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The National Capital
Source: The Board of District Commissioners. Section 8. Article 1. of the U. S. Constitution | vantages of New York, Philadelphia, Germantown. provides that Congress shall exercise exclusive Havre de Grace. Wright's Ferry. Baltimore. and legislation over such district (not exceeding 10 miles Conococheague were discussed. The South CarolinSquare) as may, by cession of particular states, and ians opposed Philadelphia, because the Quakers the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the favored emancipation. Large towns were objected Government. Maryland and Virginia made the to on the score of undue influence, while others cession in 1798, and it was accepted by Congress, ridiculed the idea of building palaces in the forest. The original District of Columbia was 10 miles Finally, in 1790, a compromise was effected. The square, lying on either side of the Potomac River Southern members agreed to vote with the Northat the head of navigation. Later, Congress re- erners for the government to assume the debts of troceded to Virginia that portion of the District the states ($21,000,000), and the Northerners agreed lying in that state. The District now contains 70 to vote to locate the capital on the Potomac. The square miles on the Maryland side of the Potomac. location and the boundaries were proclaimed by
The subject of a permanent seat of government George Washington on March 30, 1791. Congress was first debated in Congress after the insult offered assumed jurisdiction Feb. 27. 1801. to that body in Philadelphia, in June. 1783, by a When the District of Columbia was selected as band of mutinous soldiers, who assailed the hall the Capital. the land therein was owned by a during session, demanding arrearages of pay. number of people, who deeded their land to two
The northern members were in favor of a site trustees to lay out the streets, avenues and public on the Susquehanna. while the south favored the squares, and divided the rest of the land into Delaware or Potomac; and the comparative ad-l blocks and lots.
Washington National Monument
Source: An Official of the Monument Society The Washington National Monument, at Wash-marble in 2-foot courses. All of the marble was ington, D. C.. is a tapering shaft or obelisk of
obtained from a nearby source in Maryland. with
the exception of the first 13 courses laid after white marble, 555 feet. 518 inches in height, and 55
work was resumed in 1876, which were brought from
Latitude, feet, 12 inches square at the base.
Massachusetts. For the first 150 feet, the marble 38° 53' 21" .681 N.; longitude, 77° 02'07" .955 W. is backed by rubble masonry of Potomac River Eight small windows, two on each side. were cut gneiss, or bluestone. From this point, cut New into the pyramidion, near its base.
England granite was used to the 452-foot level. The erection of the Monument by the Washington above which the walls are entirely of marble. National Monument Society, using funds obtained Set into the interior walls are memorial stones. by popular subscription, was authorized by Congress with Inscriptions, contributed by foreign countries. in 1848. The cornerstone was laid on July 4 of States, cities and organizations. the same year. Work progressed slowly until The capstone is crowned by a small right pyramid 1854, $300.000 having been subscribed and 150 feet of pure aluminum 5.8 inches at its base and 8.9 of the shaft erected, when a block of marble from inches high, weighing 100 ounces. the Temple of Concord, in Rome. contributed by The computed weight of the Monument is 81.120 the Pope, was stolen. Mainly because of the popular tons, divided as follows: Foundation, 36,912 tons: indignation calised by this incident. no further lower portion of shaft, erected prior to 1854, 22,373 funds were forthcoming from the public, and con- tons: upper portion of shaft. 21.260 tons: pyrastruction work ceased until 1876, when it was midion, 300 tons; iron framework, 275 tons. resumed, at Government expense. by the Corps The Monument may be ascended by elevator; or, of Engineers, U. S. Army.
by stairs, 898 in number. Visiting hours are from The capstone, which weighs 3.300 pounds, was 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. daily including Sundays and set in place on December 6, 1884. marking the holidays, throughout the year, except that, from completion of the work. The Monument was dedi. April 15 to October 31, visiting hours on Saturdays cated on February 21, 1885, and was opened to the and Sundays are from 9:00 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. The pitblic on October 9. 1888.
Monument is not open to visitors on Christmas The Monument is faced with dressed white Day,
The National Archives
Source: An Official of the Institution The National Archives Building of the United The National Archives has two fundamental obStates is the finest structure of its kind in the jectives: (1) The concentration and preservation in world. The building, which is located at Washing- a central depository of the archives of the United ton near the eastern apex of the "triangle of States Government; (2) the arrangement and adGovernment buildings, is a double one, consisting ministration of these archives so as to make them of two cubes, one inside of and projecting above easily accessible to officials and students who dethe other. The inner cube is a concrete vault, con- sire to use them. To this end the Archivist is taining 21 levels of stack and subdivided by five empowered "to inspect personally or by deputy the walls and concrete floors into numerous smaller records of any agency of the United States Governvaults or stack sections,
ment whatsoever and wheresoever located." and a The volume of the archives is enormous; almost corps of deputy examiners has surveyed such three million cubic feet of them are to be found in records in the District of Columbia: Federal records the District of Columbia alone, while vast quanti- outside of Washington have been similarly surveyed ties are scattered in Federal offices throughout the as a WPA project, with The National Archives as country and abroad. They not only constitute a cooperating sponsor. fundamental source of information concerning the The National Archives is a public record office. history of the American people and their Gov- designed primarily to serve specialized groups ernment, but they are also essential for the effec- such as officials and scholars: visitors, however, tive administration of the public business,
find much to interest them. The functions of the organization fall into four It is the duty of The National Archives to file parts, two dealing with internal matters (profes- and edit for publication in the Federal Register all sional and adininistrative and two with external proclamations, Executive orders, rules, and regu. affairs (historical publications and general public lations that have general applicability and legal relations). The professional staff is supervised by effect. the Director of Archival Service, the business staff
The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park by the Executive Officer. The Director of Publica- N. Y., established by Congress in 1939 and opened tions is charged with the planning and editing of in 1941, is adminstered by the Archivist; and he publications, such as guides, inventories, and docu- serves as chairman of the National Historical Pub. mentary collections, and the Administrative Secre- lications Commission, an organization composed tary handles official relations with other Govern- of Government officials and historians, which is ment agencies and the general public.
closely affiliated with The National Archives.
The papers of a number of the Presidents are in the Library of Congress in Washington. They include not only political and government letters, but also documents pertaining to the correspondence; and they are of value to writers on American history and biography.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AREA-Total, Continental, 3.022,387 sq.mi.; Lawrence River, the outlet of the Great Lakes on land area---2,977, 128 sq. mi.; total including Terri- the northern border between the United States tories and Dependencies, 3,733,993 sq. mi.
and Canada. POPULATION-Census of 1940, Continental, 131,
The Great Lakes, largest inland body of fresh 669,275; including all Territories and possessions,
water in the world: Superior, Michigan, Huron,
Erie, and Ontario, are a striking phase of the 150,621,231. The population of the Philippines is estimated at 16,356,000, based on extrapolation geological formation, and carry immense passenger
and freight tonnage. from the census figures for 1918 (10,314,310) and 1939 (16,000,303). The increase in the population Columbia Rivers are navigable for considerable
The Mississippi, Potomac, Delaware, Hudson and of the United States and Territories and posses
distances, and the Missouri for light-draught sions, excluding the Philippines Islands, based on
craft quite a distance up from the Mississippi. the 1940 returns is estimated at 7.5 per cent as The Red River, southernmost of the great tribu. compared with 1930, which recorded a percentage taries of the Mississippi, is navigable for 350 of gain of 16.1 over the preceding ten years.
its 1,200 miles for light-draught vessels, and at The population Increase of 1940 over 1930 was
high water several hundred miles farther. The 8,894,229, while the 1930 gain over 1920 was 17,
Sacramento in California is navigable for 180 064,426. The greatest volume of increase was for
miles. Of the lesser rivers, the most important the Panama Canal Zone, 31.3 per cent, and the are the Connecticut, Susquehanna, James, Cumsmallest increase for the Virgin Islands, 13.1 per
berland, Tennessee, Tombigbee. Warrior, in the cent. The population density for continental United
eastern half of the country, and the Arkansas States is 1940 was 44.2 per square mile as compared
west of the Mississippi. The Rio Grande, rising to 41.1 in 1930. The United States of America, Federal republic. from its mouth, is in the eastern hair boundary
in Colorado, non-navigable, save for 61 miles is bounded on the north by Canada, on the east by
between the United States and Mexico. the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, on the
The Yukon in Alaska, which rises in small lakes south by the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico, and on
In the Dominion of Canada, flows northwestwardly the west by the Pacific Ocean. It comprises 48 States and the Federal District of Columbia. This wardly into Norton Sound, which in turn makes
into Alaska, then westwardly and then southwestis called for convenience in reference Continental
into Bering Sea. It flows for 1,765 miles through United States. Continental United States is the
Alaska and is navigable for 1,200 miles. fifth largest country in the world in point of area.
In natural resources, the United States is one of being exceeded only by Soviet Russia, China (all) Canada and Brazil. Only three countries have a timber and precious metals exist in vast natural
the richest countries in the world. Its coal, oil, larger population-China, India and Soviet Russia. Its non-contiguous areas are the Territories of civilization is deposited in its areas. The timber
stores, and practically every base mineral known to Alaska and Hawail; Puerto Rico, the Philippine resources have been depleted seriously; but the Islands, the Virgin Islands of the United States,
Federal Forest Service has begun reforestation. American Samoa, Guam, Wake and scattered islands in the Pacific; and the Panama Canal
The original forest area of the United States is Zone. The United States also claims about one
estimated at 820,000,000 acres, or nearly half of the hundred ungoverned islands in various parts of the land area of the United States. In addition there
were about 100.000.000 acres of non-commercial Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
The Division of Territories and Island Possessions forest or low-grade woodland and scrub. The presset up in the Interior Department by Executive
ent area of commercial forest land is estimated Order of President Roosevelt (March 3, 1933),
(1940) at 461,697,000 acres, divided as follows: has oversight of the affairs of Alaska, Hawaii,
Acres the Philippines, Puerto Rico and the Virgin
100,832,000 Lslands. The Canal Zone is under ti control
112,030,000 of the War Department and American Samoa
100,791,000 and Guam under the Navy Department.
Fair to satisfactory restocking areas.. 71,306.000 The general topography of Continental United Poor to non-restocking areas.
76,738,000 States and the climate, natural resources and racial
Total elements are varied. In the eastern part, excepting
461,697,000 in the south, are several mountain ranges of the Non-commercial forest land in the United States Appalachian system, rising never to more than covers an additional 168,461,000 acres. In all, about 6,000 to 7,000 feet of altitude, and ranging north 630 million acres, or one-third of the continental and south. The Adirondacks. in northern New United States is forest land. York State, are declared by the United States There are over 176.000.000 acres in the 160 NaGeological Survey to have been the first land tional Forests. National Forests are administered that arose in the western world. Sweeping west- by the U. S. Forest Service for continuous producward from the eastern mountains is a vast, fertile tion or "sustained yield" of timber. The Forest plain, the valley of the Mississippi River, a thou- Service also cooperates with the States and with sand miles wide and about as long, to where the private timberland owners to provide protection mountain formation again is found, the Rocky from fire and to develop sustained yield manageMountain range, highest in North America, beyond ment on other timberlands of the country. Comwhich westwardly is a tableland of mean elevation munities own and manage more than 1,550 forest of 3,000 to 5,000 feet, and still farther to the areas, containing approximately 2 million acres. westward are other mountain ranges of lesser States own 20 million acres of forest land. altitudes, with a low coast range skirting the shores The land in farms is 2,120,014,710 acres, divided of the Pacific Ocean.
as follows: The United States has eight great rivers—the
321.757,900 Hudson, entering the Atlantic at the harbor of Crop land harvested New York City in the northeastern corner of the Idle, failure and waste.
76,490, 496 country: the Delaware,
Plowable pasture entering the Atlantic
130,924,458 through Delaware Bay, midway down the coast:
Woodland pasture the Potomac, entering the Atlantic through Chesa
Woodland not pastured peake Bay, just south from Delaware Bay: the
1,060,507.355 Mississippi, greatest of North American rivers in The land not in farms is 917,000,000 acres, diits relationship to civilization, rising in Minnesota, vided as follows: near to Canada, entering the Gulf of Mexico on
Acres the southern side of the country; the Ohio, flowing Public forest (grazed)
Private forest (grazed).
116.000.000 from the eastern mountains westwardly to join the Mississippi in the east central part of the country: Public forest (not grazed)
Private forest (not grazed)
115.000.000 the Missouri, which flows from the northwestern
80,000,000 mountains eastwardly to the Mississippi, being
Private grazing land
44,000,000 confluent with that stream just north of where the
Public grazing land
17.000.000 Ohio joins it; the Columbia, which rises in British Cities and towns territory, and flows across a vast tableland west
Parks, reservations, etc
20,000,000 of the Rocky Mountains, into the Pacific Ocean
24.000.000 two hundred miles down that coast; the Colorado,
Desert, swamps, rocky, dunes
76.000.000 non-navigable, which rises in the State of Colo- The Department of Commerce reported that the rado, flows in general course southwestwardly assessed valuation (1938) of the 48 States and the through Utah and Arizona, and between Arizona District of Columbia was $141,357,503.000. and California, into the Gulf of California, in Wildlife is abundant in the United States and Mexico
proved a means of sustenance for the early pioBesides these streams, there are many of con- neers. The bison (or buffalo) is now nearly extinct siderable and navigable size in the areas east from and protected in national parks, although it once the Rocky Mountains, including the Great St. roved in tremendous herds across the great plain States. This country has been the domain of ship of six square miles. The principal part of numerous species of interesting fauna. There is the the permanent school funds of such States conRocky Mountain sheep, the Rocky Mountain goat sists of the proceeds of the sale of this land. (& goat-like antelope); the prong-horn antelope Receipts from permanent school funds and un(the only antelope extant with deciduous and sold school lands represent about 1.2% of the iorked horns); the moose (true elk); caribou income of the schools of the country. Appropria(reindeer); other species of deer, several varieties tions and taxation provide about 95% of total of bear (including the grizzly bear), the raccoon, revenue receipts and other sources yield about cougar (American lion or panther); ocelot (in the 3.8%. southwest), lynx, wolf, fox, weasel, marten, skunk, Agriculture is an important industry in the polecat, otter, mink, beaver, muskrat, woodchuck United States and provides a livelihood for apprairie-dog, sewellel, hare, porcupine, squirrel, proximately 32,000,000 persons. Kansas is by far gopher, opossum, armadillo (Texas) and many the greatest wheat State in the Union, producing destructive species of the rat and mouse family. nearly twice as much as its runner-up, North The jaguar used to be seen in Texas and the pec-Dakota. Other wheat states are Nebraska. Oklacary in Arkansas. American birdlife is represented homa, Montana, Washington, Texas, Illinois and by the wild turkey, grouse, crane, heron, pigeon, Ohio. mocking-bird, parrot, humming-bird, song thrush, The principal oat states are Iowa, Ilinois, Minother small birds (sparrows, warblers, flycatchers), nesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Nebraska, South eagle, falcon, owl; buzzard-vulture, damingo, ibis, Dakota. Rye comes from North Dakota, Minnesota. goose, duck, swan, other game-birds and water- South Dakota, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michigan, lowl of many species.
Indiana, Pennsylvania, Iowa is known as the corn The alligator basks in southern waters; also a state, but large quantities are grown in Illinois, true crocodile on the southeast coast of Florida: Nebraska, Indiana, Missouri, Minnesota, Ohio and the “Gila-monster" (lizard) and horned toads Kansas. Maine is the chief potato state, followed cause goose flesh in the southwest; the green lizard by Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, or chameleon in Florida; and many poisonous Michigan and Idaho in the order named. Tobacco rattlesnakes, moccasins and copperheads are found is grown in North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee. throughout the country.
Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Pennsylvania, In the northern part of the United States are Wisconsin, Ohio and Connecticut. The barley rich forests of pine (including white pine), spruce, States are North Dakota, South Dakota, California hemlock, yellow cedar, hackmatack or larch, linden and Wisconsin. or basswood, black and white ash, sugar and other The principal industrial areas in the United maples, birch and elm. Somewhat further south States with their leading industries, ranked acare to be found in abundance the hickory, the oak, cording to the value of their products, are as the tulip-tree, sassafras, cherry, magnolia, walnut,
follows: red cedar, tupelo, persimmon, plane, poplar, beech,
New York City Area-Women's clothing; printcatalpa. In the southern coast regions are the long- ing and publishing, newspaper and periodical: leaved pine, hard or pitch pine, live oak, palmetto men's, youths' and boys' clothing (except work and the deciduous cypress. Much of the commercial
clothing); bread and other bakery products; supply of white pine has come from Michigan,
printing and publishing. book, music and job; Wisconsin and Minnesota. Oak, hickory, ash, elm, meat packing, wholesale; petroleum refining: cane. black walnut, cherry and other hard woods are
sugar refining; gas, manufactured, illuminating indigenous to every section of the eastern part of and heating. the United States. Spruce, hemlock, birch, beeech Chicago Area-Meat packing wholesale; steel and maple have come mostly from the north- works and rolling-mill products; petroleum refineastern section of the country, although hemlocking; printing and publishing, newspaper and and beech exist far into the south.
periodical; printing and publishing, book, music Distinctive American small flora include the and job; foundry and machine-shop products; buffalo berry, laurel (shrub), leatherwood, paw- bread and other bakery products; confectionery: paw, spice-bush, witch-hazel, Azaleas, blackberries, electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies. dogwoods, rhododendrons, sumachs, whortleberries
Philadelphia Area-Petroleum refining: knit are found in Europe as well as America.
goods; printing and publishing, newspaper and The climate of the United States is of every
periodical; cane sugar refining; bread and other gradation, from the north temperate, with rather bakery products; men's, youths and boys' clothing cold winters and pleasant summers, to the sub- (except work clothing); worsted goods; foundry tropical, with every variety of flora adapted to so
and machine-shop products; meat-packing. whole wide a range of latitude. Eastwardly and west
sale. The "radio apparatus and phonographs wardly, even greater variation is found. For there industry is one of the leading industries in this are regions of normal moisture precipitation in the
area, but its rank cannot be given without the northeast, of excessive precipitation in the south- possibility of disclosing (by comparison with Census east, of normal precipitation in the central table
reports) approximations of the data for individual land regions, and then of varying degrees of aridity establishments. and moistness as one proceeds westwardly, until on the coast of Oregon, at Tillamook, is the heaviest motorcycles; motor vehicle bodies and motor ve
Detroit Area--Motor vehicles, not including average precipitation in the United States--120 hicle parts. inches a year.
Boston Area-Worsted goods; boots and shoes, Being in the north temperate zone, in a general other than rubber; leather, tanned, curried and region of prevailing westerly winds, part of the finished; bread and other bakery products; printUnited States is subject to cyclonic storms because ing and publishing, newspaper and periodical; the air does not move eastward in steadily blowing printing and publishing, book, music and job winds, as is the case with the trades, but in whirl- meat packing, wholesale, electrical machinery ing formations that have a general easterly direc; apparatus and supplies; foundry and machine tion. The West Indian hurricane, which has caused shop products. "Cane-sugar refining" and "soap much damage in the United States, generally
are also among the leading industries in this area, originates in the tropics, moves over the West but their rank cannot be given without the possiIndies, enters the United States in Florida or on
bility of disclosing (by comparison with census the Gulf Coast and disappears into the Atlantic
reports) approximations of the data for individual Ocean in a northeasterly direction.
establishments. The government of the United States is com- St. Louis Area-Meat packing, wholesale: motor posed of three co-ordinate branches, the Executive, vehicles, not including motorcycles; petroleum rethe Legislative and the Judicial, in accordance fining: chemicals; malt liquors, electrical machinwith the provisions of the Constitution adopted ery, apparatus and supplies; bread and other (Sept. 17, 1787), to which 21 amendments have bakery products; boots and shoes, other than been added
rubber; printing and publishing, newspaper and The Union of 48 States is composed of the 13 periodical. The boot and shoe cut stock, not made Original states, 7 States admitted to the federa- in boot and shoe factories" and the “tobacco, tion without having been previously organized as chewing and smoking, and snuff" industries are Territories, and 28 States which had been Terri- among the leading industries in this area, but tories. The District of Columbia, including the their rank cannot be given without the possibility city of Washington, is the capital of the United of disclosing (by comparison with Census reports) States. In each State there is a Legislature of two approximations of the data for individual estabhouses (except Nebraska, which has adopted a lishments. uni-cameral form of government), a governor and Pittsburgh Area-Steel-works and rolling-mill a judicial system.
products; blast-furnace products; foundry and There is a public school system in every State in machine-shop products: glass; electrical machin. the Union, comprising elementary schools, junior ery, apparatus and supplies; coke-oven products: high schools and high schools.
bread and other bakery products; structural and The United States Government has made a ornamental metal-work, not made in plants oppractice (since 1803) on the organization of all erated in connection with rolling mills, canned and new States, of setting aside from one to four dried fruits and vegetables, preserves, Jellies, fruit "sections'' (square miles) of land in each town- butters, pickles and sauces.
San Francisco-Oakland Area- Petroleum refin- Baltimore Area--Steel-works and rolling-mill ing; motor vehicles, not including motorcycles: products, men's, youths' and boys' clothing (excanned and preserved fruits and vegetables, pre- cept work clothing) not elsewhere classified; tin serves, jellies, fruit butters, pickles and sauces; cans and other tinware not elsewhere classified; smelting and refining. lead; meat packing, whole meat-packing, wholesale. The following are among sale; printing and publishing, newspaper and the leading industries in this area, but their rank periodical; bread and other bakery products. cannot be given without the possibility of dis
"Cane sugar refining" and "cigarettes are also closing (by comparison with census reports ) apamong the leading industries, but their rank proximations of the data for individual establishcannot be given without the possibility of disclos- ments: cane-sugar refining; petroleum refining: ing (by comparison with Census reports) approxi- smelting and refining copper. mations of the data for individual establishments. Cincinnati Area-Meat packing. wholesale:
Cleveland Area Steel works and rolling-mill paper; motor vehicles, not including motorcycles; products; motor-vehicle bodies and motor-vehicle soap, tobacco, chewing and smoking, and snuff: parts; foundry and machine-shop products; elec- steel-works and rolling-mill products. trical machinery, apparatus and supplies; meat- Milwaukee Area-Liquors, malt; meat-packing, packing, wholesale; blast-furnace products; print- wholesale; foundry and machine-shop products not ing and publishing, newspaper and periodical. elsewhere classified; boots and shoes, other than
Los Angeles Area--Petroleum refining; meat rubber; motor vehicle bodies and motor vehicle packing. wholesale; bread and other bakery pro- parts; knit goods, electrical machinery, apparaducts; printing and publishing, newspaper and tus and supplies; bread and other bakery prodperiodical; rubber tires and inner tubes; women's ucts. The motor vehicle industry is one of the clothing; foundry and machine-shop products. The leading industries in this area, but its rank canproduction of motion pictures is a leading activity not be given without the possibility of disclosing in this area.
(by comparison with Census reports) approximaBuffalo Area-Flour and other grain-mill prod- tions of data for individual establishments. ucts: chemicals not elsewhere classified; motor- Bridgeport-New Haven-Waterbury Area-Nonvehicles not including motorcycles; steel-works and ferrous metal alloys and non-ferrous metal prodrolling-mill products; feeds, prepared, for animals ucts, except aluminum, not elsewhere classified: and fowls; motor vehicle bodies and motor-vehicle electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies, hats, parts; meat packing, wholesale.
fur-felt; foundry and machine-shop products not Providence-Fall River - New Bedford Area-Cot- elsewhere classified; ammunition and related ton goods, worsted goods; dying and finishing tex-products; gold, silver and platinum, refining and tiles; silk and rayon goods; jewelry.
Structural Geology of the United States
Source: Philip B. King, of the United States Geological Survey The United States includes a variety of geo- areas of ancient crystalline rocks. These were the graphic and tectonic units. Its interior consists of border lands which fringed the oceanward sides of wide plains and low plateaus. Along its east side ancient North America. In contrast to the Lauren
tian shield, which has had a passive history since rise the low ridges of the Appalachians; on the
Algonkian time, these areas have been extremely west the diverse and Cordilera forms a belt of
active and have had a constant tendency toward mountain ranges a thousand miles (1,600 kilo: uplift. Great volumes of sediment eroded from their meters) in width. The low shores of the Gulf upraised parts have been deposited in the geocoast and of the Atlantic coast south of New synclines. During the periods of compression they England are bordered by gently sloping, coastal have behaved as hinterlands to the mobile belts. plains, but the Pacific shore is rugged and abrupt The rocks of the geosynclinal belts were overturned and is flanked by a chain of Coast Ranges.
and thrust from the border lands toward the cenThere is a broad relation between the topography tral stable region, which acted as a foreland during and the structure of the rocks beneath. Recent the movements. uplifts to a certain extent coincide with areas of During their active history the border lands were former movements and disturbance. Streams, sliced and broken and were injected with igneous wearing away the soft rocks and leaving the hard, rocks. Those on the eastern and southern borders have produced contrasting land forms in areas of are now quiescent, having subsided to such an flat-lying and of folded strata. The lowland areas extent that parts of their truncated surfaces have of the interior are thus underlain by rocks that been buried beneath gently tilted Mesozoic and have not been conspicuously folded. Most of the Tertiary coastal-plain deposits, and other parts mountain areas are underlain by folded and faulted have disappeared beneath the sea. rocks, though the movements that deformed them The border land that lay southeast of the geowere in general earlier than those which raised syncline of the eastern United States is known as the present ranges.
Appalachia, another one on the south is known as The Interior plains of the continent have been Llanoria. Along the west coast, beyond the western a stable region for a long period of geologic time. geosynclines, were other border lands, the largest In the central part of this stable region pre-Cam- of which is known as Cascadia. brian rocks are exposed over a vast area known as On the east and south sides of the central stable the Laurentian shield. This area occupies the greater region of North America the rocks were strongly part of central and northern Canada and extends folded and faulted by Paleozoic movements and in a short distance into the United States. Its ancient places form low mountain ridges. Folds and faults rocks are strongly folded and metamorphosed, but of this age are found in the Appalachian Mounthe forces that caused their deformation ceased to tains, which extend along the eastern border of be active before Paleozoic time, leaving the rocks the United States from southeastern Canada to strong and rigid and thus competent to resist later Alabama West of the Mississippi are similar but forces of compression. South of the Laurentian disconnected groups of ridges in the Ouachita, shield, in the central United States, the basement Arbuckle and Wichita Mountains of Arkansas and rocks are thinly covered by Paleozoic and Meso- Oklahoma. In western Texas is the still more zoic strata that have been fixed into gentle domes isolated mountain group of the Marathon region. and basins.
Throughout the region there has been no folding On the east, south, and west sides of the stable
since Paleozoic time, and the lofty mountain chains regions are belts of greater mobility, which have of that era have been profoundly eroded.
The been the sites of post-Algonkian orogeny. During present mountain groups result from the differenthe earlier phases of their history these belts have tial erosion of the areas of folded rock after late subsided as geosynclines and have received thick broad uplifts. While these uplifts were being accumulations of Paleozoic and later sediments, formed, large areas in the ancient mountain system Most of the mobile belts assumed a geosynclinal subsided, and in consequence wide tracts are huried character as far back as the beginning of Paleozoic beneath coastal-plain deposits of Mesozoic and time, but they have had different later histories. Cenozoic age Those on the east and south were filled by thick A survey of the coast of the United States was deposits of strata during the Paleozoic era and were authorized by act of Congress, Feb. 10, 1807, and strongly folded before the end of that era. In the the act of March 3, 1871 extended the work across western belt the orogenic events have been more the country: The act of June 20, 1878 changed complex. In places this belt received thick Paleo- the name of the agency from the Coast Survey to zoic deposits, which were in part uplifted and even the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the act of Jan. folded before Mesozoic time, but some wide areas 31. 1925 charged the Bureau with investigations were very little disturbed during the Paleozoic and reports on earthquakes, an activity previously era. The greatest orogenic activity in the western conducted by the United States Weather Bureau. mobile belt began in middle Mesozoic time and The work of the Coast and Geodetic Survey is has continued through the Cenozoic.
closely related to national defense because of the Along the margins of the mobile belts. away essential need for its products for the conduct of from the central stable regions, were other positive military operations.
Territorial Expansion Since 1790
Source: Government Records The Thirteen Original States, comprising the the crest of the Rocky Mountains, north of the United States of America, as constituted (1790) forty-second parallel of latitude, and comprised were-New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Is- the areas now covered by Oregon, Washington, land, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Penn- Idaho and part of Montana and Wyoming. sylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North The second accession was the Floridas, which Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. These States the United States bought (1819) from Spain. had a gross area of 892,135 square miles, of which No money payment was made to Spain in con24,155 square miles were water.
nection with the acquisition of the Floridas. but The present gross (land and water) area of these the United States assumed and paid the sum of thirteen States is 322,621 square miles, inas- $5,000,000 in satisfaction of claims of citizens of much as Maine, Vermont, Kentucky, West Vir- the United States against Spain. ginia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Ohio. In- The third accession came (Dec. 29, 1845) when diana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of the Republic of Texas was admitted to the Union Minnesota have been carved from the original as a State. The area now comprises Texas, and boundaries of the Thirteen, which extended from parts of New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. Canada to Florida, and from the Atlantic Ocean The joint resolution of Congress (Marchi, 1845) to the Mississippi River, exclusive of a portion of for the annexation of Texas expressly gave to the southeastern part of Louisiana,
that State when admitted the right to divide itCongress (Oct. 30, 1779) asked the states to self into as many as five States of convenient cede to the General Government the vast areas
size, "and having sufficient population' without of unsettled lands lying between the Appalachian further permission of Congress. The annexation Mountain ranges and the Mississippi River, to end
resolution was approved by the Texas Governconflicting boundary claims inherited from royal ment and the State was admitted to the Union charters. This was the Ohio Country over which
by a joint resolution of Congress (Dec. 29, 1845). the British and French fought (1754-1763). The
The Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty (1848) which British claimed title from the Iroquois Indians.
ended the Mexican War gave the United States The French urged their own discovery and settle
its fourth accession of national territory. Serious ment.
disagreement as to the exact extent of the newly The General Government welded the ceded areas
gained region in what is now Southern Arizona
and Southwestern New Mexico developed, which into two great tracts-the territory northwest of
was the Ohio River (1787); and the territory south
wiped out (1853) by the Gadsden Purchase of the Ohio River.
for the United States of the area in dispute. The The territory embracing Michigan was governed
1848 Mexican cession price of $15,000,000 was
raised to $16.800,000 by interest accruals. The by the French from the time of its first discovery (about 1610-1763). It was ceded to Great Britain.
Gadsden Purchase cost the United States $10,
000,000 This land came into actual possession of the
The Mexican cessions added to this country the United States (July 11, 1796), and until 1802
area of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New was attached to the Northwest Territory, when
Mexico and part of Colorado. that portion west of the east line of Indiana became & part of the Territory of Indiana by an
The fifth increase was the purchase of Alaska act of Congress.
from Russia. The treaty of purchase was signed in
March 1867; ratified by the Senate and proclaimed Indiana Territory was divided (1805) into two
in June, 1867; territory transferred to the United separate governments, and provision was made for the constitution of Michigan Territory.
States in Oct. 1867; the money ($7,200,000 in gold)
paid in Aug. or Sept., 1868. Of this sum the actual The first accession to the territory of the United states as it was constituted (1790) came through 000 was for Russia's naval demonstration in Ameri
purchase price was $1,400,000; the balance, $5,800,the Louisiana Purchase. This vast region, bought
can waters at a time when England favored the by the United States (in the administration of
Confederacy and this country needed a friend. President Jefferson, April 30, 1803) from France.
Russia had been in possession of Alaska since 1825. in the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte, for' 60,000,000
when it was ceded to her Great Britain. francs ($11,250,000), plus payment of the French The sixth accession brought in the Hawaiian Spoliation Claims, comprised the Mississippi Islands, which voluntarily joined the United States River's west side drainage basin, except that part (1898) the Hawaiian national debt of $4,000,000 held by Spain. It extended from Canada to the
being assumed by this country. Gulf of Mexico, and included the areas now oc- The victory of the United States over Spain cupied by Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas,
(1898) brought into the American national area Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa. the Dakotas, Montana, the seventh accession. most of Minnesota, and portions of Colorado and
Under the treaty (Dec. 10, 1898), the United Wyoming In New Orleans (at noon on Dec. 20,
States paid to Spain $20,000,000 in connection with 1803) the French and American flags passed each
the relinquishment of all claims to Puerto Rico, other as the one was lowered and the other raised.
Guam and the Philippine Islands; and, under a There was no other ceremony to mark the event. later treaty (Nov. 7, 1900) a further payment of
The United States took formal possession of the $100,000 was made to Spain for cession to the Louisiana Purchase regions (March 10, 1804), and United States of any and all islands (Cagayan Congress divided it into two parts--the Territory Jolo) of the Philippine Archipelago lying outside of Orleans (later the State of Louisiana); and the of the lines described in Article III. of the treaty Territory of Louisiana.
(Dec. 10, 1898). No interest was paid. Settlement of the French Spoliation Claims was The Samoan Isles (1889) by agreement of the effected with France for $3,750,000. Interest ac- United States, Great Britain and Germany, in cruals raised the final total cost of the Louisiana conference in Berlin, were recognized as indePurchase to $27,267.622--about 4 cents an acre. pendent, neutral territory, with Malietoa as King.
The Oregon Territory, the northern limits of under the joint protection of the three powers which were settled in the Webster-Ashburton named. (1898) the United States accepted the Treaty (1846) between the United States and Pago Pago (ceded in 1872) as & coal and naval Great Britain, is not classed as an accession, be- base. cause the Government at Washington claimed it For the Danish West Indies, consisting of the (1848) on three grounds-(1), discovery
and Islands of St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. John, the occupation; (2), the Louisiana Purchase; (3), the United States paid $25.000.000, and took possession Florida Purchase.
(March 31, 1917). They then had 32,000 populaAs constituted at its organization (1848) the tion. The islands are now known as the Virgin Territory of Oregon extended from the Pacific to Islands. Added Added
Added Division Yr. Square
Division Yr. Square
Miles Louisiapa purchase. 1803 827,987||Gadsden purchase. 1853 20.670 Panama Canal Zone 1904 549 Gained through
1867 586,400||Danish West Indies treaty with Spain 1819 13,435||Hawaiian Islands.. 1898 6,407 (now Virgin Isl.). 1917 133 Florida.. 1819 58,666 Puerto Rico.
Total led area 2.846,260 'Texas. 1845 389,166||Guam.
Tot, orig. 13 States 892.135 Oregon.
1846 286,541|| Philippine Islands, 1899 114,400 Mexican cession.. 1848 529,189|| American Samoa... 1 1900
76 Grand Total,..., 3,738,395 The Mason and Dixon line actually was surveyed by two Englishmen, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon (Nov. 15. 1763, and Dec. 26, 1767) to settle coustant dissensions between the Lords Baltimore and the Penn family, the lords proprietors of Maryland and Pennsylvania respectively.
The line runs along the parallel in' latitude 39° 43' 26.3" and was originally marked by milestones, every Arth one bearing on one side the coat of arms of Penn and on the other those of Lord Baltimore.