staple Cotton Festival in Clarksproduction are sub-tropical.
dale is patterned after by exhibits and street shows Agriculture is the chief interest. Cotton is the in nearly every county. The money from crop sales chiel crop, Mississippi ranking high in totcon bulges the pockets of the farmers, white and black production. Other crops are pecans, sweet potatoes, A month of carnival reaches a climax in the huge corn, rice, wheat, oats, sugar cane. peanuts and Mississippi Free State Fair in Jackson in October. every character of fruit grown in its zone.
Transport is supplied by the rail lines and by Mineral deposits in Mississippt include hydrated the Mississippi River, on which traffic, lessening limestcne, coal, gypsum and rich clay.
in the recent era of rapid rail development, is The broad level acres of the Yazoo-Mississippi | growing again to great relative importance.