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Venezuela

(ESTADOS UNIDOS DE VENEZUELA) Capital, Caracas-Area, 352,170 square miles—Population (1936) 3,491,159 Venezuela is the northernmost state of South remarkable equally for its engineering and its America and is bounded on the north by the incomparable mountain scenery, 25 miles long, Caribbean Sea, with a coast line of 1,750 miles, on

connects La Guaira, the seaport, with Caracas, a the east by British Guiana, the southeast by Brazil, distance of about seven miles airline. The conand the west and southwest by Colombia, with

necting railway is 23 miles long. In all, Venezuela maximum measurements of 928 miles from east to has more than 6.000 miles of highways. west, 790 miles from north to south. Seventy-two Venezuela is constructing (1941) a 700-mile highislands are included in the territory of Venezuela,

way through the interior to Colombia. The road the largest being Margarita (20 by 40 miles) which is part of the Government's program to open up has been made the State of Nueva Esparta, and is the interior and to increase colonization. an important pearl center.

Venezuela has had many revolutions and many The Orinoco River, with its tributaries, drains revisions of its Constitution since the first was about four-fifths of the country. About 1,100 adopted (1819). That now in force was promulmiles in length and 1373 miles wide at the apex gated (July 11, 1936) and provides for a President, of the delta, it is the third largest river system elected by Congress for five years; a Senate of in South America, and is navigable to Puerto 40 members, and a House of Deputies of 85 memAyacucho (more than 1,000 miles upstream), where bers, elected for four years; 50% of both Houses the extensive rapids of Atures and Maipures pre- is renewed every two years. There are 20 autonovent further navigation.

mous states, a federal district and two territories. Venezuela is entirely within the Torrid Zone, the The Constitution also embraces a basic labor law southern boundary extending to less than one de- that calls for a certain amount of profit sharing, gree north of the Equator. The northernmost compulsory compensation insurance, recognition of point is 12° 11'. The spurs of the Eastern Andes trades unions and collective bargaining, an eightand the foothills are covered with dense forests; hour day, and a revised banking law requiring the high plateaus provide excellent grazing. The banks to keep 80% of their deposits invested in climate is tropical in Central Ilanos and in the Venezuela. Men over 21 have suffrage. coastal regions, becoming temperate between 1.800 Isaias Medina Angarita was elected President by and 6,000 feet, and cold in the higher sections. Congress (April 28, 1941).,

Agriculture and stock raising are the chief indus- The President must be Venezuelan by birth, at tries. It is estimated that 20% of the total popu. least 30 years of age, and may not be a cleric. lation (or about 75% of those gainfully employed) Cabinet members must possess the same qualifiis engaged in the former. Coffee is the major cations. agricultural export, and is second only to petro- The government has shown great interest in leum in total export value. Other important ex- public health, and expenditures for public health ports are cacao, balata, tonka beans, hides and work have been increased in the last two or three rubber. Imports are textiles, machinery and hard- years. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare ware, foodstuffs, chemicals and drugs. Venezuela outlined a 3-year plan (1938-1940) of health work, is one of the foremost petroleum countries of the much of which has been put in operation. More world. Other minerals are gold, copper, coal, salt, than 70 water supply systems, and 16 sewerage iron, tin, asbestos and mica. Diamonds are also systems, at a total cost of over 46 million bolivares mined

are planned. The fields in which the most work Caracas, the capital, has an estimated population is actually being done are malaria control, tubercuof about 300,000 (an increase of nearly 100,000 since losis, maternal and child welfare, venereal disease the 1936 census). Other cities (1936_census) are: and health education. Maracaibo, 110,010; Valencia, 49,214; Barquisimeto, The language is Spanish and Roman Catholic is 36,429; and Ciudad Bolivar, 25, 134, a thriving river the State religion, but religious freedom is guaranport 270 miles from the mouth of the Orinoco, and teed. All education, including college, is free. Pri an outlet for half the area of Venezuela—the mary and secondary education are compulsory. Guayana Highlands. The city has many imposing Military service is obligatory between 21 and 45. and important buildings, some of them of keen This comprises three years' service in the active historical interest.

army and in the reserve until 45. The Trans-Andean highway extends from The monetary unit is the bolivar; see Index, Caracas west to San Cristobal near the Colombian Latin American Exchange Rates. The bolivar has border, nd to Cucuta, over the line, a distance of a nominal value of $.28. 790 miles through the richest parts of the country, Government receipts (1940-1941) are estimated crossing the Andes at an altitude of 14,100 ft. at 344,515,000 bolivars with expenditures the same. Buses make it in three days. A concrete road, Venezuela has no public debt.

Yugoslavia

(KRALJEVINA YUGO-SLAVIA) Capital, Belgrade—Area, 95,558 square miles--Population (est. 1940) 16,200,000 The Kingdom of the Yugoslavia, populated by assassinated (Oct. 9, 1934) at Marseilles, France, the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, is bounded by Ger- by a terrorist. Crown Prince Peter (born Sept. 6. many (Austria), Hungary and Rumania on the 1923) was proclaimed King (Oct. 11, 1934) with a north, by Rumania and Bulgaria on the east, by

regency of three members until he becomes of age.

The Regency resigned (March 27, 1941) two days Greece in the south, and Italy (Albania), the

after the Cabinet of Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch Adriatic Sea and Italy on the west.

had joined Yugoslavia with the Axis Powers Serbia, which had since the Battle of Kosovo,

(Germany, Italy and Japan). King Peter ascended (1389) been a vassal principality of Turkey. was the throne (March 28) and the Cvetkovitch Cabinet established as an independent kingdom by the

resigned. King Peter appointed a new Cabinet Treaty of Berlin (July 13, 1878). After the Balkan

with Gen. Richard Dusan Simovitch, chief of the wars (1913) her boundaries were enlarged by the

Air Corps, as Premier. The new Cabinet refused annexation of Old Serbia. The Government of

to ratify the Axis pact. Austria-Hungary laid the assassination of the

The legislative power is vested in the King. the Archduke Franz Ferdinand (June 28, 1914) to a Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The counSerbian plot and by invasion following her ulti- try under the constitution of 1931 is a parliamenmatum brought on the World War (1914-18). tary and hereditary monarchy. The Senate conSerbia was overrun and suffered enormously, but sists of members elected for six years, hall of (October, 1918) her army smashed the invaders' whom are re-elected every three years. The King resistance on the Salonika front and, with an

may nominate as many as the number elected. irresistible drive toward the north, reoccupied The original 33 provinces were abolished (1930) Belgrade (Nov. 3, 1918). At the dissolution of the and the country divided into nine banats (counties) Austro-Hungarian Empire, the National Assem- and the district of Belgrade. blies formed in different provinces of the Empire: Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis armies Croatia, Slovenia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, (1941). King Peter fled and established a refugee Voyvodina and the former independent state of government in England with Prime Minister Dusan Montenegro as well voted the reunion in one com- Simovitch as its head. Italy, Albania and Bulgaria mon and independent state, together with Serbia. took slices out of Yugoslavia and there also were This union was proclaimed and became effective recreated Montenegro and Croatia. Serbia was (Dec. 1. 1918) with Peter I of Serbia as King of reduced to its pre-1918 proportions. the new "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and All male inhabitants over the age of 21 have Slovenes," later officially named "The Kingdom of the right to vote. The last general election to Yugoslavia." King Peter I was succeeded on his Parliament (Dec. 11, 1938) resulted in the choice death (1921) by his son Alexander I, who was of 373 Deputies. Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch

formed a new cabinet (Feb. 5, 1939) comprised of the active Army is for 20 years with two years Croats, Slovenes, Mohammedans and Serbs. Tire under the colors. For 18 years the soldier remains Premier was instructed by Prince Paul, Chief Re- subject to recall for training and the last ten years gent, to legislate a uew form of accord with the is passed in the second reserve. Croats. This accord was reached (Aug. 26, 1939) Agriculture is the basic industry, for Yugoslavia whereby an autonomous Croat province was created is a country of small peasant holdings, and it is with its own Parliament (Sabor) to deal with their closely followed by cattle raising and forestry. own administrative, cultural, economic and finan- These furnish occupation for 85% of the populacial problems. At the same time free elections tion. Nearly one-third of the area is covered with with the secret ballot and freedom of the press forests (19.068,637 acres). about 60% (35,963.159 were restored.

acres) is devoted to agriculture, and of this, 80' The monetary unit is the dinar with a nominal is sown to cereals. The chief crops are wheat. value of $.23 until the occupation by Germany. barely, rye, oats, corn, hops and grapes. The prin

The budget (1939-1940) estimated revenue of 12,- cipal minerals are coal, iron, copper, chrome-ore, 786.000 dinars and expenditures of 11,920,000. lead, salt and bauxite. The country is the largest

Elementary education is nominally compulsory producer of copper in Europe. and free. There are universities at Belgrade, The river navigation of the Danube and the Zagreb, Lyublyana, Skoplye and Subotica. All re- Sava is important. Split and Sushak, with excelIgions are recognized and enjoy equal rights. lent docks, are the largest of the 58 ports. Serbian-Orthodox ranks first followed by the The chief exports are wheat, corn, tobacco, hops, Roman Catholic.

copper, lead, iron-ore, bauxite, cement and prunes; Under the law of 1931 Army service is compulsory the chief imports, cotton and woollen textiles, mafor men between the ages of 21 and 50. Service in chinery and chemicals.

The League of Nations The League of Nations formally came into ex- , and to achieve international peace and security." istence (Jan. 10, 1920) through the coming into From 42 members the League grew to 60 nations force at that date of the Treaty of Versailles. Its in 1935, and at present includes 46. The roll of purpose is "to promote international cooperation member states is now as follows: Afghanistan

Cuba
India

Panama
Union of South Africa

Czechoslovakia
Iran

Poland
Argentina

Denmark
Iraq

Portugal
Australia
Dominican Republic Ireland

Rumania (2)
Belgium

Ecuador
Latvia

Siam
Bolivia

Egypt
Liberia

Sweden
United Kingdom of Great Britain Estonia

Lithuania

Switzerland and North Ireland

Ethiopia
Luxemburg

Turkey
Bulgaria

Finland (1)
Mexico

Uruguay
Canada

France (1)
Netherlands

Yugoslavia
China

Greece

New Zealand Colombia

Haiti

Norway (1) Gave notice of withdrawal (April 19, 1941); (2) Gave notice of withdrawal (July 11, 1940); (3) Gave notice of withdrawal (June 17, 1941).

Nations not members of the League through failure to join or withdrawal are:
Albania
Guatemala
Nicaragua

U. S. S. R.
Brazil
Honduras
Paraguay

United States
Chile
Hungary
Peru

Venezuela
Costa Rica
Italy

Saudi Arabia
Germany
Japan

Spain It should be noted that the League recognized the because of her aggression against Finland and annexation of Austria by Germany (March, 1938). asked member states to give Finland any aid in Germany now dominates Belgium, Bulgaria, their power It also adopted the Bruce Report, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Greece, Holland, Lux- placing League non-political work in the charge of emburg--as well as France and Rumania. Poland a new Central Committee on Social and Economic was divided between Germany and Russia. Estonia, Questions with which non-member states will be Latvia and Lithuania are parts of the Soviet invited to cooperate fully. Union. Control of Yugoslavia is divided between The Assembly, the Parliament of the League, in Germany and Italy. Italy has annexed Albania. which all nations may have three delegates and

Germany entered the League (Sept. 10, 1926) and one vote ordinarily meets annually in September. (Oct. 19, 1933) gave the required two years notice The Council, the Cabinet of the League, met at of withdrawal because the powers in the Disarma- least three times a year. The Secretariat, the ment Conference refused to grant her equality in Civil Service of the League, has employed as many arms. She officially withdrew (Oct. 19, 1935). as 700, but at present has about 100 workers of

Japan having given notice (1933), officially with- whom about 70 are still in Geneva. The Assembly drew (March 27, 1935), but retains her mandates gave emergency power (1938) to the League Superin the Pacific. Japan withdrew because the League visory Commission, enabling it to vote a budget to adopted the report of the Lytton Commission re- carry on reduced activities in the absence of affirming Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria and regular Assembly and Council meetings. condemning Japan's aggressive action.

The League has established a branch of its Italy gave two years' notice of withdrawal (Dec. Economic and Financial Department in Princeton, 11, 1937) because, during her war with Ethiopia, N. J., because of the difficulties of communication the League applied economic and financial sanctions in Switzerland. against her, and after these measures were raised, The Permanent Central Opium Board and the refused officially to recognize her sovereignty over Drug Supervisory Body of the League have opened Ethiopia. Italy withdrew (1939).

a branch office in Washington, D. C. Thus, in the The twentieth session of the Assembly, which United States and in Geneva some of the nonwas postponed until December, 1939, on account of political work of the League continues, even under the outbreak of the war, expelled the Soviet Union war conditions.

Japan Supplies Canaries to the United States

Source: Foreign Commerce Weekly, Aug. 2, 1941 Canaries, formerly supplied to the United States Canaries are but one of a number of new items from Germany, are now coming in increasing num

earing in an's export trade with the United bers from Japan. Advices from Japan indicate that

States since of War eliminated many European shipments to the United States during the first half of the current year approximated 50,000 birds

sources of supply. Another item in this class is which compared with 1,000 during all of 1940.

cuttlefish bones for bird food, a commodity forThe outstanding problem in connection with this

merly supplied by Italy. Several Japanese firms trade, Japanese shippers state, is the heavy mor- are reported interested in this trade, one company tality that takes place in the long voyage across the reports that in a single month orders received from Pacific, but they are hoping that meanse will be the United States for cuttlefish bones amounted found to overcome this obstacle.

to more than 25 tons.

Rulers or Heads of Governments of the World Source: Latest official sources and news despatches; B means Bey; C, Czar; E, Emperor; EM, Emir; F and C, Fuehrer and Chancellor; G, Governor; GD, Grand Duchess; GG, Governor-General; HC, High Commissioner; K, King; LG, Lieut. Gen.; M, Maharajah: P. President; PM, Prime Minister PR, Prince; PRE, Þremier; PRO, Protector; P and S, Pope and Sovereign; Q, Queen; R, Regent; SH, Shah: SU, Sultan; V. Viceroy. Country

Ruler

B'n Acs.
Executive Head

B'n Acs, Afghanistan.. Mohammed Zahir, Shah, K.

1914 1933 Albania. Victor Emmanuel III, K. 1869 1939 Jacomini de San Lavino, L. G.

1939 Arabia Saudi.. Abd-el-Aziz es Saud ibn Saud, K. 1882 1926 Argentina Ramon S. Castillo, Temp. P. 1873 1940 Australia. Lord Gowrie of Ruthven, G.-G.

1872 1939 John Curtin.

1885 1941 Belgium, Leopold III, K. (in exile). 1901 1934 Hubert Pierlot, P. M.

1940 Bhutan (Br. Prot.). Jlg-me Wang-chuk, M

1906 1926 Bolivia Gen. Enrique Penaranda, P.

1940 Brazil. Dr. Getulio Vargas, P

1883 1934 Bulgaria Boris III, C....

1894 1918 Prof. Bogdan Phlloff, Pre Cambodia. Prince Sianouk, K.

1941 Canada Earl of Athlone, G..

1874 1940 W. Mackenzie King, Pre. Chile.

Pedro Aguirre Cerda, P., term 6 yrs. 1879 1938
China.
Lin Sen, P., Nat'l Gov't.

1931 Chiang Kal-shek, P., Execu. Yuan Colombia Eduardo Santos, P.

1938 Costa Rica. Dr. Rafael Calderon Guardia, P. 1903 1940 Cuba

Col. Fulgencio Batista, P.; term 4 yrs. 1940 Carlos Saladrigas, Pre. Czechoslovakia. Dr. Edward Benes (in exile).. 1884 1940 Baron von Neurath, Pro.

1937 Danzig. Karl Burckhardt, H. C...

1937 Denmark. Christian X, K....

1870 1912 Thorvald Stauning, Pre. Dominican

Republic.. M. de J. Troncoso de la Concha, P. 1878 1940
Ecuador Arroyo Del Rio, P.

1940
Egypt
Faruk I, K
1920 1936 Hussein Sirry Pasha, Pre.

1940 Finland. Risto Ryti, P.

1889 1940 Johan Wilhelm Rangell, Pre. 18941941 France Henri Philllpe Petain, P

1940 Germany Adolf Hitler, F. and C., for life. 1889 1933 Gt. Britain George VI, K, and E...

1895 1937 Winston Churchill, P. M. Greece George II, K (in exile)

1890 1935 Emmanuel Tsouderos, Pre. Guatemala.. Gen. Jorge Ubico, P.

1870 1931 Haiti.. Elle Lescot, P. .

1941 Honduras. Gen. Tiburcio Carias Andino, P 1876 1933 Hungary Adiniral Nicholas von Horthy, R. 1868 1933 Ladislaus de Bardossy, Pre

1941 Iceland Christian X, K 1870 1912 Sveinn Bjoerrsson, R.

1941 India (Br.). The Marquess of Linlithgow, V. 1887 1936 Iran (Persia).. Mohammed Shah Pahlevi, Sh. 1878 1941 All Furanghi, P. M.

1877 1941 Iraq (Mesopotamia).... Falsal II, K 1935 1939 Nuri es-Said

1941 Ireland, St. of. Eamon de Valera, P. M.

1882 1932 Douglas Hyde, P Ireland, No... Duke of Abercorn, G.

1922 James Mller Andrews, P, M 1871 1940 Italy Victor Emmanuel III, K 1869 1900 Benito Mussolini, P. M

1883 Japan. Hirohito, E.

1901 1926 Prince Funimaro Konoye, Pre.. 1891 1940 Liberia. Edwin J. Barclay. P

1832 1931 Liechtenstein, Francz Joseph II, Pr.

1906 1938 Luxemburg Charlotte, G. D., (in exile)

1896 1919 Dr. Joseph Hoof, G. G. Manchukuo.. Henry Pu, E., Kang-Teh.

1906 1934 Gen. Chang Ching-hui, P. M. Mexico.. Manuel Avila Camacho, P., terin 6 years

1940 Monaco. Louis II, Pr

1870|1922 Moravia, see Bohemia and Moravia Morocco.. Sidi Mohamıned, Sul.

1913 1927 Nepal Tribhubana Sir Bikram, Sh 1906 1911 Maharaja Joodha Shumshere.

1875 1932 Netherlands Wilhelmina, Q., (in exile)

1880 1890 P. S. Gerbrandy. Pre. Newfou'dland. Vice-Admiral Humphrey T. Walwyn, G

1979 1936 New Zealand.. Sir. Cyril L. N. Newall.

1893 1941 Peter Fraser. Nicaragua Gen. Anastasio Sonoza, P.

1895 1935 Norway Haakon VII. (in exile)

1872 1940 Johann Nygaardsvold, Pre. Oman Seyyid Said Ibn Taimur, Su

1910 1932 Palestine Sir Harold Alfred Mac Michael, H.C. 1938 Panama Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia..

1941 Paraguay Higino Morinigo, P.

1939 Persia (see

Iran)
Peru
Manuel Prado, P., 6-year term .. 1891 1939 Alfredo Sol, Pre...

1887 Philippine Isl.. Manual Quezon, P.

1878 1935 Poland

Wladislaw Raczkiewicz, P. (In exile) 1939 Wladislaw Sikorsky, Pre. Portugal. Gen. Antonio Carmona, P. 1869 1926 Dr. Antonio Salazar, P. M.

1936 Rumania Michael, K. 1921 1940 Ion Antonescu, Pre.

1940 Salvador. Gen. Maximiliano H. Martinez, P., re-elected 1939 for 5 years.

1931 Siam (see

Thailand)
Slovakia Josef Tiso, P......

1939
Soudan, An-
glo-Egyptian. Lleut. Gen, H. J. Huddleston, G. G. 1880 1940
So. Africa,
Union of.. Sir Patrick Duncan, G. G...

1937 Jan Christian Smuts, P., Spain Francisco Franco, Pre 1892 1939 Francisco Franco, Pre

1939 Sweden. Gustaf V, K.. 1958 1907 Per. Albin Hansson, P. M.

1939 Switzerland Ernest Wetter, P., term 1 yr.

1941 Dr. Philippe Etter.

1941 Syria (French Mandate)... Sheik Tajeddine Hassani, P

1941 Khaled Bey Assem, Pre

1941 Thailand Ananda Mahidol, K.

1925 1935 Regency of 2 governs., P. of Council Trans-Jordan. Abdullah, Em..

1982 1921 Tunis Sidi, Ahmed, B.

1862 1929 Turkey Gen. Ismet Inonu, P.

1884 1938 Refik Saydam, P. of Council 1881/1939 U.S.S.R. Governed by Soviet Commissars, headed by Joseph V. Stalin.. 1879/1941 Joseph V. Stalin, Pre..

1879|1941

[graphic]

B'n Acs.

RULERS OF THE WORLD (Continued)
Country

Ruler
B'n Acs.

Executive Head
United States. Franklin D. Roosevelt, P., re-elected
for 3rd term 1940...

1882 1933 Uruguay Alfredo Baldomir, P., term 4 yrs.

1938 Vatican City, State of Pius XII, Pope S..

1876 1939: Venezuela Isaias Medina Angarita,

1897 1941 Yugoslavia.. Peter II, K (in exile).

1923 1934 Dusan Simovitch, Pre. Zanzibar.. Seyyid Khalita ibn Harub, Su 1879|1911

1941

Daylight Saving Time in Foreign Countries

Country
Clocks Advanced Country

Clocks Advanced Cuba

1 hour June 1-Sept. 7, 1941 Lithuania (Same time as Moscow) Indefinitely Egypt 1 hour Apr. 15-Sept. 5, 1941 Mexico

1 hour Indefinitely Estonia (Same time as Moscow) Indefinitely New Zealand. 30 minutes Sept. 28, 1941 • France (Unoccupied) 2 hours May 5, 1941

terminates April 26, 1942 Germany 1 hour Indefinitely

Norway

1 hour Indefinitely (Occupied France, Netherlands, Belgium and Portugal

. 1 hour April 5, 1941 Denmark are on same time as Germany.)

Shanghai and *Great Britain. 2 hours May 3-Aug. 9, 1941 Central China. 1 hour March 16, 1941 Greece 1 hour April 7, 1941

Slovakia

1 hour April 8, 1941 Hungary .1 hour April 7, 1941

Uruguay

30 minutes August 1 Iceland 1 hour March 1, 1941

*Clocks have been advanced 1 hour since the Italy & The Vatican, 1 hour Indefinitely

Fall of 1940. Latvia (Same time as Moscow) Indefinitely

As a means of conversing power many countries Canadia, Quebec and Ontario continued daylight in Europe have decided to continue daylight saving saving time throughout the winter pursuant to an throughout the winter months during the war. In order of ne Power Controller.

Sino-Japanese War

A night clash between Japanese and Chinese Nanking, and the great Iron ore region of Central soldiers at Marco Polo bridge, just outside of China. Canton, the rich port in South China, fell Peiping (July 7, 1937), started an undeclared war (Oct. 21, 1938) and then Japan began to consoliin China that later developed into a Japanese cam

date its gains. Nanchang, in Central China, was paign to set up a new economic order in Eastern

captured by the Japanese (March 29, 1939).

A Japanese naval landing party seized Swatow Asia. After four years of fighting the Japanese had

(June 21, 1939), and then blockaded Ningpo, Wen

chow and Foochow. The Japanese controlled (Aug. control of approximately 9,000,000 square miles of 1939) all the important commercial ports of China China with a population of 200,000,000. China's

in its campaign to cut off the supply of munitions greatest ports and commercial cities. The Chinese from outside. army was estimated at 5,000,000, with 10,000,000 Before the fall of Hankow, Generalissimo Chiang additional troops in training and 800,000 Chinese Kat-shek moved his capital to Chungking, in guerrillas operating against the Japanese. The Szechwan province, 1,000 miles in the interior. Japanese forces were approximated at 1,000,000, Chungking was bombed repeatedly (1940) by Japaholding a line 2.800 miles from north to south. nese air forces. Including Manchukuo, the fighting line of the The border of Manchukuo was the scene (1939) Japanese was estimated at 8,000 miles. When the of frequent clashes between the land and air forces Japanese troops advance too far from their bases

of Japan and Russia. There was fighting (July they run the risk of destruction of their lines of and August) at Changkufeng Hill near the borders communications from the rear. Chinese guerrillas of Manchukuo, Korea and Siberia that amounted also operate close to some of the large cities held to miniature war, with each side claiming overby the Japanese.

whelming victories. Earlier (May, 1939) there had The Japanese casualty toll for four years of been clashes in the Lake Bor region in northfighting is estimated by China at 1,994,260 killed western Manchukuo on the disputed border of or wounded and 24,082 prisoners. The Chinese war Outer Mongolia. These frequent clashes immobilminister, Gen. Ho Ying-chin, said that Japan hadized large bodies of Japanese troops in watching lost 336,000 men in the fighting during the twelve the Russians. Russia and Japan signed an armismonths ending May 31, 1941. Gen. Ho said that tice (Sept. 16, 1939). the Japanese had lost 12,322 tanks and armored Japan was in frequent conflict with foreign cars, 1,838 field guns, 7,888 machine guns, 2,054 powers (1938-1939), although there were no such planes and 2,650 air force personnel killed. He incidents as the sinking of the American gunboat said there had been 6,272 separate clashes in the Panay (1937) and the wounding of the British last year and that the only Chinese reverse was the Ambassador to China (1937). Japanese air bombloss of Foochow. On the other hand he reported ings led to many protests by the American and China had regained the southern part of Kwangsi, British Governments over the damage done to their the southernmost province.

nationals, missions and other properties. Japan The Tokio war office put the Japanese loss in applied restrictive measures to the trade of third lives at 109,250; China's losses at 2,015,000 lives powers in all occupied territory and ports and and 1,800,000 wounded. The Japanese Finance (May, 1939) warned that foreign craft suspected Ministry puts its cost at 22,335,000,000 yen (nominal of transporting war materials to China would be value slightly less than 25 cents.) Japanese mill- halted and searched. The Yangtze river was tary authorities say that China has lost 1,977 closed to foreign commerce from Hankow to its planes, 1,475 tanks and armored cars and other mouth, vehicles and 480,000 other arms.

Many of the foreign protests to Tokio were based More than 50,000,000 Chinese have fled to new on the charges that Japan had infringed on the homes in the interior of the country. These Chi- nine-power treaty and the open-door to trade in nese have carried with them whole industrial cities China. The nine-power treaty (signed Feb. 6, with their machinery and have started new manu- 1922) established the principle of equal opportufacturing areas. In China's coastal areas Japan nity for trade and industry to all nations in China. has crippled or starved and driven out much of The United States served notice on Japan (July the third power trade and enterprise.

26, 1939) that it would abrogate its treaty of comJapanese occupied cities in China are partly merce and navigation. Under the treaty's terms ruined as a result of bombings and shellings pre- six months were necessary to elapse before the ceding the capture and as a result of the Chinese abrogation took effect. The six months' period ex*'scorched earth" policy of leaving nothing of value pired (Jan. 26, 1940) and thereafter trade relations behind for the invader.

between the United States and Japan were on a The Japanese forces captured (1937) Peiping, day-to-day basis, Tientsin, North China, Inner Mongolia, Shanghai, An *All-China" Japanese-sponsored regime, Nanking, the Lunghat railway region and the port headed by Wang-Ching-wei, former Chinese Preof Amoy on the South China seacoast. Japanese mier, was proclaimed (March 30, 1940) at Nanforces captured (1938) Kiukiang, Yangtze river king China, dedicated to end the war and to port, Hankow. China's capital after the fall of establish a new economic relationship.

Population and Area of Foreign States and Countries
Source: Latest official sources and news dispatches

Area,
Country

Continent Government or Square Popula- Capital or Chief
or State
Ruling Power Miles

tion

City
Aden and Prot.

Asia.
British Empire..

112.000 48,338 Aden Aegean Islands

Europe.
Italy

1.035 140,848 Rhodes Afghanistan

Asia.
Kingdom

250.000 10,000,000 Kabul Albania.

Europe
Italy

10.629 1,003,124 Tirana
Alberta
No. America. British Empire.

255, 285 772,782 Edmonton Algeria

Africa
France.

847,500 7,234,684 Algiers Andorra

Europe
Fr.-8p. Protect

191

5,231 Andorra Angola

Africa
Portugal

481,226 3.484,300 Loanda Anhalt

Europe
Germany

893 436,213 Dessau Annam

Asia.
French Protect

56,973 5,989,302 Hue
Antigua.
West Indies. British Empire.

108

34,523 St. John Arabia Asia.

1.000.000 10.000.000 Arabla, Saudi.

Asta.
Kingdom.

350,000 5,250,000 Mecca
Argentina.
80. America Republic

1,078,278 13,318,320 Buenos Aires Armenia

Asia..
Soviet Republic.

11,580 1,109,200 Erivan Assam (India)

Asiu.
British Empire

67,334 9.247.857 Shillong
Australia.
Oceania. British Empire.

2.974,581 7.016,449 Canberra Austria.

Europe
Germany

34,064 7,009,014 Vienna A ust.-Hung. (pre-war). . Europe. Emp. & King,

261,259 49.880,000 Vienna Azerbaijan.

Asia.
Russian Soviet.

32,956 2,891,000 Baku
Azores
No. Atlantic.. Portugal.

922 253,935 Ponta Delgada Baden.

Europe.
Germany

5,818 2,518,103 Karlsruhe
Bahamas
West Indies. British Empire.

4,404

67.720 Nassau Bahrein Islands

Asia...
Emirate

250

120,000 Manama Balearic Isles Europe Spain.

1,935

376,735 Palma Ball and Lombok Asla..

Netherlands

3,973

1,802,683 Buleleng Baluchistan

Asia.
British Empire..

134.638

868,617 Quetta Bangka.

Asia.
Netherlands

4.610 205.363 Batavia
Barbados
West Indies. British Empire.

166 195,548 Bridgetown Baroda (India)

Asla.
Seml-Indep'd't.

8,164 2,443,007 Baroda Basutoland.

Africa
British Empire.

11,716 660.650 Meseru Bavaria..

Europe
Germany

30,054 8,280,090 Munich Bechuanaland

Africa
British Protect.

275,000 265.756 Serowe Belgium

Europe
Kingdom.

11.755 8.386,553 Brussels Bengal (India)

Asia
British Empire.

82,955 51.087.338 Calcutta
Bermuda.
No. America. British Empire.

19 31,661 Hamilton Bhutan

Asia.
British Protect.

18,000 300.000 Punakha Bihar and Orissa. Asia.

British Empire.

111,702 42,329,583 Patna Billiton

Asie.
Netherlands

1,866 73,429 Batavia Bismarck Islands Oceania

Australla...

90,000 666,000 Rabaul Bohemia-Moravia Europe

German Prot.

28,717 10,897,000 Prague (Praha) Bolivia... 80. America. Republic

537,792 3.426,296 La Paz Bombay (Presidency) Asis..

British Empire.

151,593 26,347,509 Bombay Bombay (prov.)

Asia.
British Empire.

77,221 18,190,000 Bombay Borneo (Brit. North). Asia.

British Empire.

29,500 270,223 Sandakan Borneo (Dutch).

Asia
Netherlands.

208.285 2,168,661 Banjermasin Bosnia, Herzegovina Europe

Yugo-Slavia

19.768

1,889,929 Sarajevo Brazil So. America. Republic

3,275,510 44,115.825 Rio de Janeiro Bremen

Europe
Germany

99 400.086 Bremen British Columbia No. America.. British Empire.

366,255 761,000 Victoria British Empire

Empire

13,642,218 504,683,246 London Brunel

Anla.
British Protect.

2.226 30,135 Brunei Brunswick

Europe
Germany.

1.418 599,208 Brunswick Bulgaria.

Europe
Kingdom

42,808 6,549,664 Sofia Burma (India)

Asia.
British Empire.

233,492 14,667,146 Rangoon Cambodia.

Asis.
French Protect.

50,663 3,046,000 Pnom-penh Cameroon (French) Africa

French Mand'te.

166,489 2,516,623 Yaounda Cameroons (British)

Africa..
British Mand'te.

34,081 868,637 Buca Canada.

No. America British Empire.. 3,694,863 11,422,000 Ottawa
Canary Isles

No. Atlantic
Spain...

2,807 564,873 Santa Cruz Cape of Good Hope. Africa.

British Empire.

277.169 3,635,100 Cape Town Cape Verde Isles. Africa

Portugal.

1.557 162,055 Porto Grande Cayman Islands West Indies. British Empire.

104

6,182 Georgetown Celebes...

Asia.
Netherlands.

72,886 4.231,906 Macassar Ceylon.

Asia
British Empire..

25,332 5,312,548 Colombo Chad Colony.

Africa
France. ...

461,202 1,432,006 Fort Lamy Channel Islands Europe

British Empire.

75

93,205 St. Hellers Chile... So. America Republic..

296,717 5.000,782 Santiago China (ex. Manchukuo) Asla..

Republic

2,903,475 422,707,868 Chungking (temp.) China (all).

Asia.
Republic

4,480,992 457,835,475 Chungking (temp.) Chosen (Korea)

Asia.
Japan

85,228 22,899,038 Seoul (Keijo) Cochin-China..

Asia
French Colony

26,476 4.615,968 Saigon
Colombia,
So. America. Republic

448,794 9,334,392 Bogota Congo (Belglan)

Africa
Belgium

902,082 10.356,191 Kinshasa Congo (French)

Africa
France.

959,256 3,423,015 Brazzaville Corsica

Europe
France

3,367 289,890 Ajaccio
Costa Rica.
Cent. Amer Republic

23.000 616,000 San Jose Crete.

Europe
Greece .

3,330 345,149 Candia Croatia-Slovenia.

Europe
Yugo-Slavia

16,920 2.739,593 Zagaret (Agram) Cuba. West Indies.. Republic

44,164 4,228,000 Havana Curacao So. America. Netherlands

403

90.870 Willemstad Cyprus.

Asis
British Empire.

3,572 376,529 Nicosia Cyrenaica

Africa
Italy

73,000 164,607 Bengazi Czecho-Slovakla.

Europe
Republic

38,190 9,807,000 Praha Dahomey.

Africa
France

43,232 1,289,128 Porto Noro Dalmatia.

Europe
Yugo-Slavia

4,916 621,429 Ragusa
Europe.
Danzig

Free City

754 415.000 Danzig Denmark

Europe
Kingdom,

16,575 3,805.000 Copenhagen Dominican Republic West Indies Republic.

19,322 1,616,561 Trujillo Cuidad Ecuador. So. America, Republic

275,936 3,200,000 Quito Egypt...

Africa..
Kingdom

383,000 15,920,703 Cairo
Eire (see Ireland)
England (In Monmouth-
shire)

Europe....... British Empire.... 50,328 37,354,917 London

[graphic]
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