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Origin of the Names of the States and Territories

Source: State Librarians and other officials. Alabama-Allbama was the Indian name of a tribe New York-So called in honor of the Duke of York

in Southern Alabama--Mushhogean tribe of (1664), who got the patent from his brother, the Creek Confederacy. Alibamu is from the King Charles II. of England and sent an expediChoctaw words alba aya mule, meaning "I open tion and took possession of New Netherlands. or clear the thicket."

North Carolina-The patent granted by King Alaska-From "Al-ay-es-ka," or Alakh-khak a Charles I. of England (Oct. 30, 1629). to Sir. native Eskimo or Innuit (Aleut) word, meaning Robert Heath, his Attorney-General, of the ter. Great Country.

ritory between the 31st and the 36th parallels of Arizona-From "Arizonac'' ("Ari" small and

north latitude from the Atlantic Ocean to the "Zonac" spring) so-called by the Papago and South Seas, decreed its name to be "Car or Pima Indians, says State Historian George H. Province of Carolana" from the Latin version Kelly (1927); and adds: “This state was called "Carolus" of his own name. Under the name Arizona by the Spaniards as early as 1736." A of Carolina this territory was under a new patent simpler derivation is that given by Prof. John C. (dated March 24, 1662-3) granted by King Van Dyke in "The Desert", page 208 - clipped Charles II. of England, to the Earl of Clarenfrom "Arida-Zona," meaning the dry belt.'

don and others. Arkansas- (Official pronunciation is ar-kan-saw).

North Dakota-''Dakota" means "alliance of Algonkin name of the Quapaw Indians.

friends," and is a Sioux Indian word. "Koda" in California-Bestowed by the Spanish Conquista- Santee dialect and "Kola" in Teton dialect are

dores, being the name of an imaginary island, the root words.
near the earthly paradise, in "Las Serges de Ohio-Iroquois name, denoting great.
Esplandian," a romance of chivalry written in Oklahoma Choctaw word for "red people."
the first decade of the 16th century. Another

Oregon-The Oregon State Librarian, Cornelia explanation is that the Catalan explorers and Marvin, says various origins of the name, have missionaries (1769) after long marches in sum- been suggested as follows: Origanum, a wild mer near the coast called it the land of oven's

sage found on the coast; Orejon, or Oregones, a heat--"Aixo es calor de forni de fornalla." Spanish name for big-eared (Indian) men; OrColorado Spanish, meaning red.

gon, a river in Chinese Tartary; Oyer-un-gen, a Columbia, District of-A poetical adoption of the Shoshone Indian word for "place of plenty";

name of Columbus; applied to the territory in Aura agua, Spanish word meaning gently falling 1791 by the Federal Commissioners who laid

waters: Ouragan, a French word for hurricane: it out.

Wau-re-gan, an 'Algonquin word for "beautiful Connecticut-Indian, "Quonecktacut," Long River

water." or River of Pines.

Pennsylvania--Was named in honor of Admiral Delaware-Named after Lord De la Warr, of Eng- William Penn, the father of William Penn, the

land, Governor of Virginia, who entered the founder of the province, William Penn, the Bay (1610).

Friend, received a charter (1681) from Charles Florida--Spanish words, "Pascua Florida,' Feast

II. of Great Britain for land in America that of Flowers (Easter Sunday), on which day it is said to have been named (1513) by Juan Ponce

was given the name of "Pennsylvania" (Penn's

Woods) by the King. The name "Pensilvania" de Leon.

was used for many years by William Penn and Georgia-Named after King George II, of England.

his sons, Thomas and Richard, to designate the Hawaii-English spelling of Owhyhee, where Capt.

province. The grant was made in settlement of Cook was killed by the natives (1779).

a debt of 16,000 pounds which King Charles and Idaho Indian words, Edah hoe." Light on the the British Government owed Admiral Penn. Mountains.

The charter was granted March 4, 1681. Mlinois Indian word, by some translated "The Philippines-Spanish, “Islas Filipinas," discovered River of Men." A form of the word Iliniwek.

(1521) by Magellan, whom the natives killed in "Ilin!" meant "man," "iw' meant "is," and

a skirmish; named in honor of King Philip II. "ek" was a plural signification

of Spain by a colonizing expedition from Mexico. Indiana--Named after Indians, State of Indians.

Puerto Rico-From the Spanish "Puerto Rico, lowa-The Ioways, or Alaouez, or Alaouas were a

Rich Port. Sioux tribe. The word means "sleepy ones.' Rhode Island Isles of Rhodes' was the name,

They called themselves "Pahoja," gray snow. chosen by the General Court of the colony Kansas--Name of a tribe of the Sioux, the "People

(1644). The name of one of the islands had of the South Wind." Kentucky--From Wyandot

been Aquedneck. The name of Providence Plan(Iroquoian) name

tations then gradually lapsed. *Ken-tah-ten," meaning to-morrow, or Land of

South Carolina--(See North Carolina).
To-morrow.
Louisiana--Named by the Mississippi River navi.

South Dakota--(See North Dakota). gator Robert de la Salle (1682) after King

Tennessee Called (from 1784 to 1788) the State Louis XIV. of France.

of Franklin, or Frankland. "Tennese" was the Maine-From Maine. an ancient province of

Indian name for the chief town of the Cherokees, France, south of Normandy, owned by Queen

which was on the Little Tennessee River. Henrietta Maria of England, wife of King Texas--According to Elizabeth H. West, State Charles I.

Librarian, Texas is from the Indian word, Tejas, Maryland-Named in honor of the foregoing, meaning Friends or Allies. So far as I know, 10 Queen Henrietta Maria.

has not an Aztec origin. It applied, originally, Massachusetts--An Algonquin Indian name from in the Indian usage to the Indian tribes about

Massadchu-es-et, meaning "great-hill-small- the early Spanish missions around Eastern place," indicating a place at or about the big Texas. little hills.

Utah-Named after the Utes, an Indian tribe. Michigan-The Mishigamaw or Mishawiguma

Vermont-From Verd and Mont, two French words were Indians. The word means "big lake and meaning Green Mountains. The name is said to was applied to Lake Michigan. "Michi" meant have been bestowed by Samuel de Champlain. "great, and "gama" meant "water."

Virginia-Named in honor of Elizabeth, daughter Minnesota-Two Sioux words-sky-colored wa- of Henry VIII., sometimes called by the courtiers ter."

the "Virgin Queen" of England. The name was Mississippi-Indian words "Sipu," Algonquin word bestowed by one of the courtiers, Sir Walter for river: 'Maesi," fish-Fish-River.

Raleigh, who fitted out the expedition of dis. Missouri-The Missouri were Sioux of that name. covery (1584). Montana-Spanish for mountainous; used now by Washington-Named after George Washington

Peruvians as a name for their Andean districts. When the bill creating the Territory of Columbia Nebraska--An Omaha Indian name for the wide was introduced in the 32nd Congress, the name river," Platte.

was changed to Washington because of the existNevada-A Spanish word, meaning "snow clad." ence of the District of Columbia. New Hampshire Named (1629) after the County West Virginia-(See Virginia),

of Hampshire, England, by the patentee, Capt. Wisconsin-An Indian name which, according to John Mason of the Plymouth Council.

Reuben Gold Thwaites, was originally spelled New Jersey--The Duke of York, of England, "Ouiscousin" by the French missionaries and in granted (1664) to Lord John Berkley and Sir old French-American documents; also

was George Carteret a patent or deed to the present spelled “Misconsing, "Ouisconching." "Ouiskboundaries to be called Nova Caesaria, or New ensing," meaning meeting of the rivers. Congress Jersey. Caesarea, or Caesaria, was the ancient changed it to "Wisconsin." name of the Island of Jersey of which Carteret Wyoming-The word was taken from Wyoming had been administrator.

Valley, Pennsylvania, rendered famous from New Mexico Mexico is a word derived from the Campbell's poem, "Gertrude of Wyoming." The

Aztec word “mexitli," title of their national word means, "mountains and valleys alternatwar god.

ing."

STATES OF THE UNION

(HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE) Statistical tables, elsewhere in the ALMANAC, cover, by States, details of population, births and deaths, religion, agriculture, mining, manufacture, banking, inance, and other phases of activity. The information contained here is compiled from official sources in the various States.

Alabama Capital, Montgomery—The Yellowhammer State-State Flower, Golden Rod-Motto-We Dare Maintain

Our Rights-Area, 51,609 sq. mi.; rańk 28th-Population, 2,832,961; rank, 17th Alabama, one of the States of the Old South is in the Gulf is thirty miles long and thirty feet deep. the heart of the cotton belt, in the East South | The state owns the port terminal railway conCentral group, on the Gulf of Mexico, bounded on necting all the railway lines entering Mobile with the north by Tennessee, on the east by Georgia, on

the modern state-owned docks, costing $10.000.000, the south by Florida and the Gulf, and on the west

which are supplemented by privately

owned termiby Mississippi.

nals and docks. The northern part. the Cumberland plateau, tains its old charm; claims to be the Mother of

Mobile (founded in 1711 by the French) mainthrough which runs the Tennessee River, is diversi

Carnivals, which have spread to the Southern fied and picturesque. The Coosa Valley lies to the cities; is proud of its tarpon fishing and its 18south, hemmed in by the Piedmont plateau, The mile '"azalea trail". remainder of the State is occupied by the alluvial Cheaha mountain, a State park, Ave miles north coastal plain with broad valleys. The Alabama of Oxford, is the highest point in Alabama' (2,407 River, formed by the junction of the Coosa and the feet). Gulf State Park, embracing three freshTallapoosa above Montgomery, and the Tom- water lakes and multi-colored semi-tropical vegebigbee unite about 35 miles above Mobile, forming tation, is in Baldwin County, on the Gulf of the Mobile River. Five miles above, the Tensas Mexico. Among other points of tourist interest are branches off the Alabama to the east. Both rivers the Clear Creek falls near Falls City, Winston discharge into Mobile Bay and are important County, carriers.

A feature of Alabama is the high proportion of Muscle Shoals is a stretch of the Tennessee river

Negro population. in Northern Alabama, about 37 miles long, with a One of the largest collections of Confederate total vertical fall of 134 feet.

creating a rapid documents, letters and relics is preserved in the current. It is here that the nitrate fixation plants Alabama Memorial Building. were built by the Federal Government during the Among the institutions for higher learning are first World War.

the University of Alabama in University and the Plans to improve the Tennessee at Muscle Shoals Alabama Polytechnic Institute in Auburn. first were recommended by the Secretary of War A noted agency for Negro educational upbring is (1824), the improvement to be wholly to facilitate the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute navigation, and work was started (1831). The (founded 1880) by the late Dr. Booker T. Washresult was & canal with several locks. Further im

ington. There also are four State Teachers Colprovements for navigation were made periodically leges. up to the first World War when it was decided to Visited by De Soto (1540), Alabama was settled harness the power of the river for the produc- by the French and ceded to the British (1763): tion of nitrates.

acquired by the Spanish as part of West Florida Agriculture is the chief interest, although in the(1779-80) and became a part of the United States past thirty years the mineral industries have been in successive years (1783-1813). It was developed. Birmingham is known as "the Pitts- Alabama at Talladega and Horse Shoe Bend (on burgh of the South." Alabama, one of the 16 Tallapoosa River) that Andrew Jackson decotton States, raises normally about one-fifteenth cisively defeated the Creek Indians. At Montof the country's cotton. The peanut crop. corn, gomery (Feb. 4, 1861) the Confederate States of white and sweet potatoes, oats, tobacco, sugar, America were voted into existence by the prohay and fruits are important crops.

visional congress; Jefferson Davis took his oath of Coal underlies about 8,000 square miles and the office here (Feb. '18) and for a few months Montiron ore deposits are sufficient to supply the blast gomery was the capital of the Confederacy. On the furnaces for 160 years.

walls of the old Montgomery Theater, Herman Much of the State's foreign commerce passes Arnold wrote the original score of "Dixie," the through Mobile. The channel from the docks to battle hymn of the Confederate armies.

Arizona Capital, Phoenix-Grand Canyon State-State Flower, Saguaro Cactus-Motto: Ditat Deus (God

Enriches)-Area, 113,909 sq. mi.; rank 5th-Population, 499,261; rank, 44th. Arizona is situated in Southwestern United There are seven important dams, one under conStates. It is bounded on the north by Utah, on struction; more than 1,300 miles of canals and the east by New Mexico, on the west by Nevada

laterals and 150 pumping plants. and California, and on he south by Mexico.

Tucson is the seat of the University of Arizona, Vast reaches of arid and semi-arid lands, useless the capital and largest city,

is the center of the

and Flagstaff has the Lowell Observatory. Phoenix, before irrigating water was turned on, have been richest agricultural district. the Salt River Valley. made highly productive. Agriculture has greatly

Arizona has a large population of Indians. increased, and new irrigation projects promise The first white man known to have entered further enrichment. The topography is broken, Arizona Was Fra. Marcos de Niza, & Franciscan being mountainous in portions of every section; priest (1539), although Vasconcellos is believed the northern plateau is 4,000 to 7,000 feet in alti- to have explored the Grand Canyon some years tude, and the southern from 500 to 2,500. On the before. Arizona, originally a part of Mexico, was broad plains and mountain sides livestock graze, ceded to the United States with New Mexico and through the valleys the irrigating waters are (Feb. 2, 1848). The area south of the Gila River led. Long staple cotton has been developed as a

was not acquired until the Gadsden Purchase of principal crop, other products being wheat, corn, 1854. Arizona and New Mexico were separated barley oats, hay. potatoes and immense quanti- (Feb. 24, 1863). ties of sub-tropical fruits. Dates thrive. The

The petrified forests, covering many thousands of citrus industry is growing,

acres, are an attraction to scores of tourists anMining is extremely important. Copper mines

nually. These forests consist of pine and cedar are among the greatest in the world. Gold, trees that in past ages were turned to solid stone silver, lead, asbestos and zinc &re mined in

by the action of mineral-laden water. Montezuma quantity.

Castle, the best example of a cliff dwelling in the Boulder Dam in the Black Canyon, harnesses the face of a cliff itself, and not at the top of the Colorado River,

talus, is another point of interest. The Roosevelt Dam which supplies irrigating The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is one waters for the Salt River Valley is one of the of the scenic wonders of the world. It is 217 miles greatest in the world.

long, mostly in northern Arizona, with & width at The water is from the Salt and Verde rivers, the top of from four to 18 miles, and descends in a supplemented by pumping from underground series of gradations to a depth in some places of sources. The irrigable area comprises 240,000 acres. I 4,000 to 5,500 feet below the surrounding plateau. A large part of geologic history is revealed clearly of running water as the region has been slowly in the Grand Canyon. Forming the walls of a elevated As the formations in the upper canyon narrow inner gorge in the lower part of this canyon walls lie in orderly horizontal layers, like beds of are some of the oldest rocks (Archean) known to masonry, they have been carved into definite geologists. These were largely sediments (lime- architectural forms which are everywhere comstones, shales, and sandstones) originally, but have parable in profile though varied and irregular in been so altered by the great heat and pressure of plan. As they vary in their resistance to erosion, mountain-making movements that their original some being hard and some soft, every part of the character is entirely lost. No traces of life have canyon walls, every pinnacle and butte, is charsurvived the great metamorphism of the rocks of acterized by its own steplike alternation of cliff, this first era. Here and there in the lower parts of slope, and shell. Each resistant bed stands forth Grand Canyon may be seen groups of titled rock as & cliff, and each weak bed is marked by a slope. layers of the second era (Algonkian), remnants of Each shell or platform is made by the wast& second series of mountains that existed in this ing back of a weak stratum that lies upon & region. These rocks are the oldest to retain their resistant. cliff-making stratum, and the greater original character, for in them may be recognized the thickness of the weak stratum, the broader the pebbles, sand grains, mud, and lime, and in these shell. The plateaus that border' the canyon are rocks are found the oldest definite traces of life. themselves simply great terraces developed The horizontal strata (Paleozoic) which form the on & resistant formation, a thick limestone, from upper canyon walls and which lie on the erosion- which overlying softer beds have been eroded truncated edges of the older rocks in the canyon away. bottom, were partly formed as deposits of sand, As erosion goes on, parts of the canyon wall or mud, and limy ooze in the waters of ancient seas, plateau become separated by the cutting of branch as shown by the presence of entombed shells and canyons and stand as solitary pinnacles capped by other remains of marine organisms.

remnants of a hard bed of rock. These remnants The Grand Canyon has been formed by the work are the buttes and temples.

Arkansas Capital, Little Rock-Bear State, also Bowie State-State Flower. Apple Blossom-Motto: Regnat

Populus (The People Rule)-Areas, 53,102 sq. mi.; rank 26th.-Population, 1,949,387; rank, 24th. Arkansas (pronounced Ar-kan-saw) is of the Old and a few huts built of split boards which had been South, situate inland, in the West South Central erected by persons resorting to the springs in the group. Missouri bounding it on the north, Tennessee hope of regaining their health. Manuel Prudhomme and Mississippi on the east, Louisiana on the south, built a cabin (1807), and was joined the same and Texas and Oklahoma on the west. The Missis

year by John Perciful and Isaac Cates.

The hot springs and the sippi River, down which much of its traffic flows, land surrounding them, by act of Congress (1832)

four sections of forms the entire Eastern boundary. Its topography

were set aside for the future disposal of the is mostly level, but in the west rise the mountainous United States, not to be entered, located, or apelevations of the Ozarks.

propriated for any other purpose whatever, thus Agriculture is the chief source of wealth, cot- preserving the waters of the springs in perton, wheat, corn, oats, white and sweet potatoes, petuity, free from monopoly and commercial exhay and fruit are produced. The State ranks

ploitation. high in production of cotton.

Evidence as to the source of the heat of the The State is richly endowed with forest wealth, spring water, which ranges from 95" to 147° F.. is every sort of tree which grows in the temperate springs begin as meteoric water or rainfall which

One explanation is that these zone abounding. Arkansas produces most of the bauxite in the

seeps into the Bigfork chert, a sandy formation country. Other minerals are coal, manganese,

near the top of a fold in the rocks just northwest lead. whetstones and petroleum.

of West Mountain. According to this explanation,

the water passes downward through the porous The Hot Springs of Arkansas, 47 in number, and sandy layers, where it is heated by a burled mass the only Government-owned and operated hot

of cooling rock. After this water crosses the lower springs in the United States, are included in the

bend of the rock, called a syncline, it then rises to Hot Springs National Park, situated in a wooded the surface through the upward dipping layers of portion of the Ouachita (pronounced Wash-i-taw) rock on the southwest side of Hot Springs MounMountains. Adjoining the park area on all sides is

tain. Lack of evidence of recent volcanic activity the city of Hot Springs. The park and city are in the area to provide heated rocks at reasonably near the center of the State, about 50 miles

shallow depths, together with the fact that part of southwest of Little Rock. In addition to the the intake area is 200 feet lower than the springs, many hot springs, there are also cold springs fur- would indicate that this theory requires revision, nishing palatable waters which are extensively at least in part. A second explanation states that used as table waters. All cold springs are outside the waters are of juvenile origin, 1. e., water which of the national park area and are privately owned. has never been at the surface before but is dis

The hot springs were probably visited (1541) charged by buried, cooling rocks. by De Soto, who traveled this region extensively in Silver Falls in the Ozarks is one of the beauty that year. According to tradition, the spring waters spots of the State. were used by the Indians long before the advent Among the institutions of higher education are of the Spaniards. There is a tale that the various the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville; Agricultribes battled from time to time for control of the tural and Mechanical College, Monticello; Arkansas hot waters, in which they believed the "Great College, Batesville; Arkansas State Meg tate Spirit' to be ever present, but that finally a truce College; College of the Ozarks, Clarksville: Hardwas declared under which their benefits were ex- ing College, Searcy; Hendrix College, Conway: tended to the sick of all tribes. It is believed that John Brown University, Siloam Springs and Ouathe earliest white settlement was made about chita College. Arkadelphia. In addition there are 1800. Dunbar and Hunter, who visited the State Teachers Colleges in Conway and Arkadelplace (Dec. 1804) found an open log cabin phia and five colleges for negroes.

California Capital, Sacramento-Eldorado State, also Golden State-State Flower, Golden Poppy-Motto: Eureka

(I Have Found It)--Area 158,693 sg. mi.; rank 2nd--Population, 6,907,387; rank, 5th. California, in the Pacific group, occupies more

the leaders are the Sacramento and the San Joathan one-half of the Pacific coastline of the

quin. The Sacramento is navigable for 180 miles United States: is bounded on the north by Ore

and the San Joaquin accommodates Ocean going

vessels to Stockton, 88 miles from the Pacific. Both gon, on the east by Nevada and Arizona, and on

rivers are tributary to San Francisco Bay. Other the south by Mexico. Its topography is most

navigable rivers in California with large traffic varied and its climate as well. Every phase of tonnage include Petaluma Creek, Old River, Napa surface character is presented, and the geological River and Middle River and connecting channels, peculiarity of the North and South American Many more streams and the interior bays of San Continents is here seen--the aged mountain ridge Francisco have been declared by act of the Califorthat runs from the Arctic Circle southward nia legislature to be navigable. Abundant waters through the states into Mexico parallel to and in smaller streams enable immense irrigation of near the seashore. There is much plains land, lands otherwise virtually useless. California is too, and every kind of soil that marks the tem- the leading State in irrigation. perate and sub-tropical zones, with practically There are

two

extensive mountain ranges all climates which are found in such regions. - the Sierra Nevada (which is a part of

The State has several navigable rivers of which the Cascade Mountains) and the Coast Range.

The tallest peaks, including Mount Whitney, It is a State of romance in history. Acquiredhighest mountain in continental United States, are from Mexico political control (1846), gold was in the southern part of the Sierra Nevadas, with discovered (1848), and (1849), the most remark: the exception of Mount Shasta, which is near the able "gold rush" 'ever known began, it being said Oregon border. California has 12 mountains with that the gold produced thereaiter enabled the an altitude of more than 14,000 feet. Lassen United States to withstand so well the economic Peak in the Sierra Nevadas is the only active strain of the Civil War (1861-1865). volcano in the United States.

The State has three universities-Leland StanThe Cascade Range is not ancient measured in ford Jr., the University of California in Berkeley geologic time. Its beginning dates back about with a branch in Los Angeles, and the University 2,000,000 years, into the geologic period known as of Southern California. There are many colleges the Pliocene, about a million years before the and seven State Teachers Colleges. The Lick Obgreat Ice Age, or Glacial epoch. The character servatory is one of the most important in the world. and arrangement of the older rocks indicate that One of the points of interest is the motion picearlier mountains, long before worn down, had ture colony in Hollywood, near Los Angeles. occupied the region. The present range rests upon the atmosphere is so clear that motion pictures a great platform of lava flows, which issued from may be taken on about 350 days of the year, while many vents and fissures. These lavas accumulated,

the topography and flora afford most varled "locaflow upon flow, to depths of several thousand feet tions. over wide areas in Washington, Oregon, southern Death Valley, in Inyo County, 276 feet below sea Idaho, and northern California. Later this plat- level and the lowest point in the United States, is form was bent, or arched, slightly upward along a National Monument. the line of the Cascades. No more widespread The Big Trees are the attraction of General Grant floods of lava came forth, but numerous localized Park, although the mountain scenery and the fisheruptions produced the magnificent series of peaks ing are added allurements. The Big Trees Sequoia which are now snowcapped and for which the gigantea, are sometimes confused with the redwood, Cascades are famous.

Sequoia sempervirens, the smaller species of sequoia Grapes, wines, brandies, raisins, plums, prunes, found only in the Coast Range of California. While peaches, cantaloupes, oranges, lemons, apples, apri- the gigantea approaches 40 feet in the base diamcots, pears, olives, walnuts, and almonds as well as eter, the sempervirens rarely exoeeds 20 feet. The wheat, cotton, and sugar beets are produced on a wood is similar in color and texture, but the large scale; also canned fruits, meats, fish, and foliage is distinct, and the bark of the Big Tree is vegetables. Cooperatives are a feature of fruit and much thicker and of a rich red color instead of a marketing

dull brown. The most distinctive characteristic is California was one of the original gold-producing that the Big Trees are reproduced only from the States, with silver second, and, in these later years, seed, while the redwood when cut down sprouts petroleum and natural gas. Copper and lead from the stump. The Mariposa Big Trees in abound; also mercury and borax. The gold output Yosemite Park are the world's oldest and largest is still considerable.

living things. Here also is the famous Wawona Developed water power in California is more tree through which automobiles may drive. than 2,000,000 horse-power a year.

The largest tree is "General Sherman" in SeThe 'Golden Gate Bridge (opened for traffic quoia National Park. The Mariposa grove of big May 28, 1937) links_San Francisco and com- trees is the largest of the Giant Sequoias outmunities along the Redwood Highway in the side the Sequoia National Park North Coast region, while the San Francisco Bay Yosemite National Park is one of the great Bridge connects San Francisco with Oakland, scenic wonders of the world. Its total area is Berkeley and other East Bay cities and the interior 1.176 square miles-about the size of Rhode Island. valleys.

Yosemite Valley is approximately seven miles The forests, in common with all States of the long and averages one and a half miles in width. Pacific group, are extensive, comprising every The walls of the valley rise about 3,500 feet above variety of tree which grows north of the the valley floor. Following is a list, showing heights tropical zone. Coniferous trees are most numer- of the principal cliffs and waterfalls. ous. The giant redwood groves are the destination El Capitan, 3.604 ft.; Glacier Point, 3,254 ft.; of many tourists. The Sequoia trees number 1,156,- Half Dome, 4,892 ft.; Sentinel Rock, 3,040 ft. 000, and in Sequoia National Park there are 8.722 Yosemite Falls, Upper, 1,430_ft.; Yosemite Falls, exceeding 10 feet in diameter, some older than Lower, 320 ft. Bridal Veil Falls, 620 ft.; Vernai the pyramids.

Falls, 317 ft.; Nevada Falls, 594 ft.

Colorado Capital, Denver-Centennial State-State Flower, Columbine-Motto: Nil Sine Numine (Nothing

Without God)-Area 104,247 sq. mi.; rank, 7th-Population, 1,123,296; rank, 33rd. Colorado, one of the Mountain States, is situated lowest and highest points, the eastern half consistnear the center of the western half of the United ing mostly of low rolling plains, rising gradually in States, on the western rim of the Mississippi elevation as they approach the western half, River basin and in the east central part of the which is mountainous, with numerous peaks Rocky Mountains. It is bounded on the north by rising to an altitude of more than 14,000 feet. Nebraska and Wyoming, on the east by Kansas Because of its high mountains and heavy snowand Nebraska, on the south by New Mexico and fall in the winter the State holds & unique po1 small strip of the Oklahoma panhandle, and sition in relation to the rivers and water supon the west by Utah. Colorado is almost a per- ply of more than two-thirds of the United States lect rectangle in form, having the most regular and a part of Mexico. The Continental Divide boundary lines of any state in the Union.

through the State separates the waterheads of That part of the state lying east of the Rocky the Pacific on the west from those of the MisMountains was included in the territory acquired sissippi River on the east. The largest stream by the purchase from France (1803) usually re- is the Colorado River. With its tributaries it ferred to as the Louisiana Purchase. All the forms the principal drainage for Western Colosoutheastern portion of the State, lying south rado. Rising in Grand County and flowing of the Arkansas river, and a narrow strip ex- southwesterly to about the center of the western tending north through the mountain district boundary, where it enters Utah, the Colorado into Wyoming, was claimed by the State of portion of the river formerly was known as the Texas and became a part of the United States Grand, but its name was changed (1921) by when Texas was annexed (1845). This included the General Assembly. Others are the South a considerable tract belonging to the Louisiana Platte, upper forks of the Kansas, Arkansas. Purchase but the controversy regarding the Rio Grande, White, Green and Gunnison. Many northern boundary of Texas was settled long be- of these rivers travel in deep narrow canyons, fore Colorado became a State. The western part notably the Arkansas, which makes its way of what is now the State of Colorado and an through the "Royal Gorge'', or Canyon of the additional strip lying west and south of the Rio Arkansas at a depth of 2,600-3,000 feet. Other Grande del Norte was ceded to the United States famous gorges are the Grand River Canyon by Mexico (1848) following the war between the and the Toitec Gorge in the south. two countries. The actual settlement of Colo- There are fourteen national forests wholly rado began with the discovery of gold (1858) at within the State and one lying partially within which time most of the eastern half of the State its boundaries. They comprise 20 per cent of the was included in Kansas Territory under the name State's area, embracing 13,500,000 acres. There of Arapahoe County. The Territory of Colo- are two national parks and six national monurado was organized (Feb. 1861) about a month ments; also one national monument on the after statehood had been conferred upon the boundary between Colorado and Utah. Territory of Kansas.

Big game still is abundant in Colorado, inThe topography is extremely varied, with a cluding deer, antelope, bear, elk, mountain lion, difference of more than 11,000 feet between the gray woli and coyote. There is also much smali

game such as sage hen, grouse, pheasant, dove, western Colorado in Montezuma County, emwild duck.

braces 80.2 square miles, or 51,334 acres. Soils vary from arid, when non-watered, to pro- It is especially noted for the ruins of homes and ductive. Irrigation is extensive, and has lifted villages of the ancient cliff dwellers, supposed to agriculture to first place in the State, ahead of have been the earliest inhabitants of this part of mining and livestock, which come next.

the country. The ruins are found in canyons that The chief industries are agriculture, stock- intersect a high plateau that once is supposed to raising in its various branches, dairyingbee- have supported a population of 70,000 persons. The keeping, manufacturing, mining, quarrying. numerous ruins are connected by excellent highlumbering, oil and gas production and commerce. ways and trails.

The principal crop is sugar beets; others are Cliff Palace is the largest known cliff dwelling cantaloups, wheat, corn, barley, alfalfa,

oats,

in the world, numbering 200 rooms. potatoes

Rocky Mountain National Park is in the heart The chief minerals produced are gold, copper, of the Rockies and includes some of the most silver, coal, lead, zinc, molybdenum. Petroleum is picturesque portions of the range. Its highest yielded. There are extensive oil shale lands. point is Longs peak, 14,255 feet above sea level, Radium and tungsten are found. The annual pro- and there are i3 other peaks with altitudes of duction of gold and silver runs into millions. more than 13,000 feet. The park is situated in

In Colorado are found large quantities of hellum, the north middle part of the state, in Larimer, & rare, inert and non-combustible gaseous element Boulder and Grand counties, and covers an area which is used in inflating dirigibles and blimps of 405.33 square miles, or 259,413 acres, The and which has valuable therapeutic qualities. parks are visited annually by more than 600.000

The State is well known for its salubrious cli- persons. mate; its health-giving and enjoyable qualities. An annual ski tournament is held July 4 in But a general summary of climatic conditions Rocky Mountain National Park. In the same park prevailing is of comparatively little value be- there is angling above the clouds and some of the cause of the great differences in altitude and the best fish are caught at 12,000 feet elevations. remarkable diversity that occurs at points not The highest suspension bridge in the world spans far apart.

the canyon of the Arkansas river, known as the Higher education is given by the State Uni- Royal Gorge. The floor of the bridge is 1,053 feet versity in Boulder, University of Denver, Colo- above the bed of the river: the main span is 880 rado College in Colorado Springs, State College feet long and the total length, exclusive of apof Agriculture and Mechanic Arts in Fort Col-proaches, is 1.260 feet. lins, State College of Education in Greeley, West- The highest automobile road in the United ern State College in Gunnison, and the Colo- States is the Mount Evans highway in Clear rado School of Mines in Golden.

Creek County, which rises to an altitude of Mesa Verde national park, situated in south- 14,260 feet.

Connecticut Capital, Hartford-Nutmeg State,

also Constitution State State Flower, Mountain Laurel Motto: Qui Transtulit Sustinet (He Who Transplanted Still Sustains)-Area, 5,009 sq. mi.; rank, 46th

Population, 1,709,242; rank, 31st. Connecticut, one of the Original Thirteen States, states, because of its smallness in area, its proof the Union, is situated in New England; bounded portionate share is important. Connecticut tobacco on the south by Long Island Sound, on the east by is noted for its high quality, the leaf being used Rhode Island, on the north by Massachusetts, and

extensively in the manufacture of cigar wrappers on the west by New York. It was settled early in

and binders. Corn, oats, potatoes, apples, grapes

are among agricultural products grown comthe seventeenth century by the Dutch from New

mercially. Chief minerals are stone, clay products York, then known as New Amsterdam, and by

and lime. Puritans from Massachusetts in Hartford (1635).

The state is intensely industrial and is noted It adopted (1639) a written constitution, con- for the manufacture of machinery and hardfirmed by & charter from King Charles II (1662) ware, textiles, fur-felt hats, corsets, typewriters, and replaced (1818) by a State constitution. clocks, needles and pins and hooks and eyes.

The Indian pame of Hartford was Suckiage. Then Hartford broadcloth, Bristol clocks, Manchester the name was changed to Newtown and so it was silk, Berlin tinware and New Britain implements until 1637. The place was then named after Hert- were the earliest in the country. ford, England. It was incorporated (1784). There are numerous lock factories in the State, Charter Oak Place in Hartford marks the site notably in New Britain, New Haven, Norwalk where the Connecticut charter was said to have and Stamford. There are three large arms plants, been concealed (1687) when Gov. Edmund An- the Colt revolver works in Hartford, the Windros, whose jurisdiction included Connecticut, de- chester rifle works in New Haven, and the Remmanded its surrender to the Assembly.

ington rifle works in Bridgeport. Connecticut's surface is broken, there being ridge Besides its pre-eminence in manufacturing inafter ridge, with verdant valleys between. Toward dustry, Connecticut has in Hartford an important the shores of the Sound, the land is generally flat, insurance center of the United States. but it rises to about 2,000 feet of altitude in the In early days shipping was important, but is northwestern part, where the Berkshire Hills be- today relatively negligible, excepting for coastwise gin and extend northward into Massachusetts water-borne traffic. The prevalence of good roads and Vermont. Originally, the entire State was has enabled the development of many motor truck heavily wooded with all trees known to the temper- / lines, while the same good roads have multiplied ate zone, hardwood and coniferous varieties automobile tourist travel. abounding. Lumbering has reduced the timber Yale University, in New Haven (founded in 1707). supply materially. The water supply is large for has

grown

to be & world-famed institution. industrial uses. The Connecticut River and the Wesleyan University in Middletown, Trinity Col. Housatonic are the principal streams, their valleys lege in Hartford, the University of Connecticut immensely productive.

(formerly Connecticut State College) in Storrs, Connecticut is a land of many lakes, the largest and Connecticut College for Women in New Lonof which is Candlewood, 18 miles long. in the don, are also important. southwestern part of the State. Kent Falls in the Ocean Beach Park, a $3,000,000 recreational foothills of the Berkshires is one of many scenic development at New London, was opened to the attractions.

public (June 30, 1940). The 50-acre tract along & While the total production of various crops in halt mile crescent of beach replaces the resort Connecticut does not compare favorably with other razed by the hurricane of 1938.

Delaware Capital, Dover-Diamond State-State Flower, Peach Blossom-Motto: Liberty and Independence

-Area, 2,057 sq. mi.; rank, 47th- Population, 266,505; rank, 47th. Delaware, one of the Thirteen Original States, lakes are noted for large-mouth bass. Along the next to Rhode Island the smallest, lies in the Atlantic coastline. Delaware fishing fleets follow South Atlantic group. bounded on the north by the migrations of fish and much shad, herring. Pennsylvania, on the east by New Jersey. Delaware rock and sturgeon

are taken. Delaware BAY Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by yields oysters, clams, crabs and lobsters. Or late Maryland. and on the west by Maryland and years fruit raising, notably peaches, with strawPennsylvania. The land is low lying, one-twentieth berries and most of the smaller fruits, has been the being marshy.

leading industry. Fruit-evaporating and canning Filty fresh water lakes, the Delaware River and industries, with large plants in Dover, Milford. Bay, connecting streams and the Atlantic Ocean Middletown and Smyrna, are carried on. Once provide an enormous amount of aquatic life.

The

celebrated for the excellence of its wheat, large

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