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ARTICLE VII. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or (Right of Trial by Jury.) other infamous crime unless on a presentment or In suits at common law, where the value in conindictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising troversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried in actual service, in time of war or public danger; by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any nor

shall any person be subject for the same offense court of the United States than according to the to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb: nor rules of the common law. shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, lib

ARTICLE VIII. erty, or property, without due process of law: nor (Excessive Bail or Fines and Cruel Punishshall private property be taken for public use with- ment Prohibited.) out just compensation.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive

fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments ARTICLE VI.


ARTICLE IX. (Right to Speedy Trial, Witnesses, etc.)

(Rule of Construction of Constitution.) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall The enumeration in the Constitution of certain enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage impartial jury of the State and district wherein others retained by the people. the crime shall have been committed, which districts shall have been previously ascertained by law,

ARTICLE X. and to be informed of the nature and cause of the (Rights of States Under Constitution.) accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses The powers not delegated to the United States by against him; to have compulsory process for ob- the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, taining witnesses in his favor, and to have the as- are reserved to the States respectively, or to the sistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendments Since the Bill of Rights

sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat (Judicial Powers Construed.)

of the Government of the United States, directed

to the President of the Senate; the President of The following amendment was proposed to the the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and Legislature of the several states by the Third Con- House of Representatives, open all the certificates gress on the 4th of March, 1794, and was declared and the votes shall then be counted; the person to have been ratified in a message from the Pres- having the greatest number of votes for President ident to Congress, dated Jan. 8, 1798. It was on Jan. 5, 1798, that Secretary of State ity of the whole number of Electors appointed; and

shall be the President, if such number be a majorPickering received from 12 of the States authenti- if no person have such majority, then from the cated ratifications, and informed President John persons having the highest number, not exceeding Adams of that fact. As a result of recent research in the Department the House of Representatives shall choose im

three, on the list of those voted for as President, of State, it is now established that the Eleventh mediately, by ballot the President. But in choosing Amendment became part of the Constitution on

the President, the votes shall be taken by States, Feb. 7, 1795, for on that date it had been ratified

the representation from each State having one by twelve States as follows:

vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a (1) New York, (March 27, 1794); (2) Rhode Is

member or members from two-thirds of the States, land, (March 31, 1794); (3) Connecticut, (May 8, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary 1794); (4) New 'Hampshire, (June 16, 1794): (5) to a choice. And if the House of Representatives Massachusetts, (June 25, 1794); (6) Vermont. (be- shall not choose a President, whenever the right tween Oct. 9, 1794 and Nov. 9, 1794); (7) Vir

of choice shall devolve upon them, before the ginia, (Nov. 18, 1794); (8) Georgia, (Nov. 29, 1794); fourth day of March next following, then the Vice9) Kentucky, (Dec. 1, 1794); (10) Maryland. (Dec. -President shall act as President, as in the case of 26, 1794); (ii) Delaware, Jan. 23, 1795); (12) the death or other constitutional disability of the North Carolina, (Feb. 7, 1795).

President. The person having the greatest number On June 1, 1796, more than a year after the of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-PresiEleventh Amendment had become part of the Con-dent if such number be a majority of the whole stitution (but before anyone was officially aware of number of Electors appointedand if no person this), Tennessee had been admitted as a State;

have a majority, then, from the two highest numbut not until Oct. 16, 1797, was a certified copy of bers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vicethe resolution of Congress proposing the amend - President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist ment sent to the Governor of Tennessee (John

of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, Sevier) by Secretary of State Pickering, whose and a majority of the whole number shall be office was then at Trenton, New Jersey, because of necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionthe epidemic of yellow fever at Philadelphia; it ally ineligible to the office of President shall be seems, however, that the Legislature of Tennessee eligible to that of Vice-President of the United took no action on the Eleventh Amendment, owing States. doubtless to the fact that public announcement of

TITLES OF NOBILITY its adoption was made soon thereafter.

Congress, (May 1, 1810), proposed to the States Besides the necessary twelve States, one other the following Amendment to the Constitution: South Carolina, ratified the Eleventh Amendment,

"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, but this action was not taken until Dec. 4, 1797; claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or the two remaining States, New Jersey and Penn- honor, or shall, without the consent of Congress, sylvania, failed to ratify.

accept and retain any present, pension, omce, or The Eleventh Amendment is as follows:

emolument of any kind whatever, from any emThe judicial power of the United States shall not peror, king, prince or foreign power, such person be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, shall cease to be a citizen of the United States and commenced or prosecuted against one of the United shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens profit under them or either of them." or subjects of any foreign state.

It was ratified by Maryland, (Dec. 25, 1810); ARTICLE XII.

Kentucky, (Jan. 31, 1811); Ohio, (Jan. 31,_1811);

Delaware, (Feb. 2, 1811); Pennsylvania, (Feb. 6. (Manner of Choosing President and Vice

1811); New Jersey, (Feb. 13, 1811); Vermont, (Oct. President.)

24, 1811); Tennessee, (Nov. 21, 1811): Georgia, The following amendment was proposed to the (Dec. 13, 1811); North Carolina, (Dec. 23. 1811); Legislatures of the several States by the Eighth Massachusetts, (Feb. 27, 1812); New Hampshire, Congress (Dec. 12, 1803), and was declared to have (Dec. 10, 1812). been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary of Rejected by New York (Senate), (March 12, State, (September 25, 1804). It was ratified by 12 1811); Connecticut. (May session, 1813); South of the 17 states, and was rejected by Connecticut. Carolina approved by Senate Nov. 28, 1811, report

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, ed unfavorably in House and not further considand vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, ered Dec. 7, 1813; Rhode Island, Sept. 15, 1814. one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of The amendment failed, not having suficient the same State with themselves; they shall name ratifications. in their ballots the person voted for as President, TO PROHIBIT INTERFERING WITH SLAVERY, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as

(The Corwin Amendment.) Vice-President; and they shall make distinct list Congress, (March 2, 1861) in a joint resolution of all persons voted for as President, and of all signed by President James Buchanan, proposed to persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the the states the following Amendments to the Connumber of votes for each, which list they shall stitution:

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*No amendment shall be made to the Constitu- | members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to tion which will authorize or give to Congress the any of the male inhabitants of such State, being power to abolish or interfere, within any State, twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United with the domestic institutions thereof, including States, or in any way abridged, except for particithat of persons held to labor or service by the laws pation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of of said State."

representation therein shall be reduced in the Ratified by Ohio, (March 13, 1861); Maryland, proportion which the number of such male citizens (Jan. 10, 1862); Illinois (convention), (Feb. 14, shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 1862). The amendment failed, for lack of a suffi- twenty-one years of age in such State. cient number of ratifications.

Power of Congress to Remove Disabilities THE RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS.

of United States Officials for Rebellion. The 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the 3. No person shall be a Senator or RepresentConstitution are commonly known as the Recon- ative in Congress, or Elector of President and struction Amendments, inasmuch as they followed Vice-President or hold any office, civil or military. the Civil War, and were drafted by Republicans under the United States, or under any State, who who were bent on imposing their own policy of having previously taken an oath, as a member of reconstruction on the South. Post-bellum legisla-Congress, or as an officer of the United States. tures down there-Mississippi, South Carolina, or as a member of any State Legislature or as an Georgia, for example-had set up

laws which, it executive or judicial officer of any state, to support was charged, were contrived to perpetuate Negro | the Constitution of the United States, shall have slavery under other names.

engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the

same, or given aid and comfort to the enemies ARTICLE XIII.

thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds (Slavery Abolished.)

of each House, remove such disability. The following amendment was proposed to the

What Public Debts Are Valid. Legislatures of the several states by the Thirty- 4. The validity of the public debt of the United eighth Congress (Jan. 31, 1865), and was declared States, authorized by law, including debts incurred to have been ratified in & proclamation by the

for payment of pensions and bounties for services Secretary of State (Dec. 18, 1865.) It Anally was

in suppressing insurrection and rebellion, shall not ratified by 33 of the 36 States, and was rejected by be questioned. But neither the United States nor Delaware (Feb. 8, 1865), ratified (Feb., 1901) and

any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligaMississippi

tion incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion The Amendment when first proposed by a resolu- against the United States, or any claim for the tion in Congress, was passed by the Senate, 38 to loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such 6, on April 8, 1864, but was defeated in the House, debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal 95 to 66 on June 15, 1864. On reconsideration by

and void. the Senate, on Jan. 31, 1865, the resolution passed,

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by 119 to 56. It was approved by President Lincoln

appropriate legislation

the provisions of this on Feb. 1, 1865, although the Supreme court had article. decided, in 1798, that the President has nothing

ARTICLE XV. to do with the proposing of amendments to the (Equal Rights for White and Colored cittConstitution, or their adoption.

zens.) 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, ex- The following amendment was proposed to the cept as a punishment for crime whereof the party Legislatures of the several states by the Fortieth shall have been duly convieted, shall exist within Congress (Feb. 26, 1869), and was declared to have the United States, or any place subject to their

been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary jurisdiction.

of State, (March 30, 1870). It was ratified by 31 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this

of the 37 States, and was rejected by California, article by appropriate legislation.

Delaware (March 18,1869) ratified (Feb., 1901)

and Kentucky. New York rescinded its ratification ARTICLE XIV.

(Jan. 5. 1870). New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but

ratifled it in 1871. (Citizenship Rights Not to Be Abridged.) The following amendment was proposed to the to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the

1. The right of the citizens of the United States Legislatures of the several States by the Thirty: United States or by any State on account of race, ninth Congress (June 13, 1866), and was declared color, or previous condition of servitude. to have been ratined in a proclamation by the Secretary of State, (July 28, 1868). The amend provisions of this article by appropriate legislation.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce the ment got the support of 23 Northern States: it was rejected by Delaware (Feb. 7, 1867), ratified (Feb..

ARTICLE XVI. 1901); Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern (Income Taxes Authorized.) States. California took no action. Subsequently it The following amendment was proposed to the was ratified by the 10 Southern States.

Legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-first The 14th amendment was adopted only by virtue Congress (July 12, 1909) and was declared to have of ratification subsequent to earlier rejections. been ratified in a proclamation by the Secretary of Newly constituted legislatures in both North Caro- State, (Feb. 25, 1913). The amendment was ratilina and South Carolina, respectively. (July 4 fied by 42 of the 48 States, and was rejected by and 9, 1868) ratified the proposed amendment, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Utah. although earlier legislatures had rejected the pro

The Congress shall have power to lay and colposal. The Secretary of State issued a proclama-lect taxes on incomes, from whatever sources de. tion which, though doubtful as to the effect of rived, without apportionment among the several attempted withdrawals by New York and New States, and without regard to any census or Jersey, entertained no doubt as to the validity of enumeration. the ratification by North and South Carolina. The

ARTICLE XVII. following day, (July 21, 1868) Congress passed a resolution which declared the 14th amendment to

(United States Senators to Be Elected by be a part of the Constitution and directed the

Direct Popular Vote.) Secretary of State so to promulgate it. The

The following amendment was proposed to the Secretary, waited, however, until the newly con

Legislatures of the several States by the Sixtystituted legislature of Georgia had ratifled the second Congress (May 16, 1912) and was declared amendment, subsequent to an earlier rejection,

to have been ratified in a proclamation by the before the promulgation of the ratification of the

Secretary of State. (May 31, 1913). The amendnew amendment.

ment was adopted by 37 of the 48 states, but was 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United

rejected by Utah. States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are

1. The Senate of the United States shall be comcitizens of the United States and of the state posed of two Senators from each State, elected by wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce shall have one vote. The electors in each State

the people thereof, for six years and each Senator any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor

shall have the qualifications requisite for electors shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty of the most numerous branch of the State Legisor property without due process of law, nor deny

2. When vacancies happen in the representation to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

of any State in the Senate, the executive authority Apportionment of Representatives in Congress. such vacancies: Provided, that the Legislature of

of such State shall issue writs of election to all 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective make temporary appointment until the people fill

any State may empower the Executive thereof to numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state excluding Indians not taxed. But

the vacancies by election as the Legislature may when the right to Vote at any election for the

direct. choice of Electors for President and Vice-President

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as of the United States, Representatives in Congress, to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen the executive and judicial officers of a State. or the ' before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


and the Congress may by law provide for the (Liquor Prohibition Amendment.)

case wherein neither a President elect Dor The following amendment was proposed to the Vice-President elect shall have qualified, de Legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-fifth claring who shall then act as President, or the Congress, (Dec. 18, 1917), and (Jan. 29, 1919) the manner in which one who is to act shall be United States Secretary of State proclaimed its selected, and such person shall act accordingly adoption by 36 States, and declared it in effect until a President or Vice-President shall have (Jan. 16, 1920).

qualified. The total vote in the Senates of the various Section 4. The Congress may by law proStates was, 1,310 for, 237 against-84.6% dry. In vide for the case of the death of any of the the lower houses of the States the vote was, 3,782 persons from whom the House of Representafor, 1,035 against-78.5% dry.

tives may choose a President whenever the The amendment ultimately was adopted by all right of choice shall have devolved upon them, the States except Connecticut and Rhode Island. and for the case of the death of any of the

1. After one year from the ratification of this persons from whom the Senate may choose a article the manufacture, sale, or transportation

Vice-President whenever the right of choice of intoxicating liquors within the importation

shall have devolved upon them. thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take United States and all territory subject to the effect on the 15th day of October following the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is here

ratification of this article (Oct., 1933). by prohibited.

Section 6. This article shall be inoperative 2. The Congress and the several States shall unless it shall have been ratified as an amendhave concurrent power to enforce this article by ment to the Constitution by the legislatures of appropriate legislation.

three-fourths of the several States within 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall seven years from the date of its submission. have been ratified as an amendment to the Consti

ARTICLE XXI tution by the Legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years

(Repeal of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) from the date of the submission hereof to the

Amendment by Conventions in the States.) States by the Congress.

The following proposed amendment in the Con.

stitution, embodied in a joint resolution of the 72nd ARTICLE XIX.

Congress (Senate, Feb. 16, 1933, by 63 to 23; House, (Giving Nation-Wide Suffrage to Women.) Feb. 20, 1933, by 289 to 121), was transmitted to the The following amendment was presented to the Secretary of State on Feb. 21 and he at once sent Legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-fifth to the governors of the States copies of the resoluCongress having been adopted by the House of tion. The amendment went into effect on Dec. 5, Representatives (May 21, 1919) and by the Senate, 1933, having been adopted by 36 of the 48 States(June 4, 1919.) The Secretary of State (Aug. 26, three-quarters of the entire number. The amend1920) proclaimed it in effect, having been adopted ment is: (June 10, 1919-August 18, 1920) by three-quarters Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment of the States. In West Virginia, despite Senate to the Constitution of the United States is hereby rules of procedure which forbade reconsideration repealed of a measure during the sessions in which it was Section 2. The transportation or importation defeated, the Senate ratified the proposed 19th into any State, Territory, or Possession of the amendment, subsequent to a rejection in the same United States for delivery or use therein of insession. The amendment was rejected by Alabama, toxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, Maryland, and Virginia.

is hereby prohibited. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unvote shall not be denied or abridged by the United less it shall have been ratified as an amendment to States or by any State on aocount of sex.

the Constitution by convention in the several 2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate States, as provided in the Constitution, within legislation, to enforce the provisions of this article. seven years from the date of the submission bereof ARTICLE XX.

to the States by the Congress. (Terms of President and Vice-President to PROPOSED CHILD LABOR AMENDMENT Begin on Jan. 20; Those of Senators and The following amendment was proposed to the Representatives, on Jan. 3.)

Legislatures of the several States by the SixtyThe following amendment was proposed to the eighth Congress, having been adopted as a joint Legislatures of the several States by the Seventy-resolution by the House of Representatives (297 to second Congress (March, 1932), a joint resolution 69) on April 26, 1924, and by the Senate (61 to 23) to that effect having been adopted, first by the on June 2, 1924. House, and then (March 2) by the Senate. The It was ratified by Arizona (1925); Arkansas Sicretary of State (Feb. 6, 1933) proclaimed it in (1924); California (1925); Colorado (1931); Idaho elect, 39 of the 48 States having ratified. By (1935): Illinois (1933); Indiana (1935): Iowa Oct. 15, 1933, it had been ratified by all of the 48 (1933), Kansas (1937); Kentucky (1937); Maine States.

(1933) Michigan (1933); Minnesota (1933) : MonSection 1. The terms of the President and tana (1927); Nevada (1937); New Hampshire (1933); Vice-President shall end at noon on the 20th New Jersey (1933)New Mexico (1937); North day of January, and the terms of Senators and Dakota (1933): Ohio (1933); Oklahoma (1933); Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of Oregon (1933); Pennsylvania (1933); Utah (1935) January, of the years in which such terms Washington (1933); West Virginia (1933), Wis. would have ended if this article had not been consin (1925); Wyoming (1935) total, 28.-Ratiratified; and the terms of their successors shall fications by 36 States is necessary. then begin.

The U. S. Supreme Court, in 1921 (Dillon vs. Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at Glass, 256 U. S. 368) ruled that proposed amendleast once in every year, and such meeting shall ments of 1789, 1810, and 1861 were no longer begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, un- pending. "We conclude," said the Court, less they shall by law appoint a different day. that the ratification must be within some reason

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the be- able time after the proposal." ginning of the term of the President, the Presi

Section 1-The Congress shall have power to dent elect shall have died, the Vice-President limit, regulate, and prohibit the labor of perelect shall become President. If a President sons under eighteen years of age. shall not have been chosen before the time Section 2—The power of the several States Axed for the beginning of his term, or if the is unimpaired by this article except that the President elect shall have failed to qualify, operation of State laws shall be suspended to then the Vice-President elect shall act as the extent necessary to give effect to legislation President until a President shall have qualified: enacted by the Congress.

The sources from which the Constitution of the the census, impeachment, rotation in the Senate, United States was derived included the evolution the idea of a President and President pro tempore of the British government; the political institu- of the Senate, the casting vote in the Senate, the tions of the British colonies; the various state executive veto, the term and eligibility of the Presi. constitutions created during and after the Revolu- dent, the Presidential succession, the Presidential tion; and the Articles of Confederation. Max message, the calling of extraordinary sessions, the Farrand, a recognized authority on the history of President as executor of the laws, the doctrine of the framing of the Constitution, says, “It is of in- no corruption of blood, the non obstante clause, and terest that the New York Constitution of 1777 Amendments Seven and Nine. If these contribuseems to have been more extensively used than tions of New York are subtracted, no workable any other."

Constitution remains. The document as finally In brief it may be said that New York con- elaborated was not a revision of the Articles of tributed the models for the bicameral legislature, Confederation but a completely new Constitution.

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Crimes, Parties accused, 5th Amend. {

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Acts, Records, Judicial Proceedings.

4 1 315|Nobility, Bar Against Titles.

316||Oath, Constitution, to Support, OMcers Amendments, Since Bill of Rights...


Bound by

5 Amendments, 10 Original...

315 Oath, President's,

316| Pardons, President May Grant Appointments, President's Powers. 2 2 314 Patents, Laws Securing.. Apportlopment, of Representatives

2 312 Petition, Right Not to be Abolished, 1st Arms, Right to Bear, 2nd Amend.


Amend Assembly, Right of People, Ist Amend

315 Ports, Preference Not to be Given. Attainder, Bills of, Prohibition.

9, 10 313 Post Onces, Post Roads, Congress to Ball, Excessive, Prohibited, 8th Amend

316 Establish ....

315 Powers Denied Congress. Bill of Rights ...

316|Powers, Executive. Bankruptcy, Uniform Law.

1 8 313 Powers, Judicial Census, when to be Taken

1 2 312|Powers, Legislative. Child Labor Amendment, Proposed

318|Powers, Not Delegated. Reserved to Citizens, Privileges and Immunities 4

2 315 People, 10th Amend. Citizens, Right to Vote, 15th Amend

317 Presents, From Foreign Powers, ProCitizens, Rights Not to be Abridged,

hibited. 14th Amend.

317 President, Compensation.
Coinage, Money, Power of Congress. 1 8 313 President Duties, Tenure, Qualifica-
Commerce, Regulation by Congress.. 1/8-10 313 tions ...
Cominon Law Suits, 7th Amend.

323|President, Election of, 12th Amend Congress, Adjournment of ..

3 314 President, Oath of... Congress, Legislative Powers.

1 312 President, Report on State of Nation Congress, Pay....

1 6 313 President, Successio 20th Amend. Congress, Presidential Message to

2 3 314||Press, Freedom of, 1st Amend. Congress, Time of Session, 20th Amend

318 Prohibition, 18th Amend Contracts, Obligations Not to be Im

Prohibition Repeal, 21st Amend paired

1 10 313 Property, Not to be Deprived of, 5th Copyright, Congress to provide

8 313

....315 Property, Private, Secure from Seizure,

316 4th Amend Crimes, Trial by Jury

3 2 314|Protection Guaranteed States .. Customs, Duties, Barred to States 19, 10 313 Public Acts and Records, State. Customs, Duties, Congress May Impose i 8 313|Punishments, Cruel and Unusual ProDistrict of Columbia, Seat of Govern

hibited, 8th Amend ment, Legislative Powers..

1 8 313| Ratification .. 18th Amendment (Prohibition).

318 Reconstruction Amendments. Election, Members of Congress.

12,3 312 Records and Public Acts, State. Election, President and Vice President.. 2 1 314 Revenue, Bills to Originate in House. Election, Presidential, 12th Amend

316 Rights of Citizens, Protection, 5th Election, Senators, Director, 17th Amend

317 Amend Electors, Presidential

2 1 314| Rights, Not Delegated, Reserved, 10th Electors. Procedure, 12th Amend

316 Electors, Qualifications, 14th Amend.

317 Emancipation of Slaves, 13th, 14th

Rules, Each House to Determine Own Amend's.

. 317|Search and Seizure, Security Against, Exports, Duty by States Barred.


9 313 4th Amend.. Ex Post Facto Law Prohibited

1 9, 10313 Senate, Appointments. Felonies on High Seas

1 8 313 Senate, Mernbership, President of, Felonies. Provisions for Accused


2 315 Duties, Powers Fines, Excessive, Not to be Imposed,

Senate, Popular Election, 17th Amend 18th Amend..

316 Senate, Vacancies in Filling, 17th Amend. Freedom of Speech, Press, 1st Amend.

315 Senators, Compensation of. General Wellare, Congress to Provide 8 313 Senators, Powers of .. Government, Republican Form Guar

Senators, Qualifications.. anteed.

4 315 Senators, Term of Omce, 20th Amend.. Grand Jury. Indictm'ts by,5th Amend

315 Slavery Abolished, 13th Amend

316 Soldiers, Not to be Quartered Without Habeas Corpus, Writ of


9 313 Consent, 3rd Amend.... Impeachment, No Trial by Jury.

3 2 314 Speaker of House, How to Choose Impeachment Power of, Trials.

12,3 312 Speech, Freedom of, 1st Amend. Impeachment, Removal From Omce on

24 314 States, Formation and Admission of Imports, Duty by States Barred.

1 10 313 New .. Income Tax, Power to Lay. Collect,

Suffrage, 19th Amend 16th Amend

...317 Supreme Court, Powers, Tenure, ComInauguration Day, Date Changed, 20th

pensation. Amend...

318|Tax, Direct, in Proportion to Census... Invasion and Domestic Violence, States

Tax, Income, Power to Lay and College, Guarded From ..

4 4 315 16th Amend Judges, Appointment of

2. 2 314||Taxes, Congress, Power to Levy and
Judges, Bound by Constitution, Oath of 62, 3 315 Collect...
Judges, Compensation, Tenure of Office 3 1 314 Territories and Possessions, Rule to
Judicial Power.

3 1 314 Regulate. Jury, Speedy and Public Trials.

316 Jury Trials, 7th Amend..


Title of Nobility, Bar Against. Laws, Congress, Powers to Make

8 313 Laws, President to See Faithful Execu

Treason, Definition of, Punishment for tion

3 314||Treaties, How Negotiated. Legislative Powers.

1 312 Treaties, Supreme Law.. Loans, Congress to Make

8 313||Trial by Jury, 7th Amend. Marque and Reprisal, Congress May

Trials, Jury, Except Impeachment. Grant Letters of ...

1 8 313 Vacancies, How Filled in RepresentaMilitia, Calling Forth of.

8 313

tion Miltia, Commander of.

2 2 314|| Veto, President Has Power Militia, Right of States to Maintain,

Vice President, Succession to Presi2nd Amend..

dency Money, Appropriations of.

9 3131 Vice President, Term of omce, 20th Money, Power to Borrow, Coin, Regu

8 Vote, Right, 15th Amend

1 Navy, Creation, Rules and Regulations

Weights and Measures, Congress to Fix for

8 13130


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Forms of Address for Persons of Rank

Source: An Official of the United States Department of State The President of the United States is usually, An Emperor is to be addressed in a letter 19 and properly, spoken to as "Mr. President"; in "Sir," or "Your Imperial Majesty' writing to him, "My dear Mr. President" is good A King or Queen is to be addressed, in a letter, usage, and so is "Dear Mr. President, if the writer as "Sir" or "Madam." The envelope is adis a friend or is of prominence in affairs. Other- dressed to "His Majesty (Name), King of (Name), wise the chief executive to be addressed more or "Her Majesty (Name), Queen of (Name)." formally_"The President, The White House or Princes and Princesses and other persons of "The Honorable Franklin D. Roosevelt, President royal blood are addressed as "His (or Her) Royal of the United States." All diplomatic letters from Highness." Here, as in the cases above, a letter foreign sources style the President, "Excellency.' may begin "May it please, following with the The use of "Excellency" in addressing American words "Your Majesty or "Your Royal Highness. officials is not in accord with American custom. A Duke or Marquis is "My Lord Duke" (or Mar

A member of the American Cabinet may be quis'), a Duke is "His (or Your) Grace. addressed as "My dear Mr. Secretary'';' the head A foreign Ambassador is Your Excellency." A of a bureau may be written to as “My dear Mr. Minister Plenipotentiary is “Sir." In the address Commissioner."

an Ambassador is “His Excellency,' a Minister A member of the upper branch of the Congress Plenipotentiary. "The Honorable,' and Chargé may be addressed as "My dear Senator (so and d'Affaires is "Mr." so)", or "My dear Senator." A member of the Wives of any peer may be addressed as lower branch may be written to as "My dear Mr. "Madam,” with the further alternative of "Your (so and so)."

Ladyship," or "Your Grace," if she is of high The salutation for a member of the Supreme rank. Court of the United States is "My dear Mr. Jus- The Pope is addressed, "His Holiness The Pope" tice," the address is "Mr. Justice (so and so), or, "His Holiness Pius XII, Vatican City." The The Supreme Court." The Chief Justice is "My salutation is "Your Holiness" and the complidear Mr. Chief Justice," the address is "The mentary close, "Respectfully yours,". Chief Justice, The Supreme Court." All judges,

A Cardinal' is "Your (His) Eminence." Federal,

Muni al are "The Honorable. Archbishop or Bishop of the Roman atholic Governors and Mayors are "The Honorable" Church is addressed as "The Most Reverend" and and so are the heads of departments.

the salutation is "Your Excellency" or "Most In addressing doctors and professors the com

Reverend Sir." Protestant Bishops are addressed plimentary title “Doctor" or "Esquire" is gen

"The Most Reverend" or "The Right Reverend" or erally omitted, the initials of the professional degree(s) being placed after the name instead, as,

"The Very Reverend" and the salutation is "Most "John Jones, LL.D., Ph.D.,' or “John Jones,

Reverend Sir" or "Right Reverend Sir" or "Rev. M.D." The salutation is "My dear Dr. Jones." erend Sir" or "My dear Bishop."


Justices of the United States Supreme Court







Service Chief Justices in Italics Term Yrs

Chief Justices in Italics Term Yrs John Jay, N. Y

1789-1795 617451829 Morrison R. Waite, Ohio. 1874-1888 14 1816 1888 John Rutledge, SC 1789-1791 2 1739 1800 John M. Harlan. Ky

1877-1911) 34118331911 William ('ushing, Mass. 1789-1810 21 1733 1810 William B. Woods, Ga. 1880-1887 71824 1887 James Wilson, Pa.

1789-1798 9 1742 1798 Stanley Matthews, Ohio. . 1881-1889 8/1824 1889 John Blair, Va. 1789-1796 7 1732 1800 Horace Gray, Mass

1881-1902 21 1828 1902 Robert H. Harrison, Md. . 1789-1790 i 1745 1790 Samuel Blatchford, N. Y 1882-1893 11 1820 1893 James Iredell, N. C.

1790-1799 9|1751 1799 Lucius Q. C. Lamar, Miss. 1888-1893 5/1825 1893 Thomas Johnson, Md. 1791-1793 2 1732 1819 Melville W. Fuller, nl. 1888-1910 22 1833 1910 William Paterson, N.J. 1793-1806 13 1745 1806 David J. Brewer, Kan 1889-1910 211837 1910 John Rutledge, s. C. 1795-1796 1739 1800 Henry B. Brown, Mich. 1890-1906 16 1836 1913 Samuel Chase, Md

1796-1811 15 1741 1811 George Shiras, Jr., Pa... 1892-1903 11/1832 1924 Oltrer Ellsworth, Conn 1796-1799 4 1745 1807 Howell E. Jackson, Tenn.. 1893-1895 21832 1895 Bushrod Washington, Va.. 1798-1829 31 1762 1829 Edward D. White, La. 1994-1910 16 1845 1921 Alfred Moore, N. C.. 1799-1804 5 1755 1810 Rufus W. Peckham, N. Y.1895-1910 14 1838 1909 John Marshall, Va.. 1801-1835 34 1755 1835 Joseph McKenna. Cal 1898-1904 27 1843 1926 William Johnson, S. C.. 1804-1834 30 1771 1834 Oliver W. Holmes, Mass. 1902-1932 29 1841 1935 Brockholst Livingston, N.Y. 1806-1823 17 1757 1823 William R. Day, Ohio 1903-1922 19 1849 1923 Thomas Todd, Ky

1807-1826 19 1765 1826 William H. Moody, Mass 1906-1910 4 1853 1917 Joseph Story, Mass

1811-1845 34 1779 1845 Horace H. Lurton, Tenn.. 1910-1914 51844 1914 Gabriel Duval, Md. 1811-1836) 25 1752 1844 Charles E. Hughes, N. Y. 1910-1916

6 1862 Smith Thompson, N. Y 1823-1843 20 1767 1843 *Willis Van Devanter, Wy. 1911-1937 26 1859 1941 Robert Trimble, Ky

1826-1828 2 1777 1828 Joseph R. Lamar, Ga 1910-1916 6 1857 1916 John McLean, Ohio

1829-1861 32 1785 1861 Eduard D. White, La. 1910-1921 11 1845 1921 Henry Baldwin, Pa

1830-1846) 141779 1844 Mahlon Pitney, N. J 1912-1922 121858 1924 Jamey M. Wayne, Ga 1835-1867 32 1790 1867 Jas. C. McReynolds, Tenn. 1914-1941 26 1862 Roger B. Taney, Md. 1836-18641 28 1777 1864 *Louis D. Brandels, Mass. 1916-1939 23 1856 Philip P. Barbour, Va. 1836-1841 5 1783 1841 John H. Clarke, Ohio. 1916-1922

6 1857 John Catron, Tenn 1837-1865) 28 1786 1865 Wultam H. T'asi, Conn

1921-1930 91857 1930 John McKinley, Ala. 1837-1852 15 1780 1852 *George Sutherland, Utah. 1922-1938 16 1862 Peter V. Daniel, Va. 1841-1860 19 1785 1860 Pierce Butler, Minn

1922-1939| 27 1866 1939 Samuel Nelson, N. Y. 1845-1872 27 1792 1873 Edward T. Sanford, Tenn 1923-1930 7 1865 1930 Levi Woodbury, N. H. 1845-1851 6 1789 1851 Harlan F. Stone, N. Y. 1925-1941 1611872 Robert C. Grier, Pa 1846-1870 24 1794 1870 Charles E. Hughes, N. Y. 1930-1941

11/1862 Benj. R. Curtis, Masy 1851-1857 6 1809 1874 Owen J. Roberts, Penn. 1930

1875 John A. Campbell, Ala 1853-1861 81811 1889 Benjamin N. Cardozo, N.Y.1932-1938 61870 1935 Nathan Cunord, Me 1858-1881 23 1803 1881 Hugo L. Black, Ala. 1937

1886 Noah H. Swayne, Ohio. 1862-1881 20 1804 1884 Stanley F. Reed, Ky... 1938

1884 Samuel F. Miller, lowa. 1862-1890 28 1816 1890 Felix Frankfurter, Mass., 1939

1852 David Davis, ni 1862-1877 15 1815 1886 William O. Douglas, Conn 1939

1898 Stephen J. Fleld, Cal, 1863-1897 34 1816 1899 Frank Murphy, Michigan. 1940

1893 Salmon P. Chase, Ohio. 1864-1873 9 1808 1873 Harlan P. Stone, N. Y 1941

1872 William Strong, Pa. 1870-1980 10 1808 1895 James F. Byrnes, S. C. 1941

1879 Joseph P. Bradley, N. J. 1870-1892 22 1813 1892 Robert H. Jackson, N. Y. 1941

1892 Ward Hunt, N. Y.

1873-1892 10 1811 1886 *Retired.

Note-Robert H. Harrison, who is listed above as an Associate Justice of the Court, was nominated Sept. 24, 1789; confirmed by the Senate, September 26, 1789; and commissioned September 28, 1789. There is nothing affirmative to show that he ever accepted the commission or took the oath. Justice Iredell was nominated February 9, 1790. "vice Harrison, resigned".

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