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CHIEF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES, IN 1939-(Continued)

No. Wage earners Cost of mater., etc. Value of products

estabIndustry

lish Ave. no./ Rank Dollars Raak Dollars Rank ments

[blocks in formation]

Industries reporting 10,000 to

25,000 wage earners total.
Nonferrous metal products N. E. C.
Flour, other graln-mill products
Enameled-iron sanitary ware
Cars and car equipment ..
Millinery
Coats, sults, skirts (exo. tur)
Cernent.
Logging camps (not sawmills)
Drugs and medicines (incl. grinding).
Paints, varnishes, lacquers.
Wood products N E. C....
Wire drawn from purchased rods
Industrial machinery N. E. C..
Textile machinery
Steam fittings..
Converted paper prod. N. E.C.
Coats, sults, skirts (exc. fur)
Nonalcoholic beverages..
Oven coke and coke-oven byprod..
Periodicals: publishing, printing..
Women's, children's, Infants' under-

wear of silk and rayon.
Lighting fixtures.
Electrical appliances
Trousers (semi-dréss), wash sults,

washable apparel.
Blast furnace products
Pumping equip. and air compress.
Power bollers and assoc. prod
Boot, shoe cut stock and findings.
Corsets and allied garments.
Sheet-metal wk. not specit. classified
Fertilizers...
Monuments, tombstones N E. C.
Knitted outerwear (exc. gloves)
Mattresses and bedsprings.
Malleable-tron castings
Creamery butter..
Clocks, watches, and parts (exc.

watchcases)
Automotive electrical equipment.
Concrete products.
Photographic apparat. and materials

(exc. lenses)
Construction and similar machinery

(exc. mining, oil field, and tools).. Aluminurn Iproducts (Incl. roll, and

draw.), NEC.....
Signs, advertising novelties.
Screw-machine prod., wood screws..
Flat glass
Books: printing without publish.
Cast Iron pipe and Attings...
Ice, manufactured ..
Metal work mach., equip N. E. C.
Curtains, draperies, bedspreads
Canned fish, molluyks.
Ice cream and ices ..
Insulated wire and cable
Games, toys (exc. dolls and vehicles)
Prepared feeds (incl. mineral) for

animals.
Cutlery (exc, aluminum silver, and

plated cutlery) edge tools
Forgings, fron and steel..
Tools (exc. edge, mach., files, saws)
Cottonseed oil, cake, meal, linters.
Fabricated plastic prod. N. E. C.
Batteries, storage, primary..
Rubber boots and shoes
Internal-combustion engines
Wiring devices and supplies
Poultry dressing and packing,
Bolts, nuts, washers, rivets not made

in rolling mills
Cane sugar refining.
Women's pocketb'ks, handb., purses
Food products machinery
Partitions, shelving and fixtures..
Sporting, athletic goods N. E. C.
Soap and glycerin
Miscell. fabric. products N. E. C..
Work shirts....
Men's, boys' shirts, collars, nightwear
Cotton narrow fabrics.
Cotton thread.
Food preparations.
Fur coats and garments
Oil field machinery, tools.
Caskets, coffins
Suk throwing and spinning
Clay refractories, incl. cement.

17,271 111

199

17,259 112

[blocks in formation]

84,846,136 143 109,761,6201 117 130,393,396 100 133,899,429 99 140,137,586 91 169,819,269 74 87.625,220 140 82.806.869 149 102,389,012 126 87,686,088 139 65,079,052 173 130,166,312 101 98,975,454 129 70,232,983 165 65,455,696 172 285,806,781 120,390,050 109

55,400,894 195 401,880,238 27

[blocks in formation]

155

38,748,757 144 292,917.795 20 32,877.638 160 31,949.526 165 30.506,708 170 26,689,795 189 161,002,676 40 23,321,980 213 21.419,256 224

27 286 379 716 350 264 582

87 141 163

75 1,007 2,175

223 599

78 165

14,331 137
14,133 138
14.048 139
13,979 140
13.826 141
13.816 142
13,624 143
13,6081 144
13,449

145
13,371 146
13.3181 147
13,298 148
13,120 149
13.094 150
12,5191 151
12,4471 152
12,374 153
12,211 154

1.146.963 417 22,934.330 215 26.695.205 188 106,234,268

64 107.751.9121 61 31,304,546 169 31,861,794 166

3,407,825 384 13,213,515 276

59,924,396 184 104,883,196 123 75,290.333 156 171,476,253 72 71,904,067 158 117.410.394 112

49,980.591 202 110.357,964 116

94.305,273 132 138,318,081 94

84,117,969 147 384,412,492 28 55,806,860 190 90.840,544 135 70.718.293 162 64,753,813 175 302,634,474 39 51,849,418) 199 35,672.002 253 11,191,950 373 48,500,589 209 51.376,151 200 172,459.397 71 168.031,656 76 88.977,327 138 70.353,137 164 15,853,452 341 42,191,454 228

CHIEF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES, IN 1939-(Continued)

No. Wage earners Cost of mater., etc. Value of products

estabIndustry

lish Ave. no. Rank Dollars Raak Dollars Rank

ments Silverware and plated ware

150 12,105 155 24.787,356 205 62,771,158 177 Cordage and twine.

116 12.096 156

27,711,385 182 56,685,817 188 Textile bags, not made text. mills.

216 11,991 157 93,807,210 70 121,702,151 108 Omce furniture

152 11.776 158 22.569,905 217 54,750.0911 196 Whiteware.

31 11,728 159

8,157,025 319 27,800,877 278 Sausages, other meat prod., not made packing estab.

1,067 11,443 160 165.045,149 37 208,048.345 59 Jewelry (precious metals)

886 11,358 161 34,596,938 154 71,418.667 159 Women's, children's, Intants' underFear of cotton and flannelette.

174 11.349 162 21,944,368 220 37,184,478 244 Wood preserving...;

218 11,242 163

77,477,264 82 106,295,341) 121 Paper bags, exc. made in paper mills 119 11,081 164 53,964,442 115 85,778,374 142 Buttons

316 10,972 165 12,473,349 283 House dresses, uniforms, aprons

29,817,188 272 255 10,961 166

489.639 432

9,251.940 383 Knitted cloth.

229 10,917 167 44,003,393 132 68,662,722 169 Vitreous enameled products

55 10,809 168

20,348,180 226 44.239.055 222 Costure jewelry and novelties

289 10.808 169 13,829,607 266 33,921,990 256 Children's, infants, dresses made in Inside fact., Jobbers engaging cont. 182 10,646 170 24,834,866 204 46.742,013 215 Housefurnishings (exc. curt., drap., and bedspreads).

472

10,623 171 43.972.843 133 67.521.325) 171 Beet sugar..

10,410 172 84.951,372 74 134.396,017 98 Needles, pins, hooks, eyes.

58 10,403 173 13,484,971 273 38.155, 126 241 Special Industry machinery N. E. C. 207 10,388 174 19,836.348 228 55,785,016 191 Perfumes, cosmetics, toilet prep.. 539 10,363 175 58.509.926 107 147.465,585 85 Ophthalmic goods....

91
10,252 176

14,209,313 261 44,954,653 220 Mirrors and glass products.

557

10,012 177 26,454,765 192 49,886,406 203 All other indust. (report, fewer than 10,000 wage earners), total 39,541 1,076,890

4,260,145, 245|

8,227,940,700

85

SUMMARY BY INDUSTRY GROUPS, 1939, 1937
No. Wage Wages

Cost of

Value of Industry Group Year estab. earners

in year

material products All groups, total..... 1939 184,230 7,886,567 $9,089,940,916 $32,160,106,681 $56,843,024,800

1937 166,794 8,569,231 10,112,882,711 35,539,332,824 60,712,871,737 Food and kindred products. 1939 51,454 824,009 913,981,553 7,021,283,375 10,603,950,671

1937 48,763 890,503 981,409,373 7.924, 135,084 11,294,889.859 Tobacco Manufacturers.. 1939

765 87,525 68,439,717 972,036,787 1,322,189,139 1937

852 92,158 70,291,395 947.628,432 1,272,687,918 Textile-mill products and 1939 6,293 1,075,702 902,171,863 2,088,094,158 3,897,437,872

other fibre manufacturers.. 1937 5,959 1,131,224 967,350,312 2,294,345,428 4.065,525,758 Apparel, finished products 1939 20.365 758,302 660.609,295 1,963,505,060 3,358,255,400

of fabrics and sim. mater. 1937 16,422 699,545 607,061,633 1,908,594.127 3,167,177,238 Lumber and timber basic 1939 11,520 360,613 310,381,443 504,233,270 1,122,057.978 products.

1937 10,420 387,514 339,786,853 512,474,823 1,146,284,625 Furniture and Anished lum- 1939

8,457 293,820 274,733,251 640,955,985 1,267,724,013 ber products

1937 7,559 310,449 299,211,859 681,387,389 1,317,650,487 Paper and allied products... 1939 3,279 264,715 309,856,579 1,149,666,420 2,019,568,217

1937

3,084 266,948 310,136,538 1,213.558,936 2,076,425,001 Printing, publishing and 1939

24,879 324,615 493,643,339 812,267,409 2,578,494,382 allied industries

1937 22,674 350,956 530.213,843 790.226,793 2,576,818,286 Chemicals and allied

1939 9,203 287,136 356,184,902 1,854,140,407 3,733,657,723 products..

1937 8,610 313,506 377,439,945 1.942,959,240 3,719,400,783 Products of petroleum

1939

989

105,428 173,710.817 2.278.543,591 2,953,973, 409 and coal..

1937

739 113,606 186,002,864 2,418,664,859 3,038,202,778 Rubber products

1939

595 120,740 161,409,811 496,174,017 902.328,802 1937

478 129,818 171,304,546 514.260,412 883,032,546 Leather and leather

1939 3,508 327,663 294,289,718 805,901,414 1,389,513,718 products

1937

3,249 328,551 308,026,580 891,229,180 1,475,009,070 Stone, clay and glass

1939 7,024 287,522 329,589,927 528,792,323 1,440,151,489 products.

1937

6,196 306,212 355,450,664 538,160,089 1,428,411.398 Iron, steel, their products, 1939 8,993 966,371 1,313,633,202 3,635, 910.704 6.591,530,456 except machinery

1937

8,382 1.140,928 1,619,788,388 4,056,338, 113 7,445,350,168 Nonferrous metals and

1939 5,600 228,753 299,219,667 1.748.179.675 2,572,854,496 their products.

1937

5,173

255,767 336,348,936 1,934,185,300 2.779,961,323 Electrical machinery.

1939

2.014 256,467 335,819,534 727,436,259 1,727,217,631

1937 1.597 306,003 407,960,508 797,772,309 1,899,905,431 Machinery (except electrical) 1939

9,506 522,975 748, 268, 262 1,285, 180,902 3, 254,173,950 1937

8,368 643,521 955,996, 297 1,571,362,357 3,902,986,522 Automobiles and automobile 1939 1,133 398,963 646,405,891 2,725,396.316 4,047,872, 729 equipment

1937

1,070 511,333 807,025,824 3,710,918,904 5,292,795,428 Transportation equipment 1939

968

157,096 239,253,940 411.377,100 882,896,840 except automobiles

1937

888 150,885 221,624,253 448,164,456 852,784,534 Miscellaneous Industries 1939

7.699 238,827 258,325, 273 469,167,3161 1,162,958,308

1937 6,3111 239,8041 260,452,1001 442,966,5931 1,077,572,584 No data for employees of central administrative offices are included.

The 1939 Census of Manufactures questionnaire, for the first time, called for personnel employed in distribution, construction, etc., separately from the manufacturing employees of the plants, and therefore, the data probably are not strictly comparable. It is not known how many of the wage earners and the salaried employees reported for 1937 were engaged in distribution and construction and how many were engaged in manufacturing. Employees of the plants reportd as engaged in distribution and construction activities in 1939 are not included in this preliminary report but will be included in the final report.

Pronts or losses cannot be calculated from the census figuras because no data are collected for certain expense items, such as interest, rent, depreciation, taxes, insurance, and advertising. The aggregates for

cost of materials and value of products include large but indeterminable amounts of duplication due to the use of the products of some industries as material by others. This duplication occurs, as a rule, between different industries, and is not found to any great extent in individual industries.

Developed Water Power in the United States

No.

Source: Federal Power Commission; data are as of Jan. 1, 1941
Water
Water
Water

Water
Pits. Wheel

Pits.
Wheel
Pits. Wheel

Plts. Wheel
States
Capacity States
Capacity States
Capacity States

Capacity
No. H. P.
No. H. P.
No. H. P.

H. P. Ala. 14 1,145,300 Ky

8 151,431 N. Y. 388 1,843,787 Wash 76 1,214,504 Ariz 15 427,400 La

0

0 N, C.. 104 1,033,320W, Va. 12 307,615 Ark 5 95.060 Me 184 637.527 N D

0

0 Wisc. 174 515,189 Calif.. 139 2,438.261 Md.. 6 404,427 Ohio.. 22 25,195 Wyo..

13 69,503 Colo. 56 110,824 Mass 214 388,911 Okla.

3 2.772 Conn. 90 178,673 Mich 159 533.865 Oreg.

78 587,793U. S. 2.801 18,868,027 Del

2.
1,000 Minn. 64 262,420Pa

47 607,303 Outlying Territories D. of C 3 6,030 Miss..

0
OR. I
48 25,067 Alaska

46.082 Fla..

4
21.768 Mo.
8 247,253 S.C.

57 838,549 Hawall.. 29 31,768 Ga 56 597,609||Mont.. 23 501.857 S. D.

10 19,463 P. Isl... 4 26.680 Idaho.. 68 393,417| Nebr. 47 120.250 Tenn

28 694,406P. R.... 13 42,544 DI. 33 93,953 Nev

101 708,830) Texas. 26 120.460 Ind 29 53,117||N. H. 149 478,537| Utah

61 142,972 Total.. 76 147,074 Iowa. 38 207,154 N. J. 20 16,341 Vt..

126 267,911 Kan. 16 13,019 N. M.

7 35,683 Va.

61 282,3011)Gr.tot.. 2,877 19.015,101 Installed water-wheel capacity in previous years-(1926) 11,176,596; (1930) 13,807, 778; (1935) 16,075,307; (1940) 18,500,254.

301

Production of Electric Energy in the U. S.

Source: The Pederal Power Commission
Electric Energy Produced

Fuel Consumed in the Year
Dec. 1

Internal
Year
Total Hydro Steam Comb't'n Coal

011

Gas 1,000 1,000 1.000 1,000 Short

1.000 Kw. hrs. Kw. hrs. Kw hrs. Kw, hrs.

tons

Barrels Cu. ft. 1920

43,334.282 15,949,050 27,218,273 166,959 42,938,000 10,466,000/ 21,861,000 1925

65,751,137 22.233,423 43,223,181 294,533 40 217.000 10.264,000 46.526,000 1930.

94,651,597 31,737,724 62,277,888 635.98542,910,000 9,263,000/120,297.000 1931.

90.728,821 29,579,863 60,505,175 643,783 38,714,000 8,129,000 139,274,000 1932

82,376.772 33.321,857 48,456,610 598.305 30,296,000 7.967,000 107.840,000 1933

84.736,229) 34,058,562 50,094,064 583,603 30,575,000 9,953.000 102,726,000 1934.

90,805,524 33,713,222 56,450,551 641,751 33.561,000 10,391,000 127,892.000 1935

98,464,073) 39,034,152 58,649,829 780,092 34,164,000 11,378,000 125,239,000 1936

112,181,242 39,516,274 71,765,938 909,030 42,025,000 14,119,000 156,080,000 1937

121,836,813 44,489,183 76,329,917 1,017.7131 44,766,000 14,143,000 171,268,000 1938.

116,681,42344,834,410 70.727,426 1,119,587 40,212,000 13,077,000 170,688.000 1939.

130,336,050 44,021,631 85,006,941 1.307,478 46,225,000 17,425,000 191, 131,000 1940..

144,984,565 47,752,627] 95,674,653 1,557,285 The installed capacity of electricity generating plants in 1939 (Dec, 31) (kilowatts) was: hydro, 11,415, 165; steam, 28,046,948; internal combustion, 855,811, total--40,317,924.

The installed capacity in 1939 (kilowatts) was thus 'divided: privately owned, 35,363,171 (of which electric utilities was 33,907,963); publicly owned, 4,954,753 (of which municipal utilities was 2,806,852).

The average consumption of fuel per kilowatt-hour for 1939 was 1.39 pounds. This is based on the coal and coal equivalent of all oil and gas used and the output by all fuel plants except that produced by wood. These figures are 59,514,000 tons of fuel and 85,800,000,000 kilowatt-hours.

of the 1940 kw. hours (1,000) privately owned plants produced 127,642,231; federally owned, 5,289,885; municipal, 6,187,844; State projects, 1,175,417; non-central stations, 1,395,371.

[graphic]

Electricity Sold in the United States in 1940

Ga.

Source: The Congressional Record
Cus-
Kilowatt

Cus- Kilowatt
State tomers Hour's Revenues State tomers Hours Revenues
Ala.
292,332 1,703,844,000 $23,574,647 Nev

26,745 125,217,000 $2,618,105 Ariz 100,293 526,528,000 8,748,086 N. H.

148,902 353.537,000 10,386,435 Ark. 182,158 593,077,000 13,053,810 N. J

1,290,204 3,598,136,000 103,504.820 Calir. 2,275,920 10,235,143.000 167,414,555 N. M

49,499 106,061.000 4,110,197 Colo 258.604 725,869,000 19,614,003 N. Y

4,065,902 15,613,493,000 348,872,269 Conn 516,211 1,595,155,000 42.954,245 N. C.

440, 491 2,434,530,000 35,955,358 Dela 55,125 236,722.000 4,900,833 N. D.

90,569 162,844,000 5,914,602 D. of C 83,846 886, 488,000 14,269,043 Ohio

1,890, 110 7,544,469,000 143,981,047 Fla.. 384,096 1,017,436,000 31.344.182 Okla

348, 742 1,164,094,000 26,462,962 359,894 1,898, 105,000 31,056,462 Oreg

314,336 1,280.624,000 22,130,904 Idaho 124,106 734,113,000 9,302,077 Pa

2,471,091 12,187,075,000 216,110,577 n. 2,101,770 8,680,245.000 177,405,087 R. I

210,875 662,966,000 17,102,401 Ind. 884,150 3,093,999,000 64,507.736 S.C.

182,978 1,311,642,000 17,581,735 Iowa.. 583,850 1,511.626.000 36,032,330 S. D.

102,580 193,507,000 6,992,766 Kan. 397,871 1,187,470,000 27,207,064 Tenn.

376,771 1,620,654,000 28,294,402 Ky 374,010 1,169,097,000 24,796.252 Texas

997,723 3.603,919,000 76.374,234 La. 313,731 1,181,741.000 22,771,263 Utah

131,838 857,735,000 12,767,906 Me. 224.006 1,031,376,000 15,429,352 Vt

92,469 240, 261.000 7,046,061 Md. 504,101 1,957,746.000 35,190,042 Va

426.588 1,490,822,000 30,604,644 Mass 1,326, 406 3,394,517,000 97.198,887 Wash

535,124 2,921,929,000 37,525,214 Mich 1,449,499 5,391,354,000 108,456,214 W. Va

292,886 1,815,481,000 28.306.059 Minn 598,812 1.832,966,000 43,280.643

Wisc.

789,384 2.657,082,000 54,413,957 Miss 162,965 458, 126,000 10,975,637

47,876 133,471,000 4,034,949 Μο

801,832 3,057,299,000 59,826,642 Mont.

122.020 1,629,650,000 13,574,627 U. S... 30,091,488 118,560,992,000 2,362,649,393 Nebr..

290, 1971 751,751,000 18,674,070 The total production of electric energy in the State of New York in 1940 (kilowatt hours) was 18,993,978,000, according to the Federal Power Commission.

Residential users numbered 24,850,500 ($791,992,501); commercial, 4.175,198 ($729,581,139); industrial, 065,790 ($841,075,753).

Wyo.

Marriage and Divorce Information

Source: World Almanac Questionnaire The following table shows, by States, the marriageable age for both males and females with and without consent of parents or guardians. But in almost every State the court has the authority to marry young couples below the ordinary age of consent, in an emergency, where due regard for their morals and welfare so requires. With consent Without consent

Wait Wait Residence
Blood

for
after

for Men Women Men Women

test

license license divorce

1 year

1 year

(e)

Alsbama.

17
14
21
18

None
None

1 year Arizona

18
18
21
18
None None

None 1 year Arkansas

18
16
21
18

None None None 3 months California

Note

21
18
(b)
3 days
None

1 yea Colorado

Note

21
18
(b)

None None ('onnecticut

16
16
21
21
(b)
5 days None

3 years Delaware.

18
16
21
18 None

(2)

(2)

1 year Dist. of Columbia 18

16
21
18
None

(8)

None
Florida.

18
16
21
21
None
None

None 90 days Georgia

17
14
21
18 None

(d)

None 1 year Idaho.

Note

18
18
None None

None

6 weeks Ulinols

18
16
21
18
(b)
3 days None

1 year indiana.

18
16
21
18
(b)
None None

1 year Iowa

16
14
21
18
(b)
None
None

1 year Kansas

18
16
21

18 None None None 1 year Kentucky

18
16
21
21
(b)
None
None

1 year Louisiana

Note

21
21

None None 2 years Maine

16
16
21
18
(b)
5 days None

1 year Maryland

18
16
21
18
None 48 hours None

1 year Massachusetts

18
16
21
18

5 days None 3 years Michigan

Note

18
18
(b)

5 days None 1 year Minnesota

18
16
21
18 None 5 days None

1 year Mississippi

Note

21
18
None

None

year Vissouri

16
15
21
18 None None

None

1 year Montana.

18

21
IS
None
None None

1 year Nobreska.

18
18
21
21

None None None 1 year Nevada

18
16
21
18
None

None None 6 week New Hampshire 14

13
20
18
(b)
5 days None

1 year New Jersey

Note

21
18
(b)

2 year New Mexico

18
16
21
18
None None None

1 year New York

16
14
21
18
(b)
None

(3)

(6) North Carolina

16
16
18
18
(b)
None None

1 year North Dakota.

18
15
21
18

None
None

1 year Ohio.

18
16
21
21 None 5 days None

1 year klahoma

18
15
21
18
(C)
None None

1 year Oregon

18
15
21
18
(b)

3 days None 1 year Pennsylvania

16
16
21
21
(b)
3 days
None

1 year Rhode Island

18

21
21
(b)

2 years South Carolina

17
14
18
18
None
None None

(5) South Dakota

18
15
21
18
(b)
None None

1 year Tennessee

16
16
21
21
(b) 3 days None

2 years Texas.

14
21
18
None None

1 year Utah

16
14
21
18
(b
None
None

6 mos. Vermont

16
16
21
18

(bb) None 5 days 1 year Virginia

17
15
21
21
(b)

None None 1 year Washington

14
15
21
18 None 3 days None

1 year West Virginia

18
16
21
21

(b) 3 days None 1 year Wisconsin

18
15
21
18
(b)

5 days None 2 yeurs Wyoming

18
16
21

None None 6 weks Alaska

18
16
21
18 None None

None

2 years Hawaii.

18
16
20
20 None

3 days Nono 2 years Philippine Islands.

(7)

None

(7)

None
Puerto Rico

18
16
21
21
(b)
None
None

1 year Virgin Islands ..

16

21
18 None 8 days

None 6 weeks (a) Physician's venereal certificate necessary for required in every State and Territory, and marriage male; void in 10 to 15 days, according to State. in the United States is now universally on a civil

(b) Wassermann or similar standard laboratory contract basis. But religious ceremonies are authorblood test for both applicants. (bb) Serological test ized in all the States, provided there is a license by both parties

to wed. (c) In Oklahoma no venereal test is required, Common-law marriages of a year or more durabut if either person is infected a certificate should tion, without either license or ceremony, are now be procured from a physician, which failure car- validated by the courts in practically all the States, ries a penalty and imprisonment.

on proper proof, and where children or property (d) No wait if both applicants are 21; 11 under are involved. 21 there is a wait of 5 days.

In New York State, an amendment to the Domes(e) There is a 48-hour wait and license should tic Relations law (in effect April 29, 1933) invalibe obtained by the contracting parties at least 24 dates so-called common-law marriages entered into hours prior to the time of the ceremony.

The after that date. license is valid for 30 days.

In New York State, also, it is required, under a (2) For non-residents 96 hours; when one party 1929 law, that a female who is 14 but not 16 years is & resident 24 hours. No wait after obtaining of age must have the consent of a judge of the license.

Children's Court in her jurisdiction (in addition to (3) Twenty-four hours, but 3 days must elapse consent of parent or guardian) before she can from time of examination and blood test.

marry. (4) There is a 5-day wait, after the license is In many States, and in particular throughout issued, for non-resident women.

the South, marriage between whites and Negroes (5) 'The law does not allow divorce for any cause. is unlawful; marriage between whites and Indians

(6) Adultery is the only ground for absolute is still forbidden in several southern States. In divorce. Residence is not necessary.

Arizona, by a law of 1931, a Malay or Filipino can(7) With or without consent, for men, 16; for not lawfully marry a Caucasian. women, 14. There is a 10 days delay in issuing a Causes for DivorceIn all the States but South license unless parents or guardians give written Carolina the primary cause for divorce is adultery. consent to the marriage. To obtain a divorce 1 In the Philippines it is the only cause for divorce. year of residence required, unless cause for divorce and it is necessary to prove a court conviction of claimed takes place in the Islands,

adultery or of concubinage. (8) Three clear days (not counting either day Pregnancy of wife by other than husband at time of application or day of issuance).

of marriage is a stated cause in Alabama, Arizona, Note-Common law prevails, 14 yrs. for male, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, 12 yrs. for female.

Oklahoma, Tennessee, Virginia and Wyoming. Marriage Licenses---A license of some kind is It is a cause for annulment in the other States

(7)

when it is proved that the husband had no Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New knowledge of the fact.

Hampshire, Ohio, Texas and Vermont; also in Impotency, if unknown at time of marriage, is a Maryland when husband and wife have voluntarily stated cause in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkan- Ilved separate and apart for 5 consecutive years. sas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia,

Illinois, Indiana, Desertion for 4 years is required in Louisiana; Kansas. Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachu. and for 5 years in Rhode Island. setts, Michigan, Minnesota Mississippi, Missouri, In New York the so-called Enoch Arden law proNebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, vides for annulment of marriage for absence of North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Penn- either party for 5 successive years if unknown to be sylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, alive. Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Alaska, and the Most of the States allow divorce or separation Virgin Islands.

for mere absence for 5 years or more. In other States it is a ground for annulment.

Failure to provide support is another name for Desertion (abandonment) is a universally stated

desertion. cause for divorce or separation. If existing for six months it is a sufficient cause

Cruelty, physical or mental, if aggravated, is a

cause every ere for divorce or separation; 50, in Hawaii.

Desertion must be for one year in Arizona, also, is imprisonment for felony prior to' and Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida. Idaho, unknown to the suing party at time of marriage. Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, And so, also, are continuing insanity, and habitual

drunkenness. Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wis

Most of the states make a distinction between consin, Wyoming, Alaska and Puerto Rico.

divorce, and separation. Desertion must be for 2 years in Alabama. Dela- The primary cause for annulment is fraud of ware, District of Columbia, Indiana, Iowa, Michi- some kind, manifested in concealment by one or gan,' Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, North the other party of a condition which, would have Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West barred the marriage, such as insanity, impotency, Virginia and the Virgin Islands,

blood infection, conviction of felony, prior unDesertion must be for 3 years in Connecticut, dissolved marriage, and so forth.

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The Confederate States of America

Source: Historical Records South Carolina began the movement which led holm, South Carolina; 1865, John H. Reagan, to the organization of the Southern Confederacy Texas.

Secretaries of War-1861, Leroy P. Walker, by the adoption at Charleston (Dec. 20, 1860), by a convention of the people of the following 1862, George W.' Randolph, Virginia; 1862, Gustavus

Alabama; 1862, Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana; ordinance of secession:

W. Smith, Kentucky: 1862, James A Seddon. "We, the people of the State of South Carolina,

Virginia; 1865, John C. Breckinridge, Kentucky. in convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and

Secretary of the Navy-1861, Stephen R. Mallory, it is hereby declared and ordained, that the or

Florida, dinance adopted by us in convention on the 23rd

Postmasters-General--1861, Henry T. Ellet, day of May, in the year of our Lord 1788, whereby Mississippi; 1861, John H. Reagan, Texas. the Constitution of the United States was ratified

Attorneys-General--1861, Judah P. Benjamin, and also all acts and parts of the General Assembly Louisiana; 1861, Thomas 'Bragg, North Carolina; of this state ratifying amendments of the said 1862, Thomas H. Watts, Alabama; 1864, George Constitution are hereby repealed; and that the Davis, North Carolina. Union now subsisting between South Carolina and

April 12, 1861, fire was opened by the South other States under the name of the United States

Carolina troops on Fort Sumter, Charleston Harof America is hereby dissolved."

bor. The following was the notification served on December 24 the Convention adopted a declara- Major Robert Anderson, U.S.A., in command of the tion setting forth the cause of the secession of the fort, by order of Brig-Gen. Beauregard, C.S.A.: State, and the Governor issued a proclamation "sir-By authority of Brig.-Gen. Beauregard, announcing the action of the State.

commanding the provisional forces of the ConActs of secession were adopted by the Legislatures federate States, we have the honor to notify you of the other seceding States, as follows:

that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Jan. 9, 1861, Miss., by a vote of 84 to 15

Sumter in one hour from this time. We have the Jan. 10, Fla.,

62 to 7

honor to be very respectfully, your obedient Ala.. Jan. 11,

servants,
61 to 39
Ga.,

"JAMES

208 to 89 Jan. 19,

CHESTNUT,

Aide-de-camp: La., Jan. 26,

113 to 17

STEPHEN D. LEE, Alde-de-camp." Feb. 1, Texas,

166 to 7

The refusal of Major Anderson to surrender prior April 17, Va., 88 to 55

to the receipt of the above note was as follows: May 6, Ark., 69 to 1

"Fort Sumter, April 11, 1861. May 21, N. C.,

unanimous

"General I have the honor to acknowledge the June 8, Tenn..

receipt of your communication demanding the

evacuation of this fort, and to say in reply thereto The States of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and that it is a demand which I regret my sense of Missouri, which were afterward represented in the honor and my obligation to my government preConfederate Congress, did not pass ordinances of vents my compliance. Thanking you for the fair secession. In two States a popular vote was taken.

and manly terms proposed and for the high comThe vote of Virginia for secession was 128,884; pliment paid me, I am, General, very respectfully opposed, 32,134. Of Tennessee, for secession, 104,- your obedient servant, 019; opposed, 47,238.

“ROBERT ANDERSON, Major First Artillery The congress of delegates from the seceding Commanding." States met at Montgomery, Ala., (Feb. 4, 1861).

"Brig.-Gen. Beauregard. Commanding Proviand prepared a provisional Constitution of the sional Army. Confederate States of America. This Constitution The last fight in the Civil War was at Palmetto was discussed in detail and adopted (Feb. 8). Ranche, Texas, May 11, 1865. Gen. Lee surrendered On the next day an election was held for chief at Appomattox Court House, Va, April 9, 1865. executive officers, and Jefferson Davis, of Missis- All the States were once more represented in both sippi, was elected provisional President and Alex- Houses of Congress of the United States May ander H. Stephens, of Georgia, provisional Vice- 23. 1872. President.

Although South Carolina led the way into The joint convention of the provincial Senate secession it was the overpowering States Rights and House of Representatives counted (Feb. 19. sentiment in Georgia and North Carolina in 1861), the electoral vote for President and Vice- Georgia even more than in North Carolina-that President. The number of States voting was 11: rallied the others into the movement. From the total electoral votes, 109; all of which were for foundation of the United States, Georgia had been Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens. foremost in standing up against the federal gov.

President Davis was inaugurated in Montgomery, ernment hen st 's rights were involved. Joseph Ala. (Feb. 18, 1861), and again in Richmond. E. Brown was their chief champion at the outVa., (Feb. 22, 1862).

break of the Separatist movement. Georgia, acSecretaries of State-1861, Robert Toombs. cording to some historians, was no more willing Georgia: 1861, Robert M, T Hunter, Virginia: to subordinate her interests to the Confederate 1862, Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana.

than to the Federal government, and her perSecretaries of the Treasury--1861, 0. G. Mem-sistent recalcitrancy in the end contributed largely

ger, South Carolina; 1864, George A. Tren- to the downfall of the Confederacy, it is asserted.

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