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descent, was a blood relative of his mother, Mary | Hoes, and was his classmate at the public schoo! at Kinderhook, N. Y. She was born in 1783, and died in 1819.

Mrs. Letitia Semple were the mistresses of the
White House.

Of the Van Buren children, Abraham, 1807-1873, was a West Point graduate, an army officer on the western frontier, secretary to his father as President, an army officer in the Mexican War, and in his later years a man of leisure at N. Y. City. Another son, "Prince" John, 1810-1866, a lawyer. was elected Attorney-General of N. Y. State in 1845. Abraham's wife, Angelica Singleton, born in South Carolina in 1820, daughter of Richard Singleton, a wealthy planter, was a cousin of William C. Preston (a U. S. Senator from S. C.), and of President Madison's wife. She was mistress of the White House during most of Van Buren's term. Mrs. Van Buren was a member of the Dutch Re-70, formed Church.

W. H. Harrison, a Whig, of English descent, was born at Berkeley, Charles City County, Va., Feb. 9, 1773, and died of pneumonia at Washington, April 4, 1841. He was the third son of Benjamin Harrison, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He graduated at Hampden Sidney College and studied medicine. Against the advice of his guardian, Robert Morris, he joined the army and went west and fought the Indians.

Harrison was Secretary of the Northwest Territory: a delegate in Congress; Governor of the Indiana Territory; defeated the Indians at Tippecanoe, on the Wabash River; in 1812 took command of all United States troops in the northwest; in 1813 defeated the British in Canada. In 1816 he entered Congress; in 1819 he was in the Ohio Senate; in 1824 he entered the U. S. Senate, resigning to be Minister to Colombia; in 1836 he was defeated for President; in 1840 he was elected, and a month after his inauguration he died of pneumonia. Harrison was an Episcopalian.

Mrs. Harrison was a daughter of Col. John Cleves Symmes, a delegate to the Continental Congress, a soldier in the Revolutionary Army, and Chief Justice of the N. J. Supreme Court. She was born at Morristown, N. J., in 1775, and died in 1864.

Of President Harrison's sons, the third, John Scott Harrison of Indiana, 1804-1878, was a Whig in Congress and the father of Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd President.

Mrs. Harrison, who was an invalid, did not go to the White House with him, but remained at her home, North Bend, O. She was brought up as a Methodist.

The mistress of the Executive Mansion during Gen. Harrison's occupancy was Mrs. Jane Findlay Harrison, wife of the President's second son, Col. W. H. Harrison jr. Her sister, Elizabeth Irwin, was the wife of John Scott Harrison.

John Tyler, a Jeffersonian Republican, second son of Judge John Tyler and Mary Armistead, both of English ancestry, was born at Greenway, Charles City County, Va., March 29, 1790, and died Jan. 17, 1862, of liver trouble, at Richmond, Va.

He graduated at William and Mary College in 1807; practiced law; served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1811-1816); entered the House of Representatives in 1816, retiring in 1821 because of his health; served again (1823-1825) in the Legislature; became rector and chancellor of William and Mary College; in 1825 elected Governor of Virginia, and was re-elected; elected to the U. S. Senate in 1827 and re-elected in 1833; defeated, in 1836, for Vice-President on the State-Rights Whig ticket; resigned from the Senate after refusing to obey a resolution of the Virginia Legislature demanding he vote for the Benton resolution; in 1838 re-entered the Virginia Legislature; in 1840 chosen Vice-President, and became President on Gen. Harrison's death.

In 1861 Tyler was a delegate from Virginia to the Peace Convention of 13 northern and 7 border States, at Washington, called after the secession of South Carolina, to adopt a place for settling the controversy between the North and the South. He was President of the gathering. The U. S. Senate rejected the convention's proposals. Tyler was a delegate to the Confederate Provisional Congress in 1861, and was elected by Virginia to the Confederate Congress, but died before it assembled.

Tyler was an Episcopalian, tall, thin, cleanshaven, with a Roman nose and a high receding forehead. His eyes were blue, his voice soft and melodious.

The first Mrs. Tyler was Letitia, a daughter of Robert Christian, a planter of New Kent County, Va., and was born in 1790. She was delicate, and died in the White House, in 1842. She was an Episcopalian.

Of her children, Robert Tyler, 1818-1877, lawyer, editor, poet, married Priscilla, a daughter of T. A. Cooper, the tragedian, and she and her daughter,

The second Mrs. Tyler was Julla Gardiner, daughter of David Gardiner, whom he married on June 26, 1844, at N. Y. City. She was born on Gardiner's Island, near Easthampton, N. Y., in 1820, and died in 1889. She was a member of the family that held manorial rights on that island. Of her children, Lyon Gardiner Tyler, lawyer, legislator, became, in 1888, President of William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. He died in Charles City County, that state, Feb. 12, 1935. Another son, Judge David Gardiner Tyler, Confederate veteran, former member of Congress and a student under Gen. Robert E. Lee, died aged 81, Sept. 5, 1927, at the ancestral homestead, Sherwood forest, in Charles City County, Virginia. Her youngest son, Robert Fitzwalter Tyler, died, aged at Richmond, Va., Dec. 30, 1927. The second Mrs. Tyler was a Roman Catholic. James K. Polk, a Democrat, was born in Mecklenburg County, N. C., Nov. 2, 1795, and died at Nashville, Tenn., June 15, 1849. The name originally was Pollock, and the family came from Ireland. His father was Samuel Polk, a farmer and surveyor, and his mother was Jane Knox, of Iredell County, N. C.

He graduated at the University of North Carolina; practiced law in Tennessee; served in the Legislature and in Congress; elected Governor of Tennessee in 1839. Called the "Napoleon of the Stump," he was, 1835-1839, Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives; chosen President in 1844. He was a Methodist in his latter days, wore his hair long, and was democratic and affable.


Mrs. Polk, born in 1803, died in 1891, was a daughter of Joel Childress, a wealthy planter near Murfreesboro, Tenn. She was educated in Moravian school. She abolished drink and dancing from White House receptions. She was a handsome woman of the Spanish type. Having no children, Mrs. Polk, after her husband's death, adopted a


Zachary Taylor, a Whig, fifth in descent from an English immigrant of 1658, was born in Orange County, Va., Nov. 24, 1784, and died July 9, 1850, at the White House. From Virginia he had moved to Kentucky, to Wisconsin, to Florida, and was elected to the presidency from Louisiana. His father, Col. Richard Taylor, was an American officer in the Revolution. There is no official record at the Department of State or at the War Department of the date of Gen. Taylor's birth. In a letter dated at Matamoras, Mex., July 31, 1836, he stated he was born Nov. 25, 1785. On his tombstone the date is Nov. 24, 1784. Another date, named by several encyclopedias, is Sept. 24, 1789.

Zachary Taylor at 23 entered the army, fought the Indians along the Wabash and in Florida, in the Black Hawk and Seminole Wars; defeated the Mexicans at the Rio Grande border of Texas, became a Major-General, and, with Gen. Winfield Scott, was a hero of the Mexican War; elected President in 1848. He was a cotton planter and had a large landed estate in Louisiana. He was buried near Louisville, Ky. He was an Episcopalian. Mrs. Taylor was a daughter of Walter Smith, a planter of Calvert County, Md. Her Christian name was Margaret. She was born in 1788 and died in 1852.

Her younger daughter, Elizabeth ("Betty") Taylor, wife of Major W. W. S. Bliss, was mistress of the White Houe. "Betty," when a widow married P. P. Dandridge of Winchester, Va. The Taylors' older daughter, Ann, became the wife of Dr. Robert Wood, Assistant Surgeon-General of the army. Another, Sarah Knox Taylor, became the wife of Jefferson Davis.

Taylor's son, Richard, 1826-1879, born in Kentucky, served in the Confederate Army under "Stonewall" Jackson, and rose to be a LieutenantGeneral. He died at N. Y. City.

Millard Fillmore, a Whig, born in Cayuga County, N. Y., Jan. 7, 1800, died March 8, 1874, was of English descent, the first of the name in the U. S. having been John, a mariner, of Ipswich, Mass. Millard's father, Nathaniel, was a pioneer log-cabin settler in Cayuga County, N. Y.

Fillmore served apprenticeship as a wool carder, and then went to Buffalo and taught in a public school; studied law under Asa Rice and Joseph Clary, and in 1823 was admitted to the bar. In 1836 he formed the law firm of Fillmore, Hall and Haven. He served in the Legislature (18291831), and in the 23rd, 25th, 26th and 27th Congresses; in 1844 was the unsuccessful Whig candidate for Governor; State Comptroller in 1848 and in that same year was elected Vice-President. and succeeded to the Presidency on Gen. Taylor's death, July 9, 1850.

The letters to President Fillmore are with the Buffalo Historical Soc.; there are 44 volumes, and


a list of the letters in these volumes is being pre- | pared for the Library of Congress with the view to photostat such as have historical importance. A collection of letters from Fillmore has been published under the auspices of the Buffalo Historical Soc. Ex-President Fillmore passed his last years at Buffalo, and was buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery. He was a Unitarian. He was Chancellor of the University of Buffalo from the time of its founding in 1846 until his death.

The first Mrs. Fillmore, born in 1798, died in 1853, was the daughter of a Baptist clergyman, the Rev. Lemuel Powers of Stillwater, Saratoga County, N. Y. She taught school in Cayuga County, N. Y., in a backwoods district, and continued to teach after Fillmore married her. Owing to Mrs. Fillmore's poor health, her daughter, Miss Mary was the White Abigail (born 1832, died 1854) House mistress. Mrs. Fillmore's other child, Millard Powers Fillmore, was born in 1828 and died in 1889, The second Mrs. Fillmore, whom he married at Albany, N. Y., at the Schuyler mansion, was Caroline Carmichael, born in 1813, died in 1881, and was a daughter of Charles Carmichael and Temperance Blachley of Morristown, N. J., and widow of Ezekiel C. McIntosh, a prominent merborn chant of Albany. She bore Fillmore no children. was a Democrat, Franklin Pierce, Friday, Nov. 23, 1804, inaugurated on Friday, died on Friday, Oct. 8, 1869, at Concord, N. H. He first saw the light at Hillsborough, N. H. He was a son of Benjamin Pierce, who was a farmer, an officer in the Revolutionary Army, and Governor of the State.


Franklin Pierce graduated at Bowdoin College in 1824; practiced law; served in the New Hampshire Legislature, in the United States House of Representatives, and in the U. S. Senate, resigning in 1842 to resume his profession; a Brigadier General in 1847, in the war with Mexico; elected President in 1852.

After his term he made a tour of Europe. Pierce was handsome, graceful, well-dressed; and was a He was an Episcopalian. He left notable orator. an estate valued at $72,000.

Mrs. Pierce, born at Hampton, N. H., in 1806, died in 1863, was a daughter of the Rev. Jesse Appleton, President of Bowdoin College. Of the children of the Pierces, one son died in infancy. another at the age of 4, and the youngest, Benjamin, eleven years of age, was killed, Jan. 6, 1853, in a railroad accident near Andover, Mass.

James Buchanan, a Federalist, later a Democrat, of Scottish descent, was born near Mercersburg, Pa., April 23, 1791, and died of rheumatic gout, at Lancaster, Pa., June 1, 1868.

He served as a volunteer in the defense of Baltimore, in the War of 1812; graduated at Dickinson College in 1809; practiced law; served in the Pennsylvania Legislature; elected in 1820 to the U. S. House of Representatives, from which he resigned in 1831, when President Jackson appointed him Minister to Russia; reelected in 1834 to the U. S. Senate, where he stayed until 1845, when he became' Secretary of State under President Polk. In 1849 he retired to Wheatland, his 22-acre estate near Lancaster, Pa.; in 1853 was Minister to England; in 1856 he was elected President.

The Buchanan papers are mainly with the Pennsylvania Historical Soc., but the Library of Congress has his letters to Harriet Lane Johnston.

President Buchanan was a Presbyterian and a bachelor. The mistress of the White House in his Jane's daughter, Administration was his sister Harriet Lane, whose father, Elliott T. Lane, came from an old Virginia family, had grown wealthy as a transcontinental trader, and lived at Mercersburg, Pa. Miss Lane, tall and blonde with violet eyes, had been educated at a Roman Catholic school at Georgetown; later in life she became an Episcopalian. Her mother died when she was seven, her Thereafter she made father when she was nine. her home with her uncle, and was with him in his career abroad.

Abraham Lincoln, a Whig, later a Republican, 6 ft. 4 in. in height, was born in Hardin County (that spot is in what is now Larue County), Ky., Feb. 12, 1809, and was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln and wife, Martha, who came over from Hingham, near Norwich, England, in 1636, arriving at Salem, Mass., on June 20, and later settled at Hingham, Mass.

Samuel Lincoln, the pioneer, died in 1690, of
smallpox, aged 71, the father of 11 children. His
third son, Mordecai, (1657-1727) had a son, Mor-
decai (1686-1736), who had a son, John (died in
1788), who had a son, Abraham (1744-1786), who
had a son, Thomas (1778-1851). He was the father
of Abraham, the President.

The Lincolns in successive generations lived in
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky.
Abraham's father, Thomas (grandson of John

of Mordecai Lincoln of Berks County, Penn.), was
Lincoln of Rockingham, Va., and great-grandson
a carpenter and cabinet maker and wheelwright.
He built the Primitive Baptist Church at Gentry-
Hanks of Elizabethtown, Ky., and married Joseph's
ville, Ind. At 22 he was apprenticed to Joseph
sister, Nancy. Her ancestor, Thomas Hanks, emas-
grated from England to Virginia in 1644. Nancy's
Joseph Hanks, died in Canon City, Colo., in 1939.
cousin, Miss Rose Ella Hanks, 84, daughter of
Lincoln's cousin, Mrs. Henry K. Harrison, 62,
daughter of David Lincoln, died in Birdsboro, Pa..
in 1939.

The log cabin in which Nancy Hanks lived and
was married has been deeded to the State of
Kentucky by W. L. Clements of South Bend, Ind..
and his father, W. A. Clements of Springfield, Ky.
at Beachland,
The cabin, in 1911, was moved to Harrodsburg, Ky
from its
on the banks of the Little Beech Fork, in Wash-
ington County. The cabin, enclosed in a brick
church, built by Mrs. E. B. Ball of Muncie, Ind.
now known as the Lincoln Marriage Temple, in
Pioneer Memorial State Park, was dedicated as a
shrine, on June 12, 1931.

Abraham had a sister, Sarah, and a brother. Thomas. The sister married but had no children. The brother died in infancy. In 1816 Abraham's parents moved across the Ohio River into Indiana, where his mother died in 1818. His father then married a widow, Sarah Bush Johnston. In 1830 the family moved to Macon County, Ill., and in 1831 to Coles County, Ill., where Abraham's parents passed the rest of their lives.

Research technicians of the National Park Service recently have found a record in the office of the Court of Springfield, Ill., of a license granted to William F. Berry to operate a tavern "under the name of Berry & Lincoln" at New Salem, Ill. This license was issued by the clerk of the Court.

Abraham cleared the forest and helped build their cabin home; with Denton Offutt he carried farm produce by water to New Orleans, and sold it; he ran at one time a ferryboat across the Ohio River from the Kentucky shore to the mouth of Anderson Creek; kept a general store at New Salem, Ill.; served as an officer of volunteers in the Black Hawk Indian War; Postmaster at New Salem; he served in the Illinois Legislature 18341841; practiced law at Springfield, Ill.; in 1846 elected to the House of Representatives and served one term; in 1858 debated slavery with Stephen A. Douglas in the latter's successful campaign for reelection to the U. S Senate; in 1860 elected President; re-elected in 1864.

burg, Va.

President Lincoln was snot Friday (Good Friday), April 14, 1865, at Ford's Theatre, Washington, at the performance of "Our American Cousin," by John Wilkes Booth, an actor, and died the next day. The assassin was shot to death April 26, by For participation in Booth's crime. Sergt. Boston Corbett, U. S. Army, near FredericksMrs. Mary E. Surratt, David E. Harold, George A. Atzerodt, and Lewis Payne (Powell) were hanged The original plot was to assassinate after trial. the President, Vice-President, and certain members of the Cabinet; one of the conspirators knifed the Secretary of State, William H. Seward, in his bedroom, but the wound was not serious. Lincoln was buried at Springfield, Ill. The coffin was partly opened on April 14, 1887 to see if the body was there intact and again in 1901.

Lincoln had proposed to his Cabinet on Feb. 5, 1865, that the South be compensated for the loss of slave labor by payment of $400,000,000. The Cabinet was unanimously against the suggestion, and it was dropped.

LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG ADDRESS Following is Lincoln's own version revised by him from his own notes, of the address at GettysThe great battle had been burg on Nov. 19, 1863. fought on July 1-3, 1863. seven years ago our fathers Fourscore and brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a We have come to great battlefield of that war. dedicate a portion of that field, as a final restingplace of those who here gave their lives that that It is altogether fitting and nation might live. proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate-we cannot consecrate-we cannot hallow-this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living,

rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us-that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion-that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain-that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedomand that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth. Lincoln, according to W. E. Barton, made 5 autograph copies of the Gettysburg address; one at Washington, before leaving; one for David Wills. at Gettysburg; a third, several days later, for Wills: a fourth, for the famous orator, Edward Everett, for display at the N. Y. Sanitary Fair; and the fifth, for George Bancroft, the historian.

Lincoln, as President, at Washington, was a regular attendant at the New York Ave. Presbyterian Church, and his pew bears a silver plate on the arm, stating that he sat there on Sunday mornings. He never formally joined a church or a denomination.

Lincoln's estate, as administered by U. S. Supreme Court Justice David Davis, amounted to $110,295, mostly saved from his salary of $25,000 a year and invested in Government securities. The property was equally divided among the widow and two sons, Robert T., and Thomas ("Tad").

Mrs. Lincoln, born at Lexington, Ky., in 1818, died in 1882, was one of six children of Robert Smith Todd, a pioneer settler, by his first wife, Eliza Parker. By his second wife, Betsy Humphreys, he had nine children. Her half-sister, Emille Todd, became the wife of Brig. Gen. Ben Hardin Helm, of the Confederate Army, who was killed Sept. 20 1863, at the Battle of Chicamaugua. Lincoln and Mary Todd had planned a wedding in Jan., 1841, but they quarreled, and the marriage was postponed. Within a few weeks of the assassination Mrs. Lincoln was the object of bitter attacks in Congress. She was for a time in 1875 in a mental sanatorium.

After Mrs. Lincoln's death her estate was appraised at $77,555, of which $72,000 was in U. S. gold bonds.

Of the Lincoln children, William Wallace died in 1862, and Thomas ("Tad'') in 1871. Edward Baker Lincoln was born on March 10, 1846, and died on Feb. 1, 1850. Another son, Robert Todd Lincoln. born at Springfield, Aug. 1, 1843, studied law at Harvard, served in the Civil War, was Secretary of War in the Garfield Cabinet, then Minister to Great Britain, and later counsel to and President of the Pullman Palace Car Co.


Robert T. Lincoln was found dead in bed, July 26, 1926, at his home, Manchester, Vt. He was buried in the National Cemetery, at Arlington, Va.. across the Potomac River from Washington. had turned over to the U. S. government more than 10,000 letters to and from Abraham Lincoln, also drafts of state papers, pamphlets, and newspaper clippings-all to be kept sealed at the Library of Congress until 21 years after the donor's death. His widow, Mrs. Mary Harlan Lincoln, who died on March 31, 1937, at Washington (Georgetown), was a daughter of James Harlan, a U. S. Senator from Iowa. She left two daughters, Mrs. Charles Isham, and Mrs. Robert J. Randolph. Mrs. Robert Todd Lincoln gave to the Library of Congress the Bible on which Abraham Lincoln took the oath as President, and also the Lincoln family Bible. Her estate was estimated at nearly $3,000,000.

Andrew Johnson, a Democrat, christened Andrew Jackson Johnson, was born Dec. 29, 1808, and died July 31, 1875. He was a son of Jacob Johnson, porter at old Casso's Inn, at Raleigh, N. C., sexton for the church, and porter in Col. William Polk's bank. The mother of the boy, before her marriage to Johnson, was Mary McDonough, maid at the inn. He was apprenticed at 10 to a tailor for a term of 8 years, and was chained to a table and a pair of shears, with no chance for play or school. His father died when he was five. He ran away from the tailor after 6 years of slavery, and migrated to Tennessee. He was a Methodist.

In the historical museum of the State of Tennessee is a black broadcloth coat made by Andrew Johnson when Governor of Tennessee, in 1853, for his friend. Judge W. W. Pepper, of Springfield, Tenn. It is the only coat ever made by a governor of his State who was also Vice-President and President of the United States. Pepper had been a blacksmith before studying law. When Johnson was elected Governor Judge Pepper went into a blacksmith shop, selected iron to his own liking, and with forge and hammer made a pair of shovel and tongs for his friend's gubernatorial fireplace. Johnson got a tailor to give him Pepper's measurements,

selected the best piece of black broadcloth in town. and sat cross-legged on the governor's table in the State capitol behind closed doors at night till he finished the garment.

When Johnson was 19 he married Eliza McCardle, who taught him to write.

His first political office was Alderman at Greeneville, Tenn.; then, in 1830, Mayor; in 1835 entered the Legislature; in 1843 elect the House of Representatives as an anti-U. S. Bank Democrat, and served till 1853, when he was elected Governor of Tennessee; in 1857 elected to the U. S. Senate, where he was a Union man; appointed by President Lincoln in 1862 Military Governor of Tennessee; in 1864 elected Vice-President when Lincoln was re-elected on the National Union Party ticket; succeeded to the presidency on the death of Lincoln, April 15, 1865.

President Johnson was impeached by the House of Representatives for having removed without the Senate's consent, E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and on other charges. He was tried by the U. S. Senate, which voted 35 for conviction, 19 for acquittal; as two-thirds vote was necessary for conviction the impeachment failed, and he was acquitted May 26, 1868.

In 1875 he was again elected to the U. S. Senate from Tennessee.

He was a stocky man of medium height, and he died of paralysis, near Carter's Station, Tenn., and was buried at Greeneville. His one-room log house bought by the State of Tennessee and has been there, which he used as a tailor shop, has been enclosed by a colonial brick structure for its protection. On display are Johnson's iron shears and other personal belongings. He was a Methodist.

Mrs. Johnson, born at Leesburg, Tenn., in 1810, died in 1876, was the only daughter of a widow in a mountain hamlet when Johnson married her. Their daughter, Martha, born in 1828, educated at Georgetown, D. C., was often a guest at the White House in Polk's administration. In 1857 she married Judge D. T. Patterson and was mistress of the White House in place of her invalid mother. Another daughter, Mary, 1832-1883, was the wife, first of Daniel Stover, of Carter County, Tenn.. and after his death, of W. R. Bacon, of Greeneville, Tenn. By Stover she had three children.

Ulysses S. Grant, a Republican, of English descent, the pioneer in America being Matthew Grant, who settled, in 1630, at Dorchester, Mass., was born at Point Pleasant, O., April 27, 1822, and died of cancer on Mt. McGregor, near Saratoga, N. Y., July 23, 1885. Grant's Tomb overlooks the Hudson at N. Y. City.

He was the oldest of six children of Jesse R. Grant, a tanner, and Hannah Simpson. Upon reporting at the Military Academy at West Point for admission, he signed his name on the descriptive list of cadets as Ulysses Hiram Grant. He was appointed as Ulysses Simpson Grant and was so borne on all officials records.

U. S. Grant worked as a boy on his father's farm; graduated in 1843 at the U. S. Military Academy; served as an officer under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, 1845-48 in the war with Mexico; resigned in 1854 after service in California, from the army, and was a farmer and real estate dealer at St. Louis; in 1860 clerked in his father's hardware and leather store at Galena, Ill.

At the outbreak of the Civil War he drilled volunteers, and was commissioned Colonel of the 21st Illinois Regiment by Gov. Yates. In 1862, after his capture of Ft. Donelson, he was made a Major General: captured Vicksburg July 4, 1863; won the Battle of Chattanooga on Nov. 24-25, 1863; in 1864 was made Lieutenant General; forced Lee's surrender at Appomattox, Va., April 9, 1865; in 1866 Congress commissioned him General of the Army.

General Grant was elected President in 1868, by the Republican party. Early in life he was a Whig, but in 1856 he voted for Buchanan. In 1872 he was re-elected President on the Republican ticket; in 1877-1879 made a tour of the world, and in 1880 visited the South, Cuba, and Mexico; in 1880 his 308 Republican friends failed to renominate him for President, after 36 ballots; in 1884 lost his fortune in the failure of Grant & Ward, N. Y. City bankers, but made another by writing his memoirs. He was a Methodist. The 4-room cabin in which he was born, at Point Pleasant, on the Ohio River, 22 miles up from Cincinnati, is now restored, a part of the Grant Memorial Park.

Mrs. Grant, born in 1826, died in 1902, was a daughter of Judge Frederick Dent of St. Louis, a son of a Revolutionary officer.

The Grants had four children-Frederick Dent (born at St. Louis, May 30, 1850; died at N. Y. City April 11, 1912); Ulysses jr., lawyer (died in Calif.,


Sept. 25, 1929, aged 77 years); Jesse R. (civil engineer, died at Los Altos, Calif., June 8, 1934, aged 76); and Nellie. The last named became the wife of Algernon Sartoris, of London.

Maj. Gen. Frederick Dent Grant, West Point graduate (1871) and soldier, was Minister to Austria-Hungary (1890-1893); a New York City Police Commissioner (1895-1897); a general officer in the war with Spain.

Nellie Grant and Capt. Sartoris were married at the White House in 1874. Sartoris's mother was a sister of the actress, Fannie Kemble. In 1912 Mrs. Sartoris, then a widow, became the wife of Frank H. Jones, a lawyer, who was First Assistant Postmaster General in Cleveland's Administration. She died at Chicago, Aug. 30, 1922, aged 67 years. Rutherford B. Hayes, a Whig and then a Republican, was born, a posthumous child, at Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, and died of heart disease, at Freemont, O., Jan. 17, 1893. His mother was Sophia Birchard, of Suffield, Conn. He graduated at Kenyon College, studied law at Harvard, and began to practice at Fremont; was City Solicitor of Cincinnati; served as a (Union) Brevet Major General in the Civil War; served in the House of Representatives, 1865-1867; elected Governor of Ohio, in 1867, and was re-elected; defeated for Congress in 1872; re-elected Governor in 1875; in 1876 was the Republican candidate for President. The votes of Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida being in dispute, Congress appointed an Electoral Commission of 5 Senators, 5 Representatives and 5 Justices of the U. S. Supreme Court, who, by vote of 8 to 7, decided the votes of these States in favor of Gen. Hayes, and he was seated.

He was a descendant of George Hayes, a Scot, who settled in 1680 at Windsor, Conn. Hayes attended the Methodist Church, but never joined the denomination.

The Hayes papers and his library of Americana are at Freemont, O., in the Hayes Memorial. Mrs. Hayes, born in 1831, died in 1889, was a daughter of Dr. James Webb, of Chillicothe, O., and a granddaughter of Dr. Isaac Cook, The Webbs had come from Lexington, Kentucky. She refused to let wine be served in the White House; was a Methodist, and a college graduate.

President Hayes and his wife had eight children; Birchard A. (1853); Webb C. (1856-1934); ford P. (1858); Joseph T. (1861-1863); George C. (1864-1866): Fanny (1867); Scott R. (1871); Manning F. (1873-1874).

who became President when Garfield died, was
born at Fairfield, Vt., Oct. 5, 1830, and died at
Rev. William Arthur and Malvina Stone, of an
N. Y. City, Nov. 18, 1886. He was a son of the
old New Hampshire family.

He graduated at Union College in 1848; taught
school at Pownall, Vt., studied law in New York
Militia, and when the Civil War began was ap-
City, helped organize in 1861 the New York State
pointed Quartermaster General and equipped State
troops for service at the front; in 1871 was ap-
pointed Collector of the Port of N. Y. and served
until 1878, when President Hayes removed him for
political reasons.

In 1880 as delegate at large from New York State he was a leader in the fight at the Republican National Convention to name Gen. Grant for a third term, and in the interests of harmony was Arthur was tall, portly, dark, handsome, courtly. put on the ticket for Vice-President. His death was due to apoplexy. He was buried at Albany, N. Y. He was an Episcopalian.

Mrs. Arthur, who died in 1880, before her husband became President, was a Virginian, born in 1837, at Fredericksburg, and was a daughter of Commander William Lewis Herndon of the Navy. The Arthurs had three children, W. L. H. Arthur, who died in infancy; Chester Alan Arthur Jr., born 1865, died 1937; and Ellen Herndon Arthur, born 1871, who became the wife of Charles Pinkerton.

The mistress of the White House in Arthur's Administration was his sister, Mary, wife of John E. McElroy of Albany, N. Y.

Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, born at Caldwell, N. J., March 18, 1837, died at Princeton, N. J., June 24, 1908, was descended from Moses Cleveland, 1635. A later ancestor, Gen. Moses Cleveland, Grover's of England, who settled near Woburn, Mass., in founded the City of Cleveland, Ohio. father, Richard Falley Cleveland, was a son of a watchmaker, and was pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Caldwell. Mis mother was Ann Neale. of Baltimore, daughter of a merchant, of Irish birth, and was tall, dark and slim. Grover was named after the Rev. Stephen Grover, his father's predecessor at Caldwell. He dropped the "Stephen" whik a lad at Fayetteville, N. Y.

When he was 16 his father died and the son left Ruther-school to clerk in a store at Clinton, N. Y.; taught, with an older brother, at the N. Y. City Institution for the Blind; made up a herd book for his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a stock breeder at Black Rock, near Buffalo; studied law at Buffalo and was admitted to the bar in 1859: in 1863 became Assistant District Attorney of Erie County; defeated for District Attorney in 1865, but was elected Sheriff in 1870; in 1881 elected Mayor of Buffalo; in 1882 elected Governor of New York; in 1884 was elected President; defeated in 1888; elected again in 1992.

James A. Garfield, a Republican, born on his father's farm at Orange, O., Nov. 19, 1831, died at Elberon, N. J., Sept. 19, 1881, from assassin Charles J. Guiteau's bullet, was a descendant of Edward Garfield, an English Puritan, who, in 1630, was one of the founders of Watertown, Mass. His mother was Eliza Ballou, a New England descendant of a French Huguenot. His father, Abram Garfield, was a native of New York, who pioneered in 1830 to the Ohio wilderness.

Garfield worked on a boat on the Ohio canals: did carpentry; baptized in youth a Campbellite into the fold of "The Disciples"; graduated in 1856 at Williams College; president (1857-1861) of the Eclectic Institute at Hiram, O.; admitted to the bar; in 1859 elected to the State Senate; served as a Major General in the Union Army in the Civil War; resigned from the army in 1863 to take a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives, and served until 1880, when he was elected to the U. S. Senate to succeed Allen G. Thurman.

In 1880 Garfield was elected President, and was inaugurated on a Friday; on July 2, 1881, he was fatally shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railway depot, Washington, by Guiteau, and was buried at Cleveland, O. Guiteau was convicted of murder and was hanged at the jail at Washington, June 30. 1882.

The assassination was linked to the "Half-
Breed" quarrel in Republican politics in N. Y.
State, which led to the resignation of Roscoe
Conkling and Thomas C. Platt from the U. S.

The Garfield

Garfield was burly and strong.
papers are at Mentor, O. He was a member of
the Disciples Sect.

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Mrs. Garfield's father was Zeb Randolph,
farmer at Garrettsville, O.; she was born in 1833,
and died in 1918. She and Garfield were school-
mates, and she became his wife when he was Presi-
dent of the Eclectic Institute at Hiram, O. Her
mother was a daughter of Elijah Mason,
and a descendant of Gen.
Lebanon, Conn.,
Nathanial Greene.

Of the Garfield children, Harry A., lawyer, be-
came President of Williams College: James R.,
lawyer, was Secretary of the Interior under Roose-
velt; Abram became an architect; Irvin McDowell,
a lawyer; Mary married J. Stanley Brown.
Chester A. Arthur, a Whig, then a Republican,

Early in July, 1893, according to Dr. James H. Tobey, Cleveland was operated on for cancer, on Commodore E. C. Benedict's yacht, Oneida, in Long Island Sound. The entire upper section of one law was removed; other parts of the growth were cut Then a dentist fitted in an out on July 17. artificial jaw made of vulcanized rubber. After leaving the White House Cleveland settled at Princeton, N. J., and he was buried there. On the change of control of the Equitable Life Assurance Soc. of N. Y. he was made a trustee. He was fond of hunting and fishing and was a Presbyterian.

Mrs. Cleveland's father, Oscar Folsom, was a law partner of Cleveland, at Buffalo. Her mother was Emma C. Harmon. She was born in 1864, was married to the President at the White House in 1886, and their second daughter was born there in


Before the marriage, the mistress of the Executive Mansion was the President's youngest sister, Rose Elizabeth Cleveland. An older sister, Margaret, born at Caldwell, N. J., Oct. 28, 1838, became the wife of Norval B. Bacon, an architect, and died at Toledo, March 5, 1932.

President Cleveland had five children,__ Ruth, Esther, Marion, Richard Folsom, and Francis Grover. 10, 1913, married, Feb. widow Cleveland's Thomas Jex Preston, Jr., Professor of Archeology. Benjamin Harrison, a Republican, was born at North Bend, O., Aug. 20, 1833, and died at Indianapolis, March 13, 1901. He was descended from the Virginia Harrisons. He was the third son of John Scott Harrison a son of President William Henry Harrison. By some, the Harrison lineage is traced to Pocahontas. Benjamin's mother was Elizabeth P. Irwin.

He worked on his father's 400-acre farm; graduated in 1852 at Miami University; admitted to practice law in 1853 at Cincinnati; elected in 1860 as reporter of the Indiana Supreme Court; raised

volunteers and served as a Union General in the Civil War, defeated for Governor in 1876; in 1879 a member of the Mississippi River Commission; in 1881 elected from Indiana to the United States Senate; in 1888 elected President; in 1892 renominated but was defeated.

Harrison was an elder in the Presbyterian Church at Indianapolis. He was short, sandy, astute, unsociable, with small, bright, sharp eyes. His estate was estimated at $375,000.

The first Mrs. Harrison, who was born at Oxford, O., in 1832, and died in the White House, in 1892, was a daughter of Prof. John W. Scott of Miami University, later President of Oxford Seminary. She was a musician and painter, the first head of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

Mrs. Harrison's son, Russell B., mining engineer and journalist, graduated at Lafayette (Pa.) College. Her daughter, Mary, married James R. McKee, an Indianapolis merchant. She died on Oct. 28, 1930, at Greenwich, Conn. ·

The second Mrs. Harrison was Mrs. Mary Scott Lord Dimmick, niece of the first Mrs. Harrison, and widow of Walter Erskine Dimmick, a lawyer, who died of typhoid, in N. Y. City in 1882. She was born in Honesdale, Pa., in 1858, and had spent two years at the White House during her aunt's life. The ex-president married her at N. Y. City. By the second wife Harrison had one child. Elizabeth Harrison, born in 1897. In 1921 she married James Blaine Walker, jr., a great-nephew of James G. Blaine.

William McKinley, a Republican, was born at Niles, O., Jan. 29, 1843, and died at Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1901. He was of Highland Scottish descent, but his ancestors lived long in Ireland before settling in York County, Pa. His father was William McKinley, operator of charcoal furnaces at Niles, O., his mother was Nancy Allison, of Scottish lineage, whose family settled in Westmoreland County. Pa.

McKinley was the seventh of nine children. He quit Allegheny College to make a living, and taught school; enlisted as a private and served in the Civil War, and came out a Major; studied law and practiced at Canton, O.; elected, 1869, Prosecuting Attorney of Stark County; in 1876 elected to the House of Representatives and served until 1891, except for a short time in 1884 when a contest unseated him; elected Governor, 1891; re-elected in 1893; elected President in 1896; re-elected in 1900.

McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist, Leon Czolgosz, who shot him twice, with a pistol hidden in a handkerchief, Sept. 6, 1901, at the PanAmerican Exposition, Buffalo, N. Y. The President died Sept. 14, at the home of John G. Milburn, at Buffalo. Czolgosz was convicted and was electrocuted Oct. 29, 1901, at Auburn State Prison.

McKinley was a Methodist. He was buried at Canton, O. The McKinley papers were put in possession of George B. Cortelyou at N. Y. City. Mrs. McKinley, born in 1847, died in 1907, was a daughter of James Asbury Saxton and Katherine DeWalt. She was educated in private schools. spent some time in Europe and was cashier in her father's bank at Canton, Ohio, when she married. Their two children, Katie and Ida, died in early childhood. A nervous ailment then made her an invalid for the rest of her life. She was, nevertheless, the mistress of the White House, accompanied her husband everywhere, and was, with him at Buffalo when he was assassinated.

Theodore Roosevelt, Republican (descendant of Claes Martenszen van Rosenvelt, of Zeeland, Holland, who emigrated in 1649-50 to New Netherland with his wife, Jannette), was born at N. Y. City, Oct. 27, 1858, and died in sleep at Oyster Bay, N. Y., Jan. 6, 1919. He was a son of Theodore Roosevelt (1831-1878). Collector of the Port, and of the latter's wife, Martha Bulloch, daughter of Maj. James S. Bulloch, of Roswell, Ga.

Roosevelt graduated at Harvard, traveled in Europe; served 1882-1884 in the New York State Assembly; lived 1884-1886 on a North Dakota ranch, an unsuccessful candidate for Mayor of New York City in 1886; Police Commissioner; a member of the National Civil Service Commission; Assistant Secretary of the Navy (April 19, 1897-May 10, 1898), resigning to organize with Surgeon Leonard Wood 1st U. S. Cavalry (Roosevelt's Rough Riders), which served in Cuba in the Spanish-American War, and of which he became Colonel; elected Governor of New York 1898; elected Vice-President in 1900 and became President in 1901 on McKinley's assassination, taking the oath of office in Buffalo, N. Y.; elected president in 1904; hunted in East Africa in 1909-1910; defeated for President on the Progressive (Bull Moose) ticket in 1912; visited and explored South America, 1913-1914. Roosevelt brought about the nomination of Taft'

to succeed him and was friendly until Oct., 1911, when President Taft's attorney general charged the U. S. Steel Corp. was a monopoly by purchasing the Tennessee Coal & Iron Co., a step which the steel interests had taken with Roosevelt's consent. When Taft came up for re-election Roosevelt ran against him as an independent candidate; the Republican vote was split, and Wilson was elected president. He was an author, and fond of athletics. He received the Nobel peace prize in 1906.

He was shot and wounded at Milwaukee, Oct. 14, 1912, by a crank. He belonged to the Reformed Dutch Church. He was buried at Oyster Bay, N. Y His sister, Corinne (Mrs. Douglas Robinson), born in 1861, died in Feb., 1933, at N. Y. City. He was an uncle of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The first Mrs. Roosevelt, whom he married on Oct. 27, 1880, was Alice Hathaway Lee, daughter of George Cabot Lee and of Caroline Haskell Lee, of Boston; she and her husband's mother died at N. Y. City on Feb. 14, 1884.

1906, at the White House, married Nicholas LongHer only child was Alice Lee Roosevelt, who, in worth, a Cincinnati lawyer and landowner and a Republican Representative in Congress. A child, Speaker of the House of Representatives, died at Paulina, was born Feb. 14, 1925. Longworth, then the age of 61 on April 9, 1931.

The second Mrs. Roosevelt, whom he married on Dec. 2, 1886, at London, was Edith Kermit Carow, daughter of Charles Carow and of Gertrude Tyler Carow, of N. Y. City. She was born in 1861.

By this union there were five children-Theodore jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow (Mrs. Richard Derby), Archibald Bulloch, and Quentin. The last named, an aviator in Europe in the World War, was killed in action and was buried where he fell. Theodore, who served as Lieutenant Colonel in the World War, was Assistant Secretary of the Navy under Harding and under Coolidge; ran unsuccessfully for Governor of New York State in 1924, and later was appointed Governor of Puerto Rico, and, in 1932. Governor General of the Philippines.

William H. Taft, a Republican, was born at Cincinnati, Sept. 15, 1857, the son of Alphonso Taft and the latter's second wife, Louisa Maria Torrey, and was a brother of Henry W. and Horace D. Taft, and a half-brother of the late Charles P. Taft, the latter's mother being Fannie Phelps, of Vermont.

Alphonso Taft was Secretary of War and later Attorney General in Grant's Cabinet, and was Minister to Austria, and then to Russia, under President Arthur.

W. H. Taft graduated in 1878, at Yale, and in 1880 at the Cincinnati Law School; admitted to the Bar in 1880; a law reporter on Cincinnati dailies: Assistant Prosecuting Attorney 1881-1882; Assistant City Solicitor, 1887; Judge Cincinnati Superior Court, 1887-1890; U. S. Solicitor General, 1890-1892; U. S. Circuit Judge, 1892-1900; Dean of the Law School at the University of Cincinnati, 1896-1900: President of the U. S. Philippine Commission, 1900-1901; Civil Governor of the Philippines. 19011904; in 1902 arranged at Rome with Pope Leo XIII, the question of purchase of Roman Catholic lands in the Philippines; Secretary of War under Roosevelt, 1904-1908; Provisional Governor of Cuba for a while in 1907; on Government mission in 1907 to Cuba, Panama and the Philippines.

Taft was elected President in 1908; defeated for re-election in 1912; professor of law at Yale University, 1913-1921; appointed Chief Justice United States Supreme Court, June 30, 1921, and resigned on Feb. 3, 1930, at Asheville, N. C.

Taft left Asheville very ill, and was taken, by train, to Washington, where he died on March 8, 1930. The body lay in state, on March 11, under the Dome of the Capitol, and then was buried with military honors, at the National Cemetery, Arlington.

His estate was estimated at $350,000 personalty and $125 000 realty. Taft was a Unitarian. He was tall, portly and affable. The Taft papers are in the Library of Congress.

Mrs. Taft was Helen Herron, of Cincinnati, a daughter of Judge John W. Herron and Harriet Collins. She is one of eight children, a musician and a founder of the Cincinnati Orchestra. Her father was a law partner of Rutherford B. Hayes. Mrs. Taft was an Episcopalian.

Her only daughter is Helen Herron Taft, wife of Frederick J. Manning, a professor at Bryn Mawr. Her sons are Robert Alphonso Taft and Charles Phelps Taft, 2d.

Mrs. Taft has blue-gray eyes and a contralto voice, a broad forehead and brown hair.

Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, was born at Staunton, Va., Dec. 28, 1856, and died Feb. 3, 1924, at Washington. He was a son of a Presbyterian minister, the Rev. Joseph Ruggles Wilson, and Janet Woodrow, daughter of a Scottish-Presbyterian

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