Abbildungen der Seite

to 245,000 (1941). The number of portable libraries, which serve the people in the remote districts, increased (1941) to 144,000. The portable libraries delivered 30,000,000 books and magazines to their readers in a single year. The number of volumes in the public libraries (1941) was estimated at 1,500,000,000.

The Government announced (Aug. 13, 1941) that there were 8.338 churches, mosques and synagogues in the country,

Military service is compulsory, beginning at the age of 18. The Red Army, according to Commissar Voroshilov, numbers (1939) 2,500,000, including territorial cadres and frontier guards. The army has a high degree of mechanization. The number of airplanes has not been officially divulged, but it is believed to be approximately 9,000, divided into 160 squadrons of 12 machines. Of these 40 are bombing squadrons, 35 fighting squadrons and the rest reconnaissance squadrons.

Compulsory military training for a period of 110 days for all males between 16 and 50 began in September, 1941.

The Soviet Navy is in the process of reconstruction and consists (1940) of three battleships, all launched in 1911 and since refitted; seven cruisers, one launched in 1905, three in 1915, one in 1916, one in 1936 and one in 1937. There were under construction (1938) 23 destroyers, 134 submarines, 18 torpedo boats, 130 motor torpedo boats, several mine layers, mine sweeping trawlers and miscellaneous craft.

Admiral Nikolai G. Kuznetsov, Commissar of the Navy, announced (July 27, 1940) that Russia would add 168 warships to her fleet (1940-1941). He said the fleet was increased (1939) by 112 ships, large and small torpedo cutters included. "In 1940," he added, "we will get 168-that is a 50 per cent increase. If you consider the tonnage of 1939 as 100 per cent, in 1940 the tonnage will be 200 per cent."

Jane's Fighting Ships, an authoritative naval work, says that very little reliable information is obtainable" about the Russian navy, "but everything goes to suggest that shipbuilding still proceeds at a slow rate."

According to a decree of the Council of People's Commissars (Sept. 29, 1935) consumers' cooperative organizations in the cities were discontinued and their property and trade transferred to the People's Commissariat of Trade of the U. S. S. R. A system of planned development, embracing not only the entire economic field, but all cultural. scientific and public health activity as well, is in operation in the U. S. S. R. This has taken the form of a series of Five-Year Plans, with intermediate annual schedules. The Soviet Union completed (Dec. 31, 1937) its second Five-Year Plan and embarked on a third.

Under the first Plan (completed at the end of 1932) broad bases for heavy industry were established and mass-production was organized in many lines. Many large-scale regional power plants were constructed. Agriculture was completely reorganized on a collectivist basis. Under the second Plan these gains were extended and an improved economic coordination was attained. An important factor on the credit side was the rehabilitation and improvement of rail transport along with wide extension of the waterways system. The opening to navigation of the Northeast Passage and the development of the Soviet Arctic were also notable accomplishments. During the first Plan, 51,000,000,000 rubles was expended on new capital construction; during the second Plan two and a half times that amount. The industrial output was increased 119% during the first Plan; during the second Plan an additional increase of 121% (April 1, 1937-four years and three months of the second Five-Year Plan) was registered. Grain production increased 40 per cent under the second Plan. Industrial output in 1928 was 232.7% that of 1913; and in 1932 was 358.9% that of 1913.

The first year of each Five-Year Plan is usually taken as a test year. The schedule (1938) called for an increase in the output of industry of 15.5% and commensurate gains in other lines.

The annual output of Soviet industry has shown a six-fold increase during the past decade, the period of the first two Five-Year Plans. The increase (1937) was 13%. This was considerably below the schedule of increase for the year, owing to a decided lag in output during the summer and fall. The program (1938) called for an increase in output of 15.5% and the construction of 147 new large enterprises in heavy industry. The U. S. S. R. during the second Five-Year Plan took first place among the European countries in industrial production.

Nikolai Voznesensky, at the time Vice Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and chairman of the State Planning Commission, told the

18th conference of the Communist party in Moscow (Feb. 19, 1941) that, taking the 1929 level of production as 100, he rated Russia's 1940 production at 534. He also reported that in three years of the Third Five-Year Plan, Russia's national income increased by 29,500,000,000 rubles for a total income of 125,500,000,000 in 1940.

The State Planning Commission was directed to draw up a 15-year plan "to surpass capitalistic countries" in industrial production. The plan is to be designed to speed up production in pig iron, steel, fuel, electricity, machinery and consumer goods industries.

All large-scale industry in the U.S.S.R. is stateowned or operated by cooperative organizations. The state industries, which include all of the more important enterprises, account for more than 99.97% of the total industrial output of the country. They are operated under the supervision of the industrial commissariats. There are only a few scattered private industrial enterprises.

The Government ordered (June 26, 1940) new working hours throughout the country. Workers who had a five-day, 35-hour week had to sacrifice it for a six-day week of 48 hours. The six-day week was suspended and the seven-day week restored. Workers in branches working a six-hour day are required to work seven; those who worked seven are required to work eight hours. The work period of those on an eight-hour day is not changed. Industry was put on an overtime basis during the war with Germany.

The five-day working week was a feature of the changes wrought by the Revolution. Soviet trade unions urged the change to a longer work day and work weeks and the Government adopted the suggestion.

The Government drafts annually from 800,000 to 1,000,000 youths between 14 and 17 years for industrial training after which they work for the State for four consecutive years.

Before the revolution agricultural methods were extremely primitive. More than 60 per cent of the arable land was held by the imperial family. churches, large estates and "kulaks," the remainder being parcelled out among some 16,000,000 peasant households whose average holding-divided into three strips-was less than 14 acres. Grain area of collective farms increased from 187,500,000 acres (1933) to 230,000,000 acres (1938). Grain area of individual peasant farmers dropped in this period from 38,794,000 acres to 1,482,600 acres, or 0.6 per cent of the total grain area.

The revolution released much new land for the peasants, but over a decade passed before the Soviet Government was able to effect a general change in the set-up. The drive for collectivization began (1928-29) and today the bulk of the agricultural output as represented by large-scale, mechanized collective farms in which the peasant holdings are pooled. There were 243,000 collective farms (1941), operated by 18,800,000 households. Individual holdings were still worked by 1,400,000 peasant families. A number of large farms, most of which serve as agricultural laboratories and experiment stations, are operated directly by the State. Cash incomes in collective farms of rubles (1933), 5,662,000,000; (1937), 14,180,000,000; (1939). 18,300,000,000.

The backbone of mechanization in Soviet agriculture is furnished by the machine and tractor stations, each of which serves collective farms within its area. These stations operated (1940) 523.000 tractors and 182,000 combines.

The length of airlines in the U. S. S. R. (1940) was approximately 100,000 miles. Transport aviation carried (1939) 307,000 passengers, 11,500 tons of mail and 39,654 tons of cargo. By the end of the Third Five-Year Plan it is expected 450,000 persons will be carried annually.

Electric power development and operation in the Soviet Union is conducted under a unified system on a single technical and organizational foundation. Under this system a series of large regional power plants serves the principal industrial and mining sections of the country. High voltage grid networks covering wide areas link the regional plants. There are some 75 regional plants in operation, furnishing three-fourths of the country's power supply.

The budget reflects the economic progress of the Soviet Union because of the high degree of socialization of the nation. The first firm" budget (1923-1924) balanced at 2,317,600,000 rubles. Budgets (in thousands of rubles) for the last four years follow: Receipts Expenditures









[blocks in formation]

The budget (1941) provides for the expenditure of

57,000,000,000 rubles for capital construction. The defense appropriation (1941) is 78,002,000,000 rubles, a four-fold increase in four years.

The nominal value of the ruble is 19 cents, but accurate conversion into American money figures is impossible because of the lack of an open market. The number of workers (1940) was 30,400,000 and the estimate (1941) was 31,600,000. The wage fund (1940) was 161,000,000,000 rubles and the estimate (1941) 175,000,000,000. State and Cooperative retail trade reached a value of 174,500,000,000 rubles (1940), with an estimate of 197,000,000,000 (1941). Here are the figures on daily output in tons: 1940


Oil with gas.
Rg. iron




1937 370,000 84-86,000 40,000 50-51,000 The volume of capital investments in the national economy (1940) reached nearly 38,000,000,000 rubles, and for the three years of the third FiveYear Plan reached 108,000,000,000 rubles. During these three years 2,900 new factories, plants, power stations and other industrial plants were put into operation. The average annual growth of production during these three years was 13%. Industrial production in rubles was:

[blocks in formation]

1941 (Plan)) 137,500,000,000 162,000,000,000

The State Bank is the center of the banking system. It has a monopoly of short term loan operations and it is the only bank of issue. It also finances the bulk of the foreign trade operations. Other banks are the Prombank (Industrial Bank), which finances capital construction in state industries; the Selkhozbank (Agricultural Bank), which finances capital investments in socialized agriculture; the Vsekobank (All-Union Cooperative Bank), which finances capital construction for cooperative organizations except housing_cooperatives, and the Tsekombank (Central Bank for Public Utilities), which finances municipal public utilities, housing projects and the building of new cities.

Soviet currency has circulation only within the Soviet Union, both exports and imports thereof being prohibited by law. All payments abroad are made in gold or foreign currency. Gold mining has increased rapidly of recent years and the Soviet Union is said to stand second among the nations in gold production. No official figures for output are given.

The Soviet Government exercises a monopoly of foreign trade, under the Commissariat for Foreign Trade, and both exports and imports are regulated in accordance with the country's system of planned economy. The Commissariat maintains trading bureaus in foreign countries. In addition some of the large industrial syndicates buy equipment abroad under the supervision of the Commissariat.


year terms. The President appoints a Cabinet of nine from the parties which have a majority in Parliament. President and Ministers are subject to votes of censure. The President of Uruguay is Gen. Alfredo Baldomir (elected March 27, 1938).

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY), Capital, Montevideo-Area, 72,153 square miles-Population (Jan. 1, 1938), 2,146,545 Uruguay, the smallest republic in South America, is bounded on the north and east by Brazil, on the south by the South Atlantic Ocean and the River Plata, and on the west by Argentina, the boundary line being the River Uruguay, which is navigable from the Plata to Salto, 200 miles north. In area it is slightly larger than the States of New York, New Jersey. Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Lying between latitudes 30° and 35 south and consisting of rolling grassy plains, it enjoys an extraordinarily healthy climate with a uniform temperature. More than 2,150,000 acres are under cultivation. The chief products are wheat, corn, oats, linseed, tobacco and olives. Wine making is a large industry.

The new constitution presented by the Constituent Assembly of 284 members who were elected (June 25, 1933) was adopted by a plebiscite (April 19, 1934). It provides for a Chamber of Deputies of 99 members elected by the Provinces according to population, and a Senate of 30 members elected by the nation as a whole, 15 being from the party polling the largest vote and 15 from the party with the next largest vote. Suffrage is universal and compulsory, failure to vote being punishable by fine. Foreigners may become natúralized without losing their former citizenship. The President, Senators and Deputies have four

Much of the Uruguayan code of advanced social legislation was written into the constitution, which provides for old-age pensions, child welfare, State care of mothers, free medical attention for the poor, workmen's accident insurance, cheap dwellings for laborers, an eight-hour day and a six-day week, a minimum wage and special consideration for employed women and minors. workmen's right to strike and form unions. It recognizes Church and state are separate and there is complete religious tolerance. ligion is Roman Catholic. The preponderant recompulsory and free. Primary education is There is a university in Montevideo. The language is Spanish. The monetary unit is the peso. receipts (1940) are estimated at 91,220,000 pesos Government with expenditures of 91,143,000. The gold peso has a nominal value of $.44.

Service in the standing army is voluntary, but compulsory military services was adopted (1940) for men reaching the age of 21 who are called for a short, intensive military training to pass them into the reserves.

Vatican City

(CITTA DEL VATICANO) Area, 1.6 square miles-Population (Dec. 1932), 1,025 The Popes for many centuries, with some slight interruptions, held temporal sovereignty over midItaly (the so-called Papal States), extending from sea to sea, comprising an area of some 16,000 square miles, with a population in the nineteenth century of more than 3,000 000. This territory in the reign of Pius IX. was incorporated in the Kingdom of Italy, the sovereignty of the Pope being confined to the palaces of the Vatican and the Lateran in Rome and the villa of Castel Gandolfo, by the Italian law (May 13, 1871). This law also guaranteed to the Pope and his successors in the chair of St. Peter a yearly indemnity of 3,225,000 lire ($622,425 at par of exchange), which allowance, however, remained unclaimed and unpaid.

Final settlement of the Roman question came after negotiations (begun Oct. 4, 1926), when the Treaty of Conciliation, the Concordat and the financial convention were signed in the Lateran Palace (Feb. 11, 1929) by Cardinal Gasparri and Premier Mussolini. The treaty was duly ratified by the Pope and by the Italian Parliament (May 14 and 25) and signed by the King (May 27) and became effective (June 7) by exchange of ratification at the Vatican.

(For summary of the Lateran Treaty, see The World Almanac for 1930, pages 717, 718, and for 1931 pages 716-18).

the Vatican gardens, and neighboring buildings
between Viale Vaticano and the Church. Thirteen
buildings in Rome, although outside the boun-
daries, enjoy extra-territorial rights; these include
buildings housing the congregations or officers nec-
essary for the administration of the Holy See.
The legal system is based on the code of canon
law, the apostolic constitutions and the laws
especially promulgated for the Vatican City by the
Sovereign Pontiff or those to whom he may delegate
legislative power. In all cases not covered the
Italian law of Rome applies. The flag of the State
is white and yellow, charged with the crossed
keys and triple tiara. Postage stamps have been
issued, and a complete coinage was struck (1931).
A modern fire department was installed (1940).
A wireless station was set up (1930).

The present Sovereign of the State of Vatican
City is the Supreme Pontiff, Pius XII, Eugenio
Pacelli (born March 2, 1876) in Rome and elected
Pope, 262nd, in succession to Pius XI (March 2,
1939). The Secretary of State is Cardinal Luigi
Maglione (appointed March 11, 1939).
Pius XI, in 1933, began to go outside Vatican City,
The late
and summered, with more or less regularity, at
Castel Gandolfo in the Alban Hills. He modern-
ized life and habits in the State of Vatican City
by full use of wireless, telegraph, telephones, ra-
dios, automobiles and other up-to-date conven-

Vatican City includes St. Peter's, the Vatican
Palace and Museum covering more than 13 acres,iences.


Capital, Caracas-Area, 352,170 square miles-Population (1936) 3,491,159
Venezuela is the northernmost state of South
America and is bounded on the north by the
Caribbean Sea, with a coast line of 1,750 miles, on
the east by British Guiana, the southeast by Brazil,
and the west and southwest by Colombia, with
maximum measurements of 928 miles from east to
west, 790 miles from north to south. Seventy-two
islands are included in the territory of Venezuela,
the largest being Margarita (20 by 40 miles) which
has been made the State of Nueva Esparta, and is
an important pearl center.

remarkable equally for its engineering and its
connects La Guaira, the seaport, with Caracas, a
incomparable mountain scenery, 25 miles long,
distance of about seven miles airline. The con-
necting railway is 23 miles long. In all, Venezuela
has more than 6,000 miles of highways.

The Orinoco River, with its tributaries, drains about four-fifths of the country. About 1,100 miles in length and 1311⁄2 miles wide at the apex of the delta, it is the third largest river system in South America, and is navigable to Puerto Ayacucho (more than 1,000 miles upstream), where the extensive rapids of Atures and Maipures prevent further navigation.

Venezuela is entirely within the Torrid Zone, the southern boundary extending to less than one degree north of the Equator. The northernmost The spurs of the Eastern Andes point is 12° 11'. and the foothills are covered with dense forests; the high plateaus provide excellent grazing. The climate is tropical in Central Ilanos and in the coastal regions, becoming temperate between 1,800 and 6,000 feet, and cold in the higher sections. Agriculture and stock raising are the chief industries. It is estimated that 20% of the total population (or about 75% of those gainfully employed) Coffee is the major is engaged in the former. agricultural export, and is second only to petroleum in total export value. Other important exports are cacao, balata, tonka beans, hides and rubber. Imports are textiles, machinery and hardware, foodstuffs, chemicals and drugs. Venezuela is one of the foremost petroleum countries of the world. Other minerals are gold, copper, coal, salt, Diamonds are also iron, tin, asbestos and mica. mined. Caracas, the capital, has an estimated population of about 300,000 (an increase of nearly 100,000 since Other cities (1936 census) are: the 1936 census). Maracaibo, 110.010; Valencia, 49,214; Barquisimeto, 36.429; and Ciudad Bolivar, 25,134, a thriving river port 270 miles from the mouth of the Orinoco, and an outlet for half the area of Venezuela-the Guayana Highlands. The city has many imposing and important buildings, some of them of keen historical interest.

from highway extends The Trans-Andean Caracas west to San Cristobal near the Colombian border, and to Cucuta, over the line, a distance of 790 miles through the richest parts of the country, crossing the Andes at an altitude of 14,100 ft. A concrete road, Buses make it in three days.

Venezuela is constructing (1941) a 700-mile highway through the interior to Colombia. The road is part of the Government's program to open up the interior and to increase colonization.

Venezuela has had many revolutions and many revisions of its Constitution since the first was adopted (1819). That now in force was promulelected by Congress for five years; a Senate of gated (July 11, 1936) and provides for a President, 40 members, and a House of Deputies of 85 members, elected for four years; 50% of both Houses is renewed every two years. There are 20 autonomous states, a federal district and two territories. The Constitution also embraces a basic labor law that calls for a certain amount of profit sharing, trades unions and collective bargaining, an eightcompulsory compensation insurance, recognition of hour day, and a revised banking law requiring Men over 21 have suffrage. Venezuela. banks to keep 80% of their deposits invested in

Isaias Medina Angarita was elected President by Congress (April 28, 1941).

The President must be Venezuelan by birth, at least 30 years of age, and may not be a cleric. Cabinet members must possess the same qualifications.


The government has shown great interest in public health, and expenditures for public health work have been increased in the last two or three years. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare outlined a 3-year plan (1938-1940) of health work, much of which has been put in operation. than 70 water supply systems, and 16 sewerage systems. at a total cost of over 46 million bolivares are planned. The fields in which the most work is actually being done are malaria control, tubercuand health education. losis, maternal and child welfare, venereal disease

The language is Spanish and Roman Catholic is the State religion, but religious freedom is guaranteed. All education, including college, is free. Primary and secondary education are compulsory. This comprises three years' service in the active Military service is obligatory between 21 and 45. army and in the reserve until 45.

The monetary unit is the bolivar; see Index, Latin American Exchange Rates. The bolivar has a nominal value of $.28.

Government receipts (1940-1941) are estimated at 344,515,000 bolivars with expenditures the same. Venezuela has no public debt.



Capital, Belgrade-Area, 95,558 square miles-Population (est. 1940) 16,200,000 The Kingdom of the Yugoslavia, populated by the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, is bounded by Germany (Austria), Hungary and Rumania on the north, by Rumania and Bulgaria on the east, by Greece in the south, and Italy (Albania), the Adriatic Sea and Italy on the west.

Serbia, which had since the Battle of Kosovo, (1389) been a vassal principality of Turkey, was established as an independent kingdom by the Treaty of Berlin (July 13, 1878). After the Balkan wars (1913) her boundaries were enlarged by the The Government of annexation of Old Serbia. Austria-Hungary laid the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand (June 28, 1914) to a Serbian plot and by invasion following her ultimatum brought on the World War (1914-18). Serbia was overrun and suffered enormously, but (October, 1918) her army smashed the invaders' resistance on the Salonika front and, with an irresistible drive toward the north, reoccupied Belgrade (Nov. 3, 1918). At the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the National Assemblies formed in different provinces of the Empire: Croatia, Slovenia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Voyvodina and the former independent state of Montenegro as well voted the reunion in one common and independent state, together with Serbia. This union was proclaimed and became effective (Dec. 1, 1918) with Peter I of Serbia as King of the new "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes," later officially named "The Kingdom of Yugoslavia." King Peter I was succeeded on his death (1921) by his son Alexander I, who was

assassinated (Oct. 9, 1934) at Marseilles, France,
Crown Prince Peter (born Sept. 6,
by a terrorist.
1923) was proclaimed King (Oct. 11, 1934) with a
regency of three members until he becomes of age.
The Regency resigned (March 27, 1941) two days
after the Cabinet of Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch
had joined Yugoslavia with the Axis Powers
(Germany, Italy and Japan). King Peter ascended
the throne (March 28) and the Cvetkovitch Cabinet
resigned. King Peter appointed a new Cabinet
with Gen. Richard Dusan Simovitch, chief of the
Air Corps, as Premier. The new Cabinet refused
to ratify the Axis pact.

The legislative power is vested in the King, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The country under the constitution of 1931 is a parliamentary and hereditary monarchy. The Senate consists of members elected for six years, half of whom are re-elected every three years. The King may nominate as many as the number elected.

The original 33 provinces were abolished (1930) and the country divided into nine banats (counties) and the district of Belgrade.

Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis armies (1941). King Peter fled and established a refugee government in England with Prime Minister Dusan Simovitch as its head. Italy, Albania and Bulgaria took slices out of Yugoslavia and there also were Serbia was recreated Montenegro and Croatia. reduced to its pre-1918 proportions. All male inhabitants over the age of 21 have The last general election to the right to vote. of 373 Deputies. Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch Parliament (Dec. 11, 1938) resulted in the choice

formed a new cabinet (Feb. 5, 1939) comprised of Croats, Slovenes, Mohammedans and Serbs. Thre Premier was instructed by Prince Paul, Chief Regent, to legislate a new form of accord with the Croats. This accord was reached (Aug. 26, 1939) whereby an autonomous Croat province was created with its own Parliament (Sabor) to deal with their own administrative, cultural, economic and financial problems. At the same time free elections with the secret ballot and freedom of the press were restored.

The monetary unit is the dinar with a nominal value of $.23 until the occupation by Germany. The budget (1939-1940) estimated revenue of 12,786,000 dinars and expenditures of 11,920,000.

Elementary education is nominally compulsory and free. There are universities at Belgrade, Zagreb, Lyublyana, Skoplye and Subotica. All religions are recognized and enjoy equal rights. Serbian-Orthodox ranks first followed by the Roman Catholic.

Under the law of 1931 Army service is compulsory for men between the ages of 21 and 50. Service in

the active Army is for 20 years with two years under the colors. For 18 years the soldier remains subject to recall for training and the last ten years is passed in the second reserve.

Agriculture is the basic industry, for Yugoslavia is a country of small peasant holdings, and it is closely followed by cattle raising and forestry. These furnish occupation for 85% of the population. Nearly one-third of the area is covered with forests (19,068,637 acres), about 60% (35,963.159 acres) is devoted to agriculture, and of this. 80% is sown to cereals. The chief crops are wheat, barely, rye, oats, corn, hops and grapes. The principal minerals are coal, iron, copper, chrome-ore. lead, salt and bauxite. The country is the largest producer of copper in Europe.

The river navigation of the Danube and the Sava is important. Split and Sushak, with excellent docks, are the largest of the 58 ports.

The chief exports are wheat, corn, tobacco, hops, copper, lead, iron-ore, bauxite, cement and prunes; the chief imports, cotton and woollen textiles, machinery and chemicals.

[blocks in formation]

It should be noted that the League recognized the annexation of Austria by Germany (March, 1938). Germany now dominates Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Greece, Holland, Luxemburg-as well as France and Rumania. Poland was divided between Germany and Russia. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are parts of the Soviet Union. Control of Yugoslavia is divided between Germany and Italy. Italy has annexed Albania.

Germany entered the League (Sept. 10, 1926) and (Oct. 19, 1933) gave the required two years' notice of withdrawal because the powers in the Disarmament Conference refused to grant her equality in arms. She officially withdrew (Oct. 19, 1935).

Japan having given notice (1933), officially withdrew (March 27, 1935), but retains her mandates in the Pacific. Japan withdrew because the League adopted the report of the Lytton Commission reaffirming Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria and condemning Japan's aggressive action.

Italy gave two years' notice of withdrawal (Dec. 11. 1937) because, during her war with Ethiopia, the League applied economic and financial sanctions against her, and after these measures were raised, refused officially to recognize her sovereignty over Ethiopia. Italy withdrew (1939).

The twentieth session of the Assembly, which was postponed until December, 1939, on account of the outbreak of the war, expelled the Soviet Union

failure to join or withdrawal are:




Saudi Arabia Spain

U. S. S. R. United States Venezuela

because of her aggression against Finland and asked member-states to give Finland any aid in their power. It also adopted the Bruce Report, placing League non-political work in the charge of a new Central Committee on Social and Economic Questions with which non-member states will be invited to cooperate fully.

The Assembly, the Parliament of the League, in which all nations may have three delegates and one vote ordinarily meets annually in September. The Council, the Cabinet of the League, met at least three times a year. The Secretariat, the Civil Service of the League, has employed as many as 700, but at present has about 100 workers of whom about 70 are still in Geneva. The Assembly gave emergency power (1938) to the League Supervisory Commission, enabling it to vote a budget to carry on reduced activities in the absence of regular Assembly and Council meetings.

The League has established a branch of its Economic and Financial Department in Princeton, N. J., because of the difficulties of communication in Switzerland.

The Permanent Central Opium Board and the Drug Supervisory Body of the League have opened a branch office in Washington, D. C. Thus, in the United States and in Geneva some of the nonpolitical work of the League continues, even under war conditions.

Japan Supplies Canaries to the United States

Source: Foreign Commerce Weekly, Aug. 2, 1941

Canaries, formerly supplied to the United States from Germany, are now coming in increasing numbers from Japan. Advices from Japan indicate that shipments to the United States during the first half of the current year approximated 50,000 birds which compared with 1,000 during all of 1940.

The outstanding problem in connection with this trade, Japanese shippers state, is the heavy mortality that takes place in the long voyage across the Pacific, but they are hoping that means will be found to overcome this obstacle.

Canaries are but one of a number of new items appearing in Japan's export trade with the United States since of war eliminated many European sources of supply. Another item in this class is cuttlefish bones for bird food, a commodity formerly supplied by Italy. Several Japanese firms are reported interested in this trade, one company reports that in a single month orders received from the United States for cuttlefish bones amounted to more than 25 tons.

Rulers or Heads of Governments of the World

Source: Latest official sources and news despatches; B means Bey; C, Czar; E, Emperor; EM, Emir:
F and C, Fuehrer and Chancellor; G, Governor; GD, Grand Duchess; GG, Governor-General; HC, High
Commissioner; K, King; LG, Lieut. Gen.; M, Maharajah; P, President; PM, Prime Minister; PR,
Prince; PRE, Premier; PRO, Protector; P and S, Pope and Sovereign; Q. Queen; R, Regent; SH, Shah:
SU. Sultan; V. Viceroy.

[blocks in formation]


Mohammed Zahir, Shah, K.
Victor Emmanuel III, K

Arabia-Saudi..Abd-el-Aziz es Saud ibn. Saud, K
Ramon S. Castillo, Temp. P.
Lord Gowrie of Ruthven, G.-G.
Leopold III, K. (in exile).



Bhutan (Br.



[blocks in formation]

Jig-me Wang-chuk, M.
Gen. Enrique Penaranda, P
Dr. Getulio Vargas, P.
Boris III, C....

Prince Sianouk, K.

Earl of Athlone, G..

(B'n Acs.

Executive Head

B'n Acs.

[blocks in formation]

Pedro Aguirre Cerda, P., term 6 yrs. 1879 1938
Lin Sen, P., Nat'l Gov't.

Eduardo Santos, P..

Dr. Rafael Calderon Guardia, P.

Col. Fulgencio Batista, P.; term 4 yrs.

Dr. Edward Benes (in exile)...
Karl Burckhardt, H. C..

Christian X, K...

1931 Chiang Kai-shek, P., Execu. Yuan

1903 1940

1940 Carlos Saladrigas, Pre.

1884 1940 Baron von Neurath, Pro.

1870 1912 Thorvald Stauning, Pre.

M. de J. Troncoso de la Concha, P. 1878 1940

Arroyo Del Rio, P.

Faruk I, K

Risto Ryti, P.

Henri Phillipe Petain, P.

Adolf Hitler, F. and C., for life.
George VI, K. and E..
George II, K (in exile)
Gen. Jorge Ubico, P.
Elle Lescot, P

Gen. Tiburcio Carias Andino, P.
Admiral Nicholas von Horthy, R.
Christian X, K

The Marquess of Linlithgow,
Mohammed Shah Pahlevi, Sh.

Faisal II, K.

Eamon de Valera, P. M.
Duke of Abercorn, G..
Victor Emmanuel III, K
Hirohito, E.

Edwin J. Barclay, P

Liechtenstein.. Francz Joseph II, Pr.






Charlotte, G. D., (in exile)
Henry Pu, E., Kang-Teh.

Manuel Avila Camacho, P., term,

6 years

Louis II, Pr.

see Bohemia and Moravia

Sidi Mohammed, Sul..
Tribhubana Sir Bikram, Sh
Wilhelmina, Q., (in exile).

Newfou'dland. Vice-Admiral Humphrey T. Wal

wyn, G

New Zealand.. Sir. Cyril L. N. Newall.


[blocks in formation]

Gen. Anastasio Sonoza, P.
Haakon VII. (in exile).
Seyyid Said Ibn Taimur, Su

Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael, H. C.
Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia.
Higino Morinigo, P..

Manuel Prado, P., 6-year term...

Philippine Isl.. Manual Quezon, P.





Slam (see


Soudan, An

Wladislaw Raczkiewicz, P. (in exile)
Gen. Antonio Carmona, P.
Michael, K

Gen. Maximiliano H. Martinez, P.,
re-elected 1939 for 5 years..

Josef Tiso, P....

[blocks in formation]

1896 1919 Dr. Joseph Hoof, G. G..

1906 1934 Gen, Chang Ching-hui, P. M.


1870 1922

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

1891 1939 Alfredo Sol, Pre..
1878 1935

1939 Wladislaw Sikorsky, Pre
1869 1926 Dr. Antonio Salazar, P. M..
1921 1940 Ion Antonescu, Pre..



glo-Egyptian. Lieut. Gen, H. J. Huddleston, G. G. 1880 1940

So. Africa,

Union of..

[blocks in formation]

Sir Patrick Duncan, G. G..
Francisco Franco, Pre..

Gustaf V, K......

Ernest Wetter, P., term 1 yr.

Mandate)....Sheik Tajéddine Hassani, P
Ananda Mahidol, K


Trans-Jordan. Abdullah, Em.


[blocks in formation]

Sidi, Ahmed, B.
Gen. Ismet İnonu, P.

Governed by Soviet Commissars,
headed by Joseph V. Stalin...

1937 Jan Christian Smuts, P. 1892 1939 Francisco Franco, Pre. 1858 1907 Per. Albin Hansson, P. M. 1941 Dr. Philippe Etter..

1941 Khaled Bey Assem, Pre.

1925 1935 Regency of 2 governs., P. of Council
1882 1921

1862 1929

1884 1938 Refik Saydam, P. of Council.

1879 1941 Joseph V. Stalin, Pre..








1881 1939

1879 1941

« ZurückWeiter »