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167

943

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939

1940 Intermed.-C. A. A.-lighted.

282
284
278
265
266

289 Interme.-C.A.A.-unlighted.

9
12
5
2
0

0 Auxiliary-marked,

630
622
602
628
665

507
Army, Navy, Marine Corps,
National Guard, Reserve, &
Miscellaneous airports.

156
161
158
160
250

251 Tot. airports in operation, 2.368 2,342 2,299 2,374 2,280

2,331 Lighted, total.

698
705
720
719
735

776 of entry, regular.

12
12
21
37
39

37 of entry, temporary..

43
43
34
23
21

21 Federal Airways System and

Aids to Air Navigation
Communication:
Radio broadcast stations...

74
80
83
91
92

111 Radio range beacon stations..

137
146

225
244

281 Radio marker beacons...

57
57
55
48
48

42 Weather report, airway & airportstations-Weather Bureau and C. A. A. Operated, longline teletypewriter equipped.

203
213
271
314
298

376 Miles of teletypewriter serv..

13,260 13,120 20,588 23,771 26,803 28,052 Weather Bureau-Arst order stations (does not include airport stations)

191
182
198
182
185

146 Airway lighting:

Beacons:
Revolving and flashing listed

together for 1929. Revolving ..

1,657
1,677
1,717 1,753 1,875

2,015 Flashing

211
241
252
214
214

216 Beacons--privately owned & certined

330
410
466
530
6501

720 Interm. landing nelds, lighted.

282
284
278
271
274

289 Mileage lighted.

22,012 22,245 22,319 23,723 27,074 Miles under const. close of yr.

30,480 338

0
945
1,849 2,192

496
Certificates
Uncertificated airc. (active):
Airplanes.

1,701
1,805
1,684
1,159

577 Gliders.

387
370
320
176
177

104 Certificated (active): Airplanes.

7,371

7,424 9,152 10,000 12,829 17,350 Gliders...

48
31
41
45

39 Instructors, ground.

55
48
55

92
446

1,940 Mechanics 8,4321 8,738 9,314 9,884 10,296

11,177 Pilots, airplane 14,805 15,952 17,681 22,983 31,264

63.113 Pilots, glider

145
138
161
172
170

138 Riggers. parachute.

381
393
362
397

425
Student pilot certificates
(issued yearly):
Airplane.

14,572 17,675 21,770 15,556 29,839 Glider..

330
209
125

98

263
Production and Exports
Exports:
Airplanes.

515
621
875 1,219

3,162 Airplanes, value.

$6,638,515 $11,386,896 $21,027.361 $37,977,324 $66,386,736 $175,048,574 Engines.

568
945)
1,047 1.307 1,880

4,986 Engines, value.

$2,459,317 $5,397,469 $5,944,004 $7.899.144 $14,120,035 $49,873,823 Parts, acces., aircraft, value. $5,069,810 $6,060,483 $12.157,337 $21.930.343 $35.798,922 $85,761,060 Parachutes and parts, value.. $163,201 $298,358 $267,771 $400,939 $775,389 $1,068,779 Total (dollars)....

14,330,843 23,143,206 39,396,473 68,207,759 117,081,082 311,752,236 Production : Airplanes. 1,691 3,010 3,773 62,698 64,934

69,910 Airplanes and parts, value. $27,064,339 $47,531,565 $67,289,541 Engines..

2,866
4.295

6,214
Engines and parts, value. 112,610,285 26,383,055 728,576,971
Equipment (miscel.), value... 2,831,580 4,234,273 8,228, 109
Tot. value, all aircraft, en-
gines, parts, and equip... 42,506,204 78,148,893 104,094,621
No of alrcraft manuf. prod..

50
48
48

48 No. of engine manuf, prod.

17
23
21

20
Personnel employed:
By aircraft manufacturers... 18,500 23,531 31,920 35,000
By engine, propeller, and ac-
cessory manufacturers.

5,5001 7,044 8,047 •Estimated.

1Domestic air carriers are American companies operating within the continental United States. Foreign and territorial carriers are American companies operating in United States Territories and in foreign countries.

Does not include the operations of the following affliated companies of Pan American Airways System: Cia Mexicana de Aviacion, S. A., Via Nacional Cubana de Aviacion, and Panair do Brasil, which

The mail pound-miles flown and mail payments statistics of Inter Island Airways, Ltd., are included with the domestic mail pound-miles and mail payments as this company holds a domestic air mail contract. All other operations statistics for this carrier are included with the figures for foreign and territorial operations.

*Includes 224,236 ton-miles of mall carried and $2,249,004 paid to the War Department for carrying the mall from Feb. 20 to Mar. 16, 1934.

In several cases the same carrier operated both domestic and foreign services,
Does not include aircraft produced for the U. S. Military services.
*Value of engine parts for these years not available.

334

Manufactures in U. S. by States, 1939 and 1937

Source: United States Bureau of the Census (Because they account for & negligible portion of the national output, plants with annual production valued under $5,000 have been excluded since i919.)

Wage

Earners
State

Census No. (Aver.) Wages in Cost of Value of
Year Estab. No.

Year

Materials Products

[graphic]

184,230 7.886,567 59,089,940,916 532,160,106,681 $56,843,024,800 166,794 8,569,231 10.112,882,711 35,539,332,824 60,712,871,737

- Pacifc...

1,024,279,360 2,459,434,019 4,889,524,435 1,133,392.088 2,622,659,694 5,109,917,550 2,688,722,882 8,666,778,836 16,036,664,743 2,936,509,588 9.256,477,281 16,599.775,747 2,951,078,542 9,778,060,648 17,553,394,895 3,505,766,557 11,523,928,178 19,970.058,845

427,573,657 2,452,986,268 3,815,685,743 457,488,665 2,762,948,624 4,091,726,811 826,221,980 3,152,984,804 5.389.754 596 836,180,446 3,288,204.102 5,403, 449,598 291.019,881 1,130, 137,222 1,958,725.580 297,938,510 1,186.135, 238 1,977,318,158 238.264,661 1.735,146,474 2,566,960,233 251.832,727 1.877.111,385 2,693,027.227 81,749.365 545,202.537 819,875,850 96,677,719 639,193,613 928,950,730 561,017,656 2.197,511,680 3,798,221,148 597,096,411 2,382,674,709 3,938,647,071 68,432,700 192,935,181 345,368,595 72,263,133 197.525,575 348,636,096 52,735, 240 132,208,206 237,396,015 55,234.545 144,323,198 249,631,724 21,232,355 51.213,722 103,154,301

24,614,697 58,771,687 111,876.051 500,197,872 1.267.375,848 2,457,599,210 556,076,897 1.364,299,029 2,620,788,793 105,406,950 27S,301,981 516,390,541 112,933,084 276,739,611 517,196,193 276,274,243 537,399,081 1,229,615.773

312.269,732 581,001,594 1.261,788,693 1,163,806,520 3.783,904,755 7.134,400,147 1,236,048,186 3,998, 266,070 7,314,446,524

521,568,632 1.901.925,965 3,428.947,188

523,504,132 1.890,538,525 3,253,246,218 1,003, 347.730 2,980,948, 116 5,473,317,408 1.176,957,270 3,367,672,686 6,032,083,005 812,676,444 2,459,191,656 4,584,606,792 957,650,237 2,793,189,697 5,099,816,893 345,474,473 1.257,438,203 2.227.667,013 402,116,998 1,478,567,753 2,497,547,946 750,239,085 2,593,215,612 4,795, 201,154 862,793,453 2,985.246,895 5,304,282,629 790,740,567 2,550,346,742 4,341,413,139 986,840,523 3, 204,437,649 5,296,100,960 251,947,973 917,868,435 1,604,506,797 296,365,346 1,062,486,184 1.772,310,417

96,886.925 535,143,118 845,771,514 107,393,009 624,564.846 937,462,797 73.466,119 473,612,925 718,418,350 76.193,244 473,394,825 709,458,428 190,735,851 800,094,538 1,388,056,267 202,585,847 944,984,934 1,505,383,002

2,901,231 33,099,249 44,438,775 3,192,212 35,570,713 45,836,712 6,035,524 61,216,830 81,171.887 5,484.671 52 896,808 67,276,395 20,609,975 204.419,572 273,475,444 22.126,284 215,077,144 282,502,287 36,938,032 345,401.036 464,353,506 40,513,398 416,459,354 543,807,190 21,959.627 59,570,473 114,753,652 22.991.808 65,979,756 124,383,887 156,782.654 601.253,399 1.027,354,074 156.995.227 065,027.358 1,095,862,972 11.772,280 35,559,454 79.875,299 12,848,273 31,451.162 74,107,967 115.543,319 609,334,507 988,838, 246 112,773,796 572,374,499 908, 222,316

88,487.433 227,061,641 441,840,388 102,511,473 257,751,612 480,526,030 199,158,957 874,940,925 1,420,638,883 189,265,474 905, 903,243 1,384.737.686 86,616,242 227,666,244 397.512,863 91,791,692 234,433,366 409,911,517 108.078.264 394,076,490 677, 402,657 110,501,344 439,145,132 708,652,241 37.823, 204 123,522,671 241,538,534 36,501.359 113.137.975 217.044,982 61.902.354 293,629,345 481,029,771 66,248,664 323,001.6761 504,897,342

MANUFACTURERS IN U. S. BY STATES, 1939 AND 1937—(Continued)

Wage

Earners
State

Census
No. (Aver.

Cost of
Year

Value of
Estab.

"Year No.)

Materials Products Tennessee..

1939 2,289 131,874 $109,661,769 $407,745,923 $728,087,825

1937 2,083 135,073 109,247,514 412,360,076 707,986,784 Alabama..

1939

2,052 116,800 92,018,670 327,287,079 574,670,690 1937

1,874 120,301 96,058,401 336,327,661 573,763,522 Mississippi...

1939

1,298 46,359 27,437,088 101,474,875 174,937.294 1937

1,100 46,040 26,383,931 114,445,825 190,670,510 West South Central: Arkansas

1939 1,178 36,256 24,577,234 92,776,835 160,166,984 1937

1,048 37,280 24,734,112 99,088,9301 164,676, 277 Louisiana.

1939

1,861 71,218 55,083,540 357,555,931 564,404,074

1937 1,684 76,057 60, 203,023 380,984, 102 580,839,828 Oklahoma.

1939

1,606 28,114 30,465,185 209,050,080 312,168,499

1937 1,428 29,551 34,390,477 255,470,399 366,088,721 Texas.

1939 5,376 126,997 128, 138, 702 1,075,763,628 1,530, 220, 676 1937 4,422

129,501 132,505,115 1,141,567,954 1,581,422,401 Mountain: Montana ...,

1939

585 9,171 12,148,428 112,094,844 151,885,026 1937

515 11,268 15,757,784 134,041,222 176,278,814 Idaho....

1939

549 10,877 12,754,127 58,704,943 90,475,147 1937

533 12,797 16, 249,586 63,633,304 101,324,545 Wyoming.

1939

309 3,484 4,755,511 29.790,970 45,416,813 1937 235 3,795

5,218,821 33,028,167 49,128,729 Colorado..

1939 1,298 23,719 28,391,933 130,386,505 221,642,666 1937

1,233 25,932 31,753,039) 145,735,123 237,838,370 New Mexico..

1939
272 3,334

2,912,993 16,411,877 25,123,641 1937

241

3,683 2,991,782 11,485,017 20,598,868 Arizona...

1939
332 6,096

7,162,639 65,488,191 97,529,481 1937

290 7,193 8,602,418 84,721,115 118,355,981 Utah....

1939

560 11,555 11,967,762 123,452,364 167,172,226 1937

552 13,094 14,479,158 156,911,426 204,857,058 Nevada..

1939

106
1,103

1,655,972 8,872,843 20,630,850 1937

84 1,012 1,625,131 9,638, 239 20,568,365 Pacific: Washington

1939

3,239 90,571 118,321,636 349,993,230 636,624,809 1937

3,057 101,260 128,471.946 380,320,890 675,639,692 Oregon..

1939

2,248 63,619 77,585,546 193, 199,692 365,374,436

1937 2,107 65,982 79,492,397 194,085,141 363, 142,053 California..

1939 12,329 275,477 365,110,474 1,654,318,758 2,796,221,903

1937 10,861 302, 1891 389,132,068 1,808, 268, 678 2,899,865,426 The experience in England (1915-19 and 1940-41) has shown, according to the United States Department of Labor, that, except for short periods, an extension of the usual hours of work does not give a proportional increase in output; also, the high production level which follows with the introduction of overtime soon subsides and is followed by a production level which the worker feels he can maintain over a longer number of hours without overfatigue. Total output level may be no higher, in fact may be lower, than during the shorter work week.

Manufactures in Continental United States, 1849-1939

Source: United States Bureau of the Census
Year
Wage
Wages in Cost of

Value of (Cal.) Estab. Earners Capital

Year

Materials Products
No. Aver. No. Dollars

Dollars
Dollars

Dollars 1849

123,025 957,059 533,245,351 236,755,464 555,123,882 1,019, 106,616 1859

140,433 1,311,246 1,009,855,715 378.878,966 1,031,605,092 1,885,861,676 1869

252,148 2,053,996 1,694,567,015 620,467,474 1,990,741.794 3,385,860,354 1879

253,852 2,732,595 2,790,272.606 947,953,795 3,396,823,549 5,369,579,191 1889

355, 405 4,251,535 6.525,050,759 1,891,219,696 5,162,013,878 9,372,378,843 1899

512,191 5,306,143 9.813,834,390 2,320,938,168 7,343,627,875 13.000, 149,159 The figures above, 1849-1899, cover factories, and every plant with yearly products valued at $500 or hand and neighborhood industries, and include more. Value figures for 1869 are on a gold basis.

[graphic]

1899 1904 1909 1914

FACTORIES, EXCLUDING HAND AND NEIGHBORHOOD INDUSTRIES, 1899-1914
These figures also include plants with yearly products valued at $500 or more

207.514 4,712,763 8.975,256,496 2,008,361,119 6,575,851.491 11,406.926,701
216.180 5,468,383

2,610,444,953 8,500,207,810 14,793,902,563 268,491 6,615,046 18,428,269,706 3,427,037,884 12,142,790,878 20,672,051,870 272,518 7,023,685 22,790,979.937 4,067,718,740 14,358,935,014 24,216,514,673

FACTORIES WITH PRODUCTS VALUED AT $5,000 OR MORE A YEAR, 1914-1939
Year
No. No. Wage
Wages in the Cost of

Value of (Cal.) Estab. Earners Horsepower Year

Materials Products 1914.

177,110 6,896,190 22.290,899 $4,067,718,740 $14.278,333,194 $23.987.860,617 1919.

214,383 9,000,059 29.327.669 10,461,786,869 37,232.702,390 62,041,795,316 1925.

187,390 8,384,261 35,772,628 10,729,968,927 35,935,647,704 62.713,713,730 1927.

191.866 8,349,755 38,825,681 10,848,802,532 35,133, 136,889 62.718,347.289 1929. 209,862 8,821,757

11,607,287,154 38.177.900.046 69,960,909,712 1931. 175.325 6.523.026

7,185,970,623 21,483,677,876 41.350,464.564 1933. 141,769 6,055,736

5,261,576,029 16.820,821,977 31,358,840,338 1935. 167,916 7,203,794

7,311,329,029 26,441,145,271 44,993,698,573 1937. 166.794 8,569,231

10,112,882,711 35.539,332.824 60.712.871.737 1939 184,230 7.886,567

9,089,940,216 32,160,106,681 '56,843,024,800 Salaried persons in 1939 numbered 1,048,607 against 1,217,171 in 1937; and their salaries totaled $2,540,357,370 in 1939 and $2,716,866,216 in 1937.

Manufactures in Industrial Areas, 1939

[graphic]

Estab-
lish- Wage

Wages in Cost of Value of ments Earners

Material Product No. NO

Dollars

Dollars Dollars 184,230 7.886,567 9.089.940,916 32,160,106,681 56,843,024.800 93,377 4,311,567 5,552,128,053 18,656,916,279 33,575,754,731 33,385 849,608 1,042,681,700 3,887,580,270 6.943, 444,631 9,921 483,593 640,533,131 2,367,826,185 4,277,815,582 6,082 321.725 387,115,110 1,252, 248,479 2,292,960,250 2,772 311.332 511,909,475 1,650,125,393 2,719,210,429 5,673 237,496 264,495,570 764,643,460 1,425,482, 462 2,110 191,903 271,080,178 858,173,578 1,501,398.647 2.036 153.013 146,084,673 348,806,053 663,917,458 2,699 140.653 200,153,593 576,504,8271 1,123,146,504 1,728 128,396 150,993,009 328,869.811 722,554,276 2,787 126,831 152,939,450 623,079,603 1,086,595,741 5.594 126,391 166,630,467 706,906,903 1,219,433,652 2,032 105,737 126,981,059 515,298,580 856,967,248 1,936 98,414 137,897,194 392,224,026 753,680,088 1,470 91,328 127,122,954 510,883,150 905,220,863 1,772 87.384 112,224,524 386,912,580 702,620.018 1,119 78,373 88,890,263 178,359,338 376,837.735 3,441 76,374 110,964,281 600, 156,725 960,636,411

547 72,826 107,944,195 402,716,763 629,223,979 671 62,245 80,424,117 121,947,975 326,666,843 624 55,342 58,666,927 138,871.123 280,591,946

803 51.331 70,961,252 137,231,763 345,900,066 1.744 48,608 62,458,329 278,751,056 480,271,715 412 43,519 57.754,542 183,230,586 291,617,809 506 40,612 41,696,675 70,786,419 154,764,625 341 40.155 65,504,864 166,359,561 332,925,647 461 39,367 60,089,013 114,879,532 277,133,661

818 38,838 48,139,113 155,359,006 294,511,708 1,047 39,37% 47,811,019 335,305,534 483,770,597 1.539 36.853 50,708, 151 178,018,521 302,226,607 650 36,146 44,297,532 101,600,175 211,697,017

36,369 46,162,845 119,504,177 245,199 246 579 31. 452 27,127,023 66.821.221 132,922.225 499 30,676 43,655,822 137,933.906 249,409,045

Employment Status of the Population 14 Years Old and Over,

March 24-30, 1940

Source: United States Bureau of the Census (Estimates based on a preliminary tabulation of a 5 per cent cross-section of the 1940 census returns. Numbers less than 20,000, indicated by an asterisk (*), are based on relatively small samples, and are subject to error).

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United States.

100,972,196 52,840,762 52.3 45,350,430 85.8/ 2,380,062 5,110,270 48,131,434 Total urban

59,610,637 32,613,234 54.7 27.666,402 84.8|1,338 919 3,607,913 26,997,403 ('ities of 1,000,000 or more.

12.976.520 7,381,178 56.9 6,135,363 83.1 223,491 1,022,324 5,595.342 New York, N. Y

6.092.372 3,482,885 57.2 2,852,658 81.9 96,451 533,776 2.609,487 Chicago, IL.

2,775,496 1,596,655 57.5 1,356,898185.0 59,884 179,873 1.178,841 Philadelphia, Pa.

1,556,110 877,163 56.4 705,899, 80,5 21,585 149,679 678,947 Detroit, Mich 1.283.145 731,654 57.0 625,406 85.5 27,763

78,485 551,491 Los Angeles, Calll

1.269,397 692.821154.6 594,502 85.8 *17,808 80,511 576.576 Cities of 500,000 to 1,000,000 5,270,680 2,951,675 56.0 2,471,299 83.7 125,598 354,778 2,319,005 Cities of 250,000 to 500,000..

6,367.355 3,549,029 55.71 3.000,547 84.5 151.357 397,125 2.818,326 Cities of 100,000 to 250,000. 6,250,243 3,464,654 55.4 2.943,979 85.0 147,303 373,372 2,785,589 Other urban.

28.745.839|15,266,698 53.113,115,214 85.9 691,170 1,460,31413,479,141 Rural-nonların

20.068.895 9,719,014 48.4 8,026,100 82.6 657,715 1,036,199 10,349,881 Rural-farm..

21,292,664 10,508,514 49.41 9,657,928 91.9 383,428 467,158 10,784,150 The proportion of males in the 1940 labor force ceeded the percentage reported as gainful workers in each of the 92 cities was smaller than the pro- in 1930. In most of the cities for which the nonportion who were gainful workers in 1930. The white samples were large enough to afford reliable difference between the 1930 and the 1940 propor

estimates, the percentages for white females in

1940 were about the same as, or slightly larger tions exceeded eight percentage points in Colum

than, those for 1930. bus and New Bedford; on the other hand, they

On the other hand, the proportion of nonwhite were only slightly more than two percentage female workers was smaller in 1940 than in 1930 points in Youngstown and Norfolk.

in all of the cities with the exception of Richmond, In nearly every city for which data are pre- where the proportion was 52.5 percent in 1930 and sented by color, the differences between the 1930 56.3 percent in 1940, and Los Angeles, where the and 1940 proportions for white males were smaller proportions were about the same. than the corresponding differences for nonwhite The 1940 figures are estimates based on a premales.

liminary tabulation of a five percent cross-section In the majority of the 92 large cities, the per- of the population enumerated in each of the centage of women in the labor force in 1940 ex- census enumeration districts.

Chief American Manufactures, 1939

Source: United States Bureau of the Census

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF LEADING INDUSTRIES

Industry

No. Wage earners Cost of matér., etc. Value of products estab

lish Ave, no. Rank Dollars Rank Dollars Rank ments

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All Industries, aggregate.... Industries reporting 100,000 wage

earners or more, total.. Motor vehicles, bodies, parts Steel works and rolling mills Cotton broad woven goods... Sawmills, veneer mills. Footwear (exc. rubber) Bread and other bakery prod. (exe.

biscult, crackers, pretzels) Woolen and worsted manufactures. Meat packing, wholesale. Paper and paperboard mills.. Industries reporting 50,000 to

100,000 wage earners, total. Canned, dried fruits, vegetables. Hosiery--full-lashioned. Newspapers: publishing, printing General commercial (job) printing. Household furniture exc. upholst:. Men's, boys' sults, coats, overcoats Petroleum refining. Cotton yarn. Generat.. distrib., and indust. ap

paratus N E. C..... shipbuilding and repairing Rayon broad woven goods Planing mills not sawmills Paperboard containers N. E. C. Hosiery-seamless Machine-shop products, N. E. C Chemicals N. E C. Dyelng and Anishing textiles Gray-Iron, sernisteel castings Men's, boys' shirts, collars, nightwear Work clothing (exc. shirts), sport garments (exc. leather), and other N. E. C... Tires and inner tubes. Women's, misses' dresses (exe. house) Cigars Rubber products N E. C. Industries reporting 25,000 to

50,000 wage earners, total. Women's, misses' dresses (exc. house) Candy and other confectionery.. Alrcraft and parts, incl. engines. Men's, boys' suits, coats, overcoats. Rayon and allied prod. Radios, tubes and phonographs. Leather: tanned, curried, finished.. Stoves, ranges (exc. electric) Alloying: rolling, drawing of non

ferrous metals, exc. aluminum Knitted underwear. Machine tools. Office, store machines, N. E. C. Malt liquors Hardware N.E.C. Fabricated struc. steel, ornamental metal work, not made in roll. mills Refrigerators, air-conditioning units Stamped and pressed metal (exc.

auto stamp.)
Communication equipment
Tin cans, other tinware N E. c...
Tractors..
Wirework N.E.C..
Mechanical power-transmiss. equip
Steel castings.
Upholstered household furniture.
Biscuit, crackers, pretzels.
Brick and hollow structural tile.
House dresses, untforms, aprons.
Agricultural inach. (exc. tractors)
Primary smelt. and retin of non-

ferrous metals...
Cigarettes..
Tableware, glassware N. E. C.
Pulp mills
Lithographing and photo-lithogr.
Bookbinding and related industr.
Glass containers.....
Carpets and rugs, wool
Wooden boxes exc. cigar boxes
Machine tools, precision tools.

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