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Denmark relating to the Defense of Greenland, signed at Washington on April 9, 1941 (Article I) it is stated that ". the Government of the United States of America, having in mind its obligations under the Act of Habana signed on July 30, 1940, accepts the responsibility of assisting Greeland in the maintenance of its present status.'
In compliance with Resolution I of the abovementioned Final Act, the American Neutrality Committee at Rio de Janeiro has formulated a Draft Convention on the Security Zone.
The Governments of Mexico and the United States have agreed to an exchange of views in order to coordinate suitably the progress of their common defense.
Project on Refugees
The Project on Refugees was referred to the Pan American Union where a special committee studied that project. The Board of Governors of the Pan American Union, under date of October 2, 1940. resolved, in conformity with the proposal of the special committee, and recommended "that the International American Institute for the Protection of Childhood should propose to the said Governments the measures which could be taken individually or collectively to put this humanitarian purpose into effect." According to a communication dated December 20, 1940, from the Institute to the Secretary of State the Board of that Institute approved on December 16, 1940, the report entitled "America Helps the European Children," containing the recommendations referred to and prepared by Professor Emilio Fournié, Chief of the Institute.
The Governing Board of the Pan American Union at its session held on December 4, 1940, approved a report providing for the establishment of a committee of five members on the peaceful solution of conflicts, in accordance with Resolution XIV relating to the peaceful solution of conflicts.
Resolution XXIII relating to the Pan American Highway recommended that every effort be made with a view to the prompt and efficacious completion of the various sections of the highway. In this connection the President of the United States on May 1, 1941, transmitted a message to the
Congress requesting an appropriation of $20,000,000 to provide for cooperation with Central American republics in construction of the Inter-American Highway. The bill passed the Senate on May 26, 1941.
Resolution XXV on general economic cooperation provided for the expansion of the activities of the Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee as an instrument for continuing consultation among the American republics with respect to economic and trade matters and arrangements. It was resolved that the Committee should proceed forthwith to study the following matters:
(a) Possible measures for increasing the domestic consumption in each country of its own exportable surpluses:
(b) Proposal of immediate measures and arrangements of mutual benefit to increase trade among the American republics;
(c) Creation of instruments of inter-American cooperation for the temporary storing, financing and handling of exportable surpluses;
(d) Development of commodity arrangements with a view to assuring equitable terms of trade for both producers and consumers;
(e) Recommendation of methods of improving the standard of living of the peoples of the Americas, including public health and nutrition measures;
(f) Establishment of organizations for the distribution of surplus commodities as a humanitarian and social relief measure.
Advisory Committee Active
The Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee has been active in following up these matters. The Inter-American Coffee Agreement was signed on November 28, 1940. At the invitation of the Committee the Inter-American Maritime Conference met at the Pan American Union in Washington from November 25 to December 2, 1940. The United States on its part has moved forward in many directions with economic cooperation with the other American republics, utilizing the Export-Import Bank, the Treasury's stabilization fund and many other agencies.
Impeachments in United States History
Source: Official Government Records
Under the Constitution, the President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States are liable to impeachment for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." and, on conviction, shall be removed from office.
The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeachment. The Senate has the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose the members are on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presides. No conviction is had except by the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
Judgment in cases of impeachment does not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the person convicted "shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law."
Impeachments to date have been:
(1) William Blount, one of the first two Senators from Tennessee, accused of treason and sedition, in having plotted to aid Great Britain in wresting Florida and the Louisiana territory from Spain. The Senate, 25 to 1, expelled Blount, July 8, 1797. The House, Dec. 4, 1797, impeached him, and the 17, began Dec. 1798. His impeachment trial counsel said the Senate had lost jurisdiction when it expelled Blount. The Senate, agreed to that view of the case, and dismissed the impeachment. (2) John Pickering. Judge of the District Court for New Hampshire; impeached 1803 for drunkenness and disregard of the terms of the statutes; trial March 3 to March 12, 1804; vote 19 guilty. 7 not guilty: verdict, guilty; punishment, removal from office.
(3) Samuel Chase, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States; impeached 1804 for misconduct at trials of persons charged with breach of the Sedition Law; trial Nov. 30, 1804, to March 1, 1805; verdict acquittal.
(4) James Peck, Judge of the District Court for Missouri; impeached for tyrannous treatment of counsel, 1830; vote, 21 guilty, 22 not guilty, verdict, acquittal.
(5) West H. Humphreys, Judge of the District Court for Tennessee, impeached 1862 for supporting the secession movement and unlawfully acting as Judge of the Confederate District Court; trial May 22 to June 26, 1862; verdict, guilty; punishment, removal from office.
(6) Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, impeached for usurpation of the law, corrupt use of the veto power. interference at elections and high crimes and misdemeanors; trial, March 30 to May 26, 1868; vote, guilty, 35, not guilty, 19; verdict, acquittal.
(7) William W. Belknap, Secretary of War, impeached for accepting bribes; trial, April 5 to Aug. 1, 1876. A question as to jurisdiction was raised; verdict, acquittal.
(8) Charles Swayne, Judge of the District Court for Florida; impeached 1905 for misconduct in office; trial Feb. 6 to Feb. 27, 1905; vote, 55 guilty. 37 not guilty: verdict acquittal.
Robert W. Archbald, Associate Judge of the Commerce Court, was impeached July 11, 1912, on articles charging him with corrupt collusion with coal mine owners and railroad officials while in office. Verdict, guilty; removal from office.
(10) United States District Judge, Alston G Dayton, of West Virginia, was impeached, June 12, 1914; proceedings abandoned March 3, 1915.
(11) George W. English, U. S. District Judge, East. Dist., Ill. The House, April 1, 1926, voted his He resigned. impeachment.
(12) Harold Louderback, U. S. District Judge, It was charged that he had at San Francisco, profited pecuniarily by the appointment of receivers and had shown favoritism. The Senate, on May 24, 1933, voted on the indictment, and he was acquitted.
(13) Halsted L. Ritter, U. S. District Judge in Southern Florida. He had been impeached on charges as to financial transaction growing out of or associated with fees allowed to lawyers. There were 7 counts, on 6 he was acquitted, on the seventh he was voted guilty, 56 to 28, and the Senate on April 17, 1936, removed him from office, after having, by 76 to 0, voted not to extend the punishment to disqualification to hold office.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress, in Philadelphia, on July 4, 1776, and was signed by John Hancock as President and by Charles Thompson as Secretary. It was published first on July 6 in the Pennsylvania Evening Post. A copy of the Declaration, engrossed on parchment, was signed by members of Congress on and after Aug. 2, 1776.
When, in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another.
and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evidence a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained, and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places, unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither. and raising the conditions of new Appropriations
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice. by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and
sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Stand
ing Armies, without the Consent of our legislatures. He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting them by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases of the benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for For abolishing the free Syspretended offenses: tem of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: For suspending our own Legislatures and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravished our Coasts. burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms. Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity. and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
WE, THEREFORE, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions do, in the Name, and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare. That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, Free and Independent States: that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved: and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.
Signers of the Declaration of Independence
Name, Delegate from
Adams, John (Mass.)
Carroll, Chas.of Carrollton (Md.)
Morris, Lewis (N. Y.)....
Morris, Robert (Penn.)..
Paine, Rob't Treat (Mass.)
Witherspoon, John (N. J.)..
The Declaration, drawn by Jefferson, and slightly amended by Adams and Franklin, had been presented to Congress (June 28, 1776). Prior to that (June 7) Richard Henry Lee had introduced in the Congress a resolution declaring that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved."
The resolution, seconded by John Adams on behalf of the Massachusetts delegation, came up again (June 10) when a committee of five, headed by Thomas Jefferson, was appointed with instructions to embody the spirit and purpose of the resolution in a declaration of independence. The others on the committee were John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger
The Declaration was adopted substantially as prepared by Jefferson, the two most significant and important changes being the elimination of Jefferson's arraignment of the British people and of King George in his encouraging and fostering the slave trade which Jefferson called "An Execrable Commerce."
McKean voted for the resolution of independence but was with Washington's Army when it was engrossed and was not a member of Congress from Dec. 1776, to Jan. 30, 1778. He signed, he said later, in 1781. Wythe signed about Aug. 27; R. H. Lee, Elbridge Geery, and Oliver Wolcott, in Sept. Thornton first attended Congress on Nov. 4. Five Pennsylvania signers of the engrossed Declaration-Rush, Clymer, Smith, Taylor, and Ross -were not appointed to Congress until July 20,
1730, Jan. 1731, April
when they succeeded three Pennsylvania members who were in Congress on July 4 but did not support the Declaration.
Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, William Williams of Connecticut, and Samuel Chase of Maryland were absent on July 4, but signed the engrossed Declaration on August 2.
Oliver Wolcott of Connecticut, and George Wythe and Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, were absent on July 4 and August 2.
Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts was also absent on August 2, and likewise signed on return to Congress.
Charles Carroll of Carrollton was appointed a Delegate by Maryland (July 4, 1776) presented his credentials on July 18, and signed the engrossed copy of the Declaration on August 2.
July 9, authorize its Delegates to approve the DecThe New York State convention did not, until Four of the New York members who refrained from laration, and Congress was so notified on July 15. voting for lack of authority on July 4 signed the engrossed Declaration on August 2.
Congress (Jan. 18, 1777) ordered that an authenticated copy of the Declaration and signers, attested by Hancock and Thompson, be sent to each of the United States" for them to put on record. This was printed, broadside, by Mary K. Goddard, in Baltimore, where Congress was then in session. A copy of the broadside, authenticated (Jan. 31, 1777), was distributed to the States.
The Declaration of Independence is silent on the right to own property, although the majority of the signers of the document were men of substance in real and personal property, and at least half a dozen were slave owners.
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES eConstitution originally consisted of a pre-lin, Robt. Morris, Thos. Fitzsimons, James Wilson,
e and seven Articles, and in that form was ted (Sept. 17, 1787) by a majority of the 55 ates from 12 states which had begun their erations in Philadelphia on May 12 of that Rhode Island sent no delegates. Of the 65 en by other states, 10 did not attend. Of the gates in attendance, 16 declined or failed to der the language of the Constitution itself icle VII) ratification by 9 states, by convens, was sufficient for its establishment "between states so ratifying the same." New Hampshire, June 21, 1788, was the ninth state to ratify. the Government did not declare the Constituto be in effect until the first Wednesday in ch, 1789.
he signers of the original Constitution, by
Thomas Mifflin, Geo. Clymer, Jared Ingersoll,
The Constitution was ratified, by conventions, by
The Constitution-Original Seven Articles
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, sure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and cure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution or the United States of America.
Section 1-(Legislative powers; in whom vested:)
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Section 2-(House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen. Qualifications of a Representative. Representatives and direct taxes, how apportioned. Enumeration. Vacancies to be filled. Power of choosing officers, and of impeachment.)
1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.
2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be ap-
Section 3-(Senators, how and by whom
the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointment until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not nine years a citizen of the United States, and who have attained to the age of thirty years, and been shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
4. The Vice President of the United States shall unless they be equally divided. be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote
5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of the United States.
6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor. trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.
Section 4-(Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed. One session in each year.) 1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be but the Congress may at any time by law make or prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; alter such regulations, except as to places of
2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
Section 5-(Membership, Quorum, Adjournments, Rules. Power to punish or expel. Journal. Time of adjournments, how limited, etc.) 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do returns, and qualifications of its own members, and
business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide. 2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member.
3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
4. Neither House, during the session of Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Section 6-(Compensation. Privileges. Disqualifications in certain_cases.) 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, fealony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place.
2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.
Section 7-(House to originate all revenue bills. Veto. Bill may be passed by two-thirds of each House, notwithstanding, etc. Bill, not returned in ten days, to become a law. Provisions as to orders, concurrent resolutions, etc.)
1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.
2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of that House it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.
3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and the House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Section 8-(Powers of Congress.) 1. The Congress shall have power:
To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States.
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes.
4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.
5 To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and
6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeit
ing the securities and current coin of the United States. 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads.
8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their respective writings and discoveries.
9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations.
11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water.
12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years.
13. To provide and maintain a navy.
14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.
15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.
17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;-And
18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
Section 9-(Provision as to migration or importation of certain persons. Habeas Corpus. Bills of attainder, etc. Taxes, how apportioned. No export duty. No commercial preference. Money, how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titular nobility. Officers not to receive presents, etc.)
1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.
5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.
6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties to another.
7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Section 10-(States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.)
1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation, grant letters of marque and reprisal, coin money, emit bills of credit, make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts, pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the