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Signers of the Declaration of Independence


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Name, Delegate from Vocation



Died Adams, John (Mass.)

Lawyer. Braintree (Quincy) Mass.. 1735. Oct. 30 1826, July 4 Adams, Samuel (Mass.) Brewer. Boston, Mass.

1722, Sept. 27 1803, Oct. 2 Bartlett, Josiah (N, H.) Phys., Law.. Amesbury, Mass.

1729. Nov. 21 1795, May 19 Braxton, Carter (Va.).


King & Queen C. i., Va. 1736. Sept. 10/1797, Oct. 10 Carroll, Chas.of Carrollton (Md.) Lawyer. Annapolis, Md,

1737, Sept. 20 1832, Nov. 14 Chase, Samuel (Md.)

Jurist Princess Anne, Md. 1741, April 17 1811, June 19 Clark, Abraham (N. J.). Law., Fin. Elizabeth, N. J.

1726. Feb. 151794, Sept. 15 Clymer, George (Penn.) Merchant Philadelphia, Pa..

1739, March 16 1813, Jan. 23 Elery, William (R. I.). Jurist.. Newport, R. I..

1727, Dec. 22 1820, Feb. Floyd, William (N. Y.).. Soldier. Brookhaven, N. Y.

1734, Dec. 17 1821, Aug. Franklin, Benjamin (Penn.). Print., Pub.. Boston, Mass.

1706, Jan. 17 1790, April 17 Gerry, Elbridge (Mass.). Merchant. . . Marblehead, Mass.

1744, July 17 1814, Nov. 23 Gwinnett, Button (Ga.). Merchant. .. Down Hatherly, Eng. 1732

1777, May 19 Hall, Lyman (Ga.). Phys., Jurist Wallingford, Conn.

1724, April 12 1790. Oct 19 Hancock, John (Mass.).

Merchant. . . Braintree (Quincy) Mass.. 1737, Jan. 12 1793, Oct. 8 Harrison, Benjamin (Va.). Farmer ..... Berkeley, V&..

1726, April 51791, April 24 Hart, John (N. J.)... Farmer .. Stonington, Conn.


1779, May 11 Hewes, Joseph (No. Car.) Merchant. Kingston, N. J.

1730, Jan. 23 1779, Nov. 10 Heyward, Thos. Jr. (8. C.). Law., Farm. St. Luke's P., 8. C.. 1746, July 28 1809, March 6 Hooper, William (N. C.) Lawyer.... Boston, Mass.

1742, June 17 1790, Oct. Hopkins, Stephen (R. I.). Mer., Judge. Providence, R. I..

1707, March 71785, July 13 Hopkinson, Francis (N. J.) Jur., Music. Philadelphia, Pa..

1737, Sept. 21 1791, May

9 Huntington, Samuel (Conn.) Jurist. Windham (y., Conn. 1731, July 31796, Jan. Jefferson, Thomas (Va.) Lawyer. Old Shadwell, Va.

1743, April 13 1826, July Lee, Richard Henry (Va.) Farmer Stratford, Va.

1732, Jan. 20 1794, June 19 Lee, Francis Lightloot (Va.). Farmer Stratford, Va..

1734, Oct. 14 1797, Jan. 11 Lewis, Francis (N, Y.) Merchant. Landaft, Wales.

1713, March 1803. Dec. 30 Livingston, Philip (N. Y). Merchant. .. Albany, N, Y.

1716, Jan. 15 1778, June 12 Lynch Thomas, Jr. (8. C.). Farmer ..... Winyah, s. C.

1749, Aug. 51779, (at sea.) McKean, Thomas (Del.) Law., Soid.. New London, Pa.

1734, 0.8. Mh 19 1817, June 24 Middleton, Arthur (S. C.) Farmer.... Middleton Place, 8. C. 1742, June 26 1787, Jan.

(Charleston) Morris, Lewis (N. Y.)...

Farmer .. Morrisania, N. Y., (The 1726, April 8 1798, Jan.

Bronx, N. Y. C.). Morris, Robert (Penn.).. Merchant... Liverpool. Eng.

1734, Jan. 20 1806, May Morton, John (Penn.). Jurist. Ridley, Pa.


1777, April Nelson, Thos., Jr. (Va.) Soldier. Yorktown, Va,

1738, Dec. 26 1789, Jan. Paca, William (Md.). Jurist Abingdon, Md..

1740, Oct. 311799, Oct. 23 Paine, Rob't Treat (Mass.) Rev., Jurist Boston, Mass

1731, March 11 1814, May Penn, John (No. (ar.)

Lawyer. Near Port Royal, Va.. 1741, May 17 1788, Sept. Read. George (Del.)

Jurist.. Near North East, Md 1733, Sept. 18 1798, Sept. Rodney. Caesar (Del.) Jurist. Dover, Del.

1728, Oct. 71784, June Ross, George (Penn).

New Castle, Del..

1730, May 10 1779, July
Rush. Benjamin (Penn.). Physician Byberry, Pa. (Philadelphia) 1745, Dec. 24 1813, April
Rutledge, Edward (8. C.).. Law., Sold.. Chr. Ch. Par., 8. C. 1749, Nov. 23 1800, Jan. 23
Sherman, Roger (Conn.)
Lawyer. Newton, Mass.

1721. April 19 1793, July 23 Smith, James (Penn.).

Ireland. .:


1806, July 11 Stockton, Richard (Ń. J.) Lawyer. Near Princeton, N. J. 1730, Oct. 1 1781. Feb. 28 Stone, Thomas (Md.). Lawyer. Charles Cy., Md.


1787, Oct. Taylor, George (Penn.).. Iron M'I'r. Ireland


1781, Feb. 23 Thornton. Matthew (N. H.) Phys., Jurist Ireland.


1803, June 24 Waiton, George (Ga.). .. Jurist, Sold. Pr. Edw. Cy., Va.


1804, Feb. 2 Whipple, William (X, H.) Mer., Jurist. Kittery. Me.

1730, Jan. 14 1785, Nov. 28 Williams, Wiliam (Conn.) Mer., Jurist. Lebanon, Conn.

1731, April 23 1811, Aug. 2 Wilson, Jarnes (Penn.) Jurist. Carskerdo, Scotland 1742, Sept. 14 1798, Aug.

28 Witherspoon, John (N. J.). Coll. Pres. Gifford, Scotland.

1723. Feb. 51794, Nov 15 Wolcott, Oliver (Conn.). Jurist, Sold. Windsor, Conn.

1726, Dec. 1 1797, Dec. 1 Wythe, George (Va.).. Lawyer... Elizabeth City, Va. (Back 1726

1806, June 8

River)... The Declaration, drawn by Jefferson, and slightly when they succeeded three Pennsylvania members amended by Adams and Franklin, had been pre- who were in Congress on July 4 but did not support sented to Congress (June 28, 1776).

Prior to that the Declaration, (June 7) Richard Henry Lee had introduced in the

Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, William Williams Congress a resolution declaring that these United

of Connecticut, and Samuel Chase of Maryland Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and in- were absent on July 4, but signed the engrossed dependent states, that they are absolved from all Declaration on August 2. allegiance to the British Crown, and that all

Oliver Wolcott of Connecticut, and George Wythe political connection between them and the state

and Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, were absent of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dis- on July 4 and August 2 solved."

Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts was also absent The resolution, seconded by John Adams on be

on August 2, and likewise signed on return to half of the Massachusetts delegation, came up Congress. again (June 10) when a committee of five, headed

Charles Carroll of Carrollton was appointed a by Thomas Jefferson, was appointed with instruc- Delegate by Maryland (July 4, 1776) presented tions to embody the spirit and purpose of the

his credentials on July 18, and signed the engrossed resolution in a declaration of independence. The

copy of the Declaration on August 2. others on the committee were John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger

The New York State convention did not, until

July 9, authorize its Delegates to approve the DecSherman. The Declaration was adopted substantially as

laration, and Congress was so notified on July 15.

Four of the New York members who refrained from prepared by Jefferson, the two most significant and

voting for lack of authority on July 4 signed the important changes being the elimination of Jeffer

engrossed Declaration on August 2. son's arraignment of the British people and of King George in his encouraging and fostering the

Congress (Jan. 18, 1777) ordered that an auslave trade which Jefferson called "An Execrable

thenticated copy of the Declaration and signers, Commerce."

attested by Hancock and Thompson, be sent to McKean voted for the resolution of independ

each of the United States for them to put on ence but was with Washington's Army when it

record. This was printed, broadside, by Mary K. was engrossed and was not a member of Congress Goddard, in Baltimore, where Congress was then from Dec. 1776, to Jan. 30, 1778. He signed, he

in session. A copy of the broadside, authenticated said later, in 1781. Wythe signed about Aug. 27; (Jan. 31, 1777), was distributed to the States. R. H. Lee, Elbridge Geery, and Oliver Wolcott, in The Declaration of Independence is silent on the Sept. Thornton first attended Congress on Nov. 4. right to own property, although the majority of

Five Pennsylvanis signers of the engrossed Dec- the signers of the document were men of substance laration-Rush, Clymer, Smith, Taylor, and Ross in real and personal property, and at least halt a --were not appointed to Congress until July 20, dozen were slave owners.

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e Constitution originally consisted of a pre- / lin, Robt. Morris, Thos. Fitzsimons, James Wilson. e and seven Articles, and in that form was Thomas Mifflin, Geo. Clymer, Jared Ingersoll. ted (Sept. 17, 1787) by a majority of the 55 Gouv. Morris. Delaware-Geo. Read, John Dickincates from 12 states which had begun their son, Jaco. Broom, Gunning Bedford jun., Richard erations in Philadelphia on May 12 of that Bassett. Maryland-James McHenry, Dani. Carroll,

Rhode Island sent no delegates. Of the 65 Daniel of St. Tho. Jenifer Virginia-John Blair, en by other states, 10 did not attend. Of the James Madison, Jr. North Carolina-Wm. Blount. gates in attendance, 16 declined or failed to Hu. Williamson, Richd. Dobbs Spaight. South

Carolina-J. Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, Charles nder the language of the Constitution itself Cotesworth Pinckney. Pierce Butler, Georgiacicle VII) ratification by 9 states, by conven- William Few, Abr. Baldwin. Attest: William Jacks, was sufficient for its establishment between son, Secretary.

states so ratifying the same." New Hampshire, The Constitution was ratified, by conventions, by
June 21, 1788, was the ninth state to ratify the 13 original states in the following order:
the Government did not declare the Constitu- Del. (Dec. 7, 1787), unanimous; Penn. (Dec. 12,

to be in effect until the first Wednesday in 1787), 43 to 23; N. J. (Dec. 18, 1787), unanimous;
sch, 1789.

Ga., (Jan, 2, 1788), unanimous; Conn. (Jan. 9. he signers of the original Constitution, by 1788), 128 to 40; Mass. (Feb. 6, 1788), 187 to 168; cue of their membership in Congress, were: Md. (Apr. 28, 1788), 63 to 11; So. Car. (May 23, EO. WASHINGTON, President and deputy from 1788), 149 to 73; New Hamp. (June 21, 1788), 57 to ginia. New Hampshire-John Langdon, Nicholas 46; Va. (June 26, 1788), 89 to 79; N'Y. (July 28, man. Massachusetts-Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus 1788), 30 to 27; No. Car. (Nov. 21. 1789), 194 to 77: g. Connecticut-Wm. Saml Johnson, Roger R. I. (May 29, 1790), 34 to 32. erman. New York-Alexander Hamilton. New Vermont, by' convention, ratified (Jan. 10, 1791) sey-Wil. Livingston, David Brearley, Wm. 105 to 4; and Congress (Feb. 18, 1791), admitted terson, Jona. Dayton. Pennsylvania-B. Frank- that State into the Union.


The Constitution—Original Seven Articles

PREAMBLE We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, sure domestic tranguillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and ecure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution or the United States of America. ARTICLE I.

the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Section 1-(Legislative powers; in whom Senator shall have one vote. vested:)

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in All legislative powers herein granted shall consequence of the first election, they shall be be vested in a Congress of the United States, divided as equally as may be into three classes. which shall consist of a Senate and House of The seats of the Senators of the first class shall Representatives.

be vacated at the expiration of the second year, Seetion 2-(House of Representatives, how of the second class at the expiration of the fourth and by whom chosen. Qualifications of a Rep- year, and of the third class at the expiration of resentative. Representatives and direct taxes, the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen how apportioned. Enumeration. Vacancies to every second year; and if vacancies happen by be anled. Power of choosing officers, and of resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the impeachment.)

Legislature of any State, the Executive thereot 1. The House of Representatives shall be com- may make temporary appointment until the next posed of members chosen every second year by the meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill people of the several States, and the electors in such vacancies. each State shall have the qualifications requisite 3. No person shall be & Senator who shall not for electors of the most numerous branch of the have attained to the age of thirty years, and been State Legislature.

nine years a citizen of the United States, and who 2. No person shall be a Representative who shall shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that not have attained to the age of twenty-five years State for which he shall be chosen. and been seven years a citizen of the United States, 4. The Vice President of the United States shall and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote of that State in which he shall be chosen.

unless they be equally divided. 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be ap- 5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, portioned among the several States which may be and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of included within this Union according to their re- the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the spective numbers, which shall be determined by office of the President of the United States. adding to the whole number of free persons, in- 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all cluding those bound to service for a term of years, impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President other persons. The actual enumeration shall be of the

United States is tried, the Chief Justice shali made within three years after the first meeting of preside; and no person shall be convicted without the Congress of the United States, and within every

the concurrence of two-thirds of the members subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as

present. they shall by law direct. The number of Represent

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not atives shall not exceed one for every thirty thou

extend further than to removal from office, and dissand, but each State shall have at least one

qualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor. Representative; and until such enumeration shall

trust, or profit under the United States; but the be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 'to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8: Rhode party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and

subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishIsland and Providence Plantations, 1; Connecticut,

ment, according to law. 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8;

Section (Times, etc., of holding elections, Delaware, 1; Maryland, 6, Virginia, 10; North

how prescribed. One session in each year.) Carolina, 5;' South Carolina, 5, and Georgia, 3. 4. When vacancies happen in the representation

1. The times, places and manner of holding from any state, the Executive Authority thereof elections for Senators and Representatives shall be

prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

but the Congress may at any time by law make or 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the alter such regulations, except as to places of

choosing Senators. sole power of impeachment.

Section 3-(Senators, how and by whom 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in chosen. How classified. State Executive, when every year, and such meeting shall be on the first to make temporary appointments, in case, etc. Monday in December, unless they shall by law Qualifications of a Senator. President of the appoint a different day. Senate, his right to vote. President pro. tem., Section 5-(Membership, Quorum, Adjournand other officers of the Senate, how chosen. ments, Rules. Power to punish or expel. JourPower to try impeachments. When President nal. Time of adjournments, how limited, etc.) is tried, Chief Justice to preside. Sentence.) 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections,

1. The Senate of the United States shall be com- returns, and qualifications of its own members, and Josed of two Senators from each State, chosen by a majority of each shall constitute & quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from | ing the securities and current coin of the United day to day, and may be authorized to compel the states. attendance of absent members in such manner and 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads. under such penalties as each House may provide. 8. To promote the progress of science and useful


2. Each House may determine the rules of its arts by securing for limited times to authors and proceedings, punish its members for disorderly Inventors the exclusive rights to their respective behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds writings and discoveries. expel a member.

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme 3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceed-Court. ings, and from time to time publish the same, 10. To define and punish piracies and felonies excepting such parts as may in their judgment committed on the high seas, and offences against require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the the law of nations. members of either House on any question she at 11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on on the journal.

land and water. 4. Neither House, during the session of Congress 12. To raise and support armies, but no approprishall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for ation of money to that use shall be for a longer more than three days, nor to any other place than term than two years. that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 13. To provide and maintain a navy.

Section 6-(Compensation. Privileges. Dis- 14. To make rules for the government and regulaqualifications in certain cases.)

tion of the land and naval forces. 1. The Senators and Representatives shall re

15. To provide for calling forth the milltia to ceive a compensation for their services to be ascer- execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrectained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the tions, and repel invasions. United States. They shall in all cases, except trea- 16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disson, fcalony, and breach of the peace, be privil- ciplining the militia, and for governing such part eged from arrest during their attendance at the of them as may be employed in the service of the session of their respective Houses, and in going to United States, reserving to the States respectively and returning from the same;

and for any speech the appointment of the officers, and the authority or debate in either House they shall not be ques- of training the militia according to the discipline tioned in any other place.

prescribed by Congress. 2. No Senator or Representative shall, during 17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases the time for which he was elected, be appointed to whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten any civil office under the authority of the United miles square) as may, by cession of particular States which shall have been created, or the emolu- States and the acceptance of Congress, become the ments whereof shall have been increased during seat of Government of the United States, and to such time; and no person holding any office under exercise like authority over all places purchased by the United States shall be a member of either the consent of the Legislature of the state in which House during his continuance in office.

the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magaSection House to originate all revenue zines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildbills. Veto. Bill may be passed by two-thirds ings; -And of each House, notwithstanding, etc. BIII, not 18. To make all laws which shall be necessary returned in ten days, to become a law. Pro- and proper for carrying into execution the foregovisions as to orders, concurrent resolutions, ing powers and all other powers vested by this etc.)

Constitution in the Government of the United 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in States, or in any department or officer thereof. the House of Representatives, but the Senate may Section (Provision as to migration or propose or concur with amendments, as on other Importation of certain persons. Habeas Corbills.

pus. Bills of attainder, etc. Taxes, how ap2. Every bin which shall have passed the House of portioned, No export duty. No commercial Representatives and the Senate shall, before it preference. Money, how drawn from Treasbecomes a law, be presented to the President of the ury, eto. No titular nobility. Oncers not to United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if receive presents, etc.) not, he shall return it with his objections, to that 1. The migration or importation of such persons House in which it shall have originated, who shall as any of the states now existing shall think proper enter the objections at large on their journal, and to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress proceed to reconsider it. 11 after such reconsidera- prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and tion two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each tions, to the other House, by which it shall likewise person. be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus that House it shall become a law. But in all such shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of recases the votes of both Houses shall be determined bellion or invasion the public safety may require it. by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall voting for and against the bill shall be entered on be passed. the journal of each House respectively. If any bill 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, shall not be returned by the President within ten unless in proportion to the census or enumeration days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been hereinbefore directed to be taken. presented to him, the same shall be a law in like 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exmanner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress ported from any State. by their adjournment prevent its return; in which 6. No preference shall be given by any regulation case it shall not be a law.

of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State 3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the over those of another, nor shall vessels bound to or concurrence of the Senate and House of Represen- from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay tatives may be necessary (except on a question of duties to another. ad journment) shall be presented to the President 7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury of the United States, and before the same shall but in consequence of appropriations made by law: take effect shall be approved by him, or being dis- and a regular statement and account of the receipts approved by him. shall be repassed by two-thirds and expenditures of all public money shall be pubof the Senate and the House of Representatives, ac- lished from time to time. cording to the rules and limitations prescribed in 8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the the case of a bili.

United States. And no person holding any office

of Section &-(Powers of Congress.)

proht or trust under them shall, without the con1. The Congress shall have power:

sent of the Congress, accept of any present, emoluTo lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and ment, office, or title of any kind whatever from excises to pay the debts and provide for the com- any king, prince, or foreign state. mon defense and general welfare of the United Section 10-(States prohibited from the er. States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be ercise of certain powers.) uniform throughout the United States.

1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, 2. To borrow money on the credit of the United or confederation, grant letters of marque and re. States.

prisal, coin money, emit bills of credit, make any3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations. I thing but gold and silver coin a tender' in payment and among the several States and with the Indian of debts, pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto tribes.

law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, 4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalizatio or grant any title of nobility. and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies 2. No State shall, without the consent of the throughout the United States.

Congress, lay any impost or duties on imports or 5 To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and exports, except what may be absolutely necessary of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and for executing its inspection laws, and the net promeasures.

duce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeit-'imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States, and all such laws President may fill vacancies.) shall be subject to the revision and control of the 1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chlef of Congress

the Army and Navy of the United States, and of 3. No state shall, without the consent of Con- the militia of the several states when called into gress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships the actual service of the United States; he may of war in time of peace, enter into agreement or require the opinion, in writing, of the principal compact with another state, or with a foreign officer in each of the executive departments upon power,

or engage in war, unless actually invaded, any subject relating to the duties of their respecor in such imminent danger as will not admit of tive offices, and he shall have power to grant redelay.

prieves and pardons for offenses against the United

States except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power by and with the advice

and consent the te to make treaties, proSection 1-(President: his term of office.

vided two-thirds of the Senators present concur: Electors of President; number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same day. Qualih

and he shall nominate and by and with the advice

and consent of the Senate shall appoint ambassacation of President. On whom his duties devolve in case of his removal, death, etc. Pres

dors, other public ministers and consuls. Judges of

the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the ident's compensation. His oath of office.)

United States whose appointments are not herein 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a Pres. otherwise provided for, and which shall be estabident of the United States of America. He shall lished by law; but the Congress may by law vest the hold his office during the term of four years, and appointment of such inferior officers as they think together with the Vice-President, chosen for the proper in the President alone, in the courts of same term, be elected as follows:

law, or in the heads of departments. 2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as 3. The President shall have power to all up an the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of vacancies that may happen during the recess of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and the Senate by granting commissions, which shall Representatives to which the State may be en- expire at the end of their next session. titled in the Congress, but no Senator or Repre- Section 3—(President shall communicate to sentative or person holding an office of trust or Congress. He may convene and adjourn Conprofit under the United States shall be appointed gress, in case of disagreement, etc. Shall rean elector.

ceive Ambassadors, execute laws, and commis3. The electors shall meet in their respective sion officers.) States and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom

He shall from time to time give to the Congress one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same information of the state of the Union, and recomState with themselves. And they shall make a list mend to their consideration such measures as he of all the persons voted for, and of the number of shall judge necessary and expedient; he may. on votes for each, which list they shall sign and cer- extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or tify and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Gov- either of them, and in case of disagreement beernment of the United States, directed to the Pres- tween them with respect to the time of adjournident of the Senate. The President of the Senate ment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and Representatives, open all the certificates, and the other public ministers; he shall take care that the votes shall then be counted. The person having laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission the greatest number of votes shall be the President. all the officers of the United States. if such number be a majority of the whole number Section 4-(All civil offices forfeited for of electors appointed, and if there be more than certain crimes.) one who have such a majority, and have an equal The President, Vice-President, and all civil offinumber of votes, then the House of Representatives cers of the United States shall be removed from shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for office on impeachment for and conviction of treaPresident; and il no person have a majority, then son, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanfrom the five highest on the list the said House

ors. shall in like manner choose the President. But in

ARTICLE III. choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having

Section 1-(Judicial powers. Tenure, Comone vote. A quorum, for this purpose, shall consist

pensation.) of a member or members from two-thirds of the

The judicial power of the United States shall be States, and a majority of all the states shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior necessary to a choice. In every case, after the

courts as the Congress may from time to time or choice of the President, the person having the

dain and establish. The judges, both of the Sugreatest number of votes of the electors shall be

preme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices the Vice-President. But if there should remain

during good behavior, and shall at stated times two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall shall not be diminished during their continuance in

receive for their services a compensation which choose from them by ballot the Vice President. 4. The Congress may determine the time of

office. choosing the electors and the day on which they

Section 2-(Judicial power; to what cases it shall give their votes, which day shall be the same

extends. Original jurisdiction of Supreme throughout the United States.

Court Appellate, Trial by jury, etc. Trial,

where.) 5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in adoption of the Constitution, shall be eligible to

law and equity arising under this Constitution, the the office of President; neither shall any person

laws of the United States, and treaties made, or be eligible to that office who shall not have attained

which shall be made, under their authority: to all to the age of thirty-five years and been fourteen

cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers years a resident within the United States,

and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime 6. In case of the removal of the President from jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to States shall be a party; to controversies between discharge the powers and duties of the said office,

two or more States, between 2 State and citizens the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and of another State, between citizens of different the Congress may by law provide for the case of

States, between citizens of the same State claiming removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of lands under grants of different States, and between the President and Vice President, declaring what

a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states. officer shall then act as President, and such officer citizens, or subjects. shall act accordingly until the disability be removed 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other pubor a President shall be elected.

lic ministers, and consuls, and those in which a 7. The President shall, at stated times, receive state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shaji for his services a compensation which shall neither have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases be increased nor diminished during the period for

before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have which he shall have been elected, and he shall not appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with receive within that period any other emolument such exceptions and under such regulations as the from the United States or any of them.

Congress shall make. 8. Before he enter on the execution of his ofice

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of imhe shall take the following oath or affirmation: peachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faith- be held in the State where the said crimes shall fully execute the office of President of the United have been committed; but when not committed States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, within any State the trial shall be at such place or protect, and defend the Constitution of the United places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Section 3--(Treason defined. Proof of. PunSection 2-(President to be Commander-in- ishment of.) Chief. He may require opinions of Cabinet 1. Treason against the United States shall conOfficers, etc., may pardon. Treaty-making sist only in levying war against them, or in adherpower. Nomination of certain officers. When ing to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.


No person shall be convicted of treason unless on Executive (when the Legislature cannot be conthe testimony of two witnesses to the same overt vened) against domestic violence. act, or on confession in open court. 2. The Congress shall have power to declare the

ARTICLE V. punishment of treason, but no attainder of trea- (Constitution: how amended. Proviso.) son shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture ex- The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both cept during the life of the person attainted.

Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose

amendments to this Constitution, or, on the appliARTICLE IV.

cation of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the Section 1-(Each State to give credit to the several States, shall call a convention for propospublic acts, etc., of every other State.)

ing amendments, which in either case, shall be Full faith and credit shall be given in each State valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this to the public acts, records, and judicial

proceedings Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of of every other state. And the Congress may by three-fourths of the several states, or by convengeneral laws prescribe the manner in which such tions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and other mode of ratification may be proposed by the effect thereof.

the Congress, provided that no amendment which Section 2-(Privileges of citizens of each may be made prior to the year one thousand eight State. Fugitives from justice to be delivered hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the up. Persons held to service having escaped, first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of to be delivered up.)

the First Article; and that no State, without its 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in all privileges and immunities of citizens in the the Senate. several States, 2. A person charged in any State with treason,

ARTICLE VI. felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, (Certain debts, etc., declared valid. Supremand be found in another State, shall, on demand acy of Constitution, treaties, and laws of the of the Executive authority of the State from which United States. Oath to support Constitution, he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State by whom taken. No religious test.) having jurisdiction of the crime.

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered 3. No person held to service or labor in one into before the adoption of this Constitution shall State, under the laws thereof, escaping into be as valid against the United States under this another shall in consequence of any law or regula- Constitution as under the Confederation. tion the ein, be discharged from such ser ice or 2. This Constitution and the laws of United labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the States which shall be made in pursuance thereof party to whom such service or labor may be due. and all treaties made, or which shall be made,

Section 3-(Admission of new States. Power under the authority of the United States, shall be of Congress over territory and other property.) the supreme law of the land, and the judges in

1. New states may be admitted by the Congress every state shall be bound thereby, anything in into this Union; but no new State shall be formed the Constitution or laws of any State to the conor erected within the jurisdiction of any other trary notwithstanding. State, nor any State be formed by the junction of 3. The Senators and Representatives before two or more States, or parts of States, without the mentioned, and the members of the several State consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, Legislatures, and all executives and judicial offas well as of the Congress

cers, both of the United States and of the several 2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to and make all needful rules and regulations respect support this Constitution; but no religious test ing the territory or other property belonging to the shall ever be required as a qualification to any United States; and nothing in this constitution office or public trust under the United States. shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

ARTICLE VII. Section 4-(Republican form of government (What ratification shall establish Constituguaranteed. Each State to be protected.)

tion.) The United States shall guarantee to every State The ratification of the Conventions of nine in this Union a Republican form of government, States shall be sufficient for the establishment of and shall protect each of them against invasion, this Constitution between the States so ratifying and, on application of the Legislature, or of the the same.

The Ten Original Amendments (So-called Bill of Rights)

(In force December 15, 1791.) Opposition in and out of Congress to the Constitution, in that it was not sufficiently explicit as to individual and State rights, led to an agreement to submit to the people immediately after the adoption of the Constitution a number of safeguarding amendments.

And so it was that the First Congress, at its first session, in the City of New York, Sept. 25. 1789, submitted to the States twelve proposed amendments-A Bill of Rights as it has been popularly called!

In the preamble to the resolution offering the proposed amendments, Congress said: "The conventions of a number of the States having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the government will best insure th be

ends its institution, be it resolved," etc. Ten of these amendments (now commonly known as one to ten inclusive, but in reality three to twelve inclusive) were ratified by the States as follows-New Jersey, (Nov. 20, 1789): Maryland, (Dec. 19, 1789), North Carolina, (Dec. 22, 1789); South Carolina, (Jan. 19, 1790); New Hampshire, (Jan. 25, 1790); Delaware, (Jan. 28, 1790); Pennsylvania, (March 10, 1790); New York, (March 27, 1790); Rhode Island, (June 15, 1790); Vermont, (Nov. 3, 1791); Virginia, (Dec. 15, 1791); Massachusetts. (March 2, 1939); Georgia, (March 18, 1939); Connecticut, (April 19, 1939). These original ten ratified amendments appear in order below as Article I to X inclusive.

The two of the original proposed amendments which were not ratified by the necessary number of
States related, the first to apportionment of Representatives; the second, to compensation of members
of Congress.

Unless, etc.) (Religious Establishment Prohibited. Free- No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered dom of Speech, of the Press, and Right to in any house without the consent of the owner. Petition)

nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed Congress shall make no law respecting an estab- by law. Jishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exer

ARTICLE IV. cise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech (Right of Search and Seizure Regulated.) or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably The right of the people to be secure in their to assemble and to petition the Government for a persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unrearedress of grievances.

sonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated,

and no warrants shall issue but upon probable ARTICLE II.

cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and par. (Right to Keep and Bear Arms)

ticularly describing the place to be searched, and A well-regulated militia being necessary to the the persons or things to be seized. security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.


(Provisions concerning Prosecution, Trial (No Soldier to be Quartered in Any House, and Punishment-Private Property Not to Be

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