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at the time of the death of Kemal Ataturk. The adopted a second Five-year plan for mining and new cabinet re-elected Ismet Inonu.

electrification. Military service is compulsory. 18 months in the Agriculture is the chief industry of the Turks, infantry, two years in the other services and three products being tobacco. which goes to almost all years in the Navy. Men are called up at the age world marts; cereals, cotton, figs, nuts, fruits of of 20 and liability continues for 20 years. Since almost all varieties, opium and gums. About 20 the outbreak of the war, the Army has been main- million acres are in forests. tained at war strength by calling up reservists, Turkey has large mineral resources, not yet depremature calling of new classes and reclassifying veloped, including chrome ore, zinc, manganese, men previously exempted.

antimony, copper, borax, emery, asphalt, meer Reorganization of the Navy, started before the schaum, some coal and lignite, salt, some gold and war, continues and the effective fleet comprises one silver, and petroleum on lands bordering the battle cruiser, two cruisers, two gunboats and Marmor & Sea. miscellaneous small craft. he effective strength The monetary unit is the piaster with an average is approximately 800 officers and 4,000 men,

value of $.80. Budget estimates (1940-1941) are Turkey adopted (1935) a Five-year plan for in- receipts 268,481,000 Turkish pounds; expenditures, dustrialization of the country and the next year 268.476,321. A pound equals 100 piasters,

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

(RUSSIA) Capital, Moscow-Area, 8,819,791 square miles-Population (est. 1940), 192,695,710 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics-in area aristocracy, now sanatoria for the people, contrast the largest country in the world-stretches across with the picturesque villages of the Crimeans, a two continents from the North Pacific Ocean to the mixture of Tartar, Turk and Russian. The highGulf of Finland. It occupies the northern part way from Sevastopol along the shores of the Black of Asia and the eastern half of Europe, from the Sea looks on a steadily-changing panorama of Arctic to the Black Sea. Its western borders brush

mountains and flourishing valleys studded with

quaint Tartar villages. The highway winds past against Finland, the Baltic Sea, Germany

Yalta, Alupka, Mischor, Massandra, Gurzut--a (Poland), Hungary and Rumania. On the south

chain of health resorts washed by the warm waters it is bounded by Rumania, the Black Sea, Turkey. of the Black Sea. Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongol People's Re- The Caucasus is the most scenic part of the public and Manchukuo.

Soviet Union. It is a land of ever-varying scenery The vast territory of the U. S. S. R., one-sixth where glaciers alternate with sub-tropical vegetaof the earth's land surface, contains every phase tion, a land where medieval mountain hamlets of climate, except the distinctly tropical, and a are just a few hours' ride from great power stations. varied topography. The European portion is a The stretch of coast between the Caucasus Mounvast low plain with the Ural mountains on its tain Range and the sea is known as the "Black eastern edge, the Crimean and Caucasian moun- Se& Riviera"; Sochi. Matsesta, Cagry. Sukhuin tains on the south and southeast. The Urals, and Batum are some of the famous resort towns. separating the European from the Asiatic portions The new Soviet constitution (adopted Dec. 5, of the country, stretch north and south for 2,500 1936), replacing that of 1924, divided the country miles. The Asiatic portion of the U. S. S. R. also into eleven Union Republics, each with its separate consists largely of an immense plain, with moun- government for local affairs, patterned on the tain ranges on its eastern and southern borders. Union Government. A twelfth Union Republic,

The rivers are important as actual or potential the Karelo-Finnish, was formed (1940), followed channels of commerce. In the European section by the Moldavian, the thirteenth; the Lithuanian, these include the Dnieper, flowing into the Black the fourteenth; the Latvian, the fifteenth, and Sea, and the Volga and the Ural, flowing into the the Estonian, the sixteenth, all in the same year. Caspian Sea. The Asiatic section is drained by The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, three great rivers, the Ob, the Yenisei and the with nearly two-thirds of the entire population of Lena, each over 2500 miles long, flowing into the the Union and upwards of three-fourths of the Arctic Ocean, and contains several large rivers in area, is the largest and most important of the the south, including the Amur, which flows into Union Republics. A list of the Union Republics, the Pacific Ocean. The northern rivers and the with areas and populations, follows: Arctic coastline of 4,000 miles have been opened to

Area, Sq. Mi. navigation during recent years.

Pop. The area of the Soviet Union contains virtually Russian S. F. S. R, .6,368, 768 109,278,614 every material natural resource of modern civiliza

Ukrainian S. S. R

170,978 38,960,221 tion--minerals of all kinds, base and precious;

Byelorussian S. S. R. every variety of timber, except tropical; every

(White Russia)

49,022 10,367,976 character of cereal, vegetable and iruit lands. Armenian S. S. R.

11,580 1,281,599 About 38% of the territory of the Soviet Union is Georgian S. S. R.

26,865 3,542,289 timber area, 3, 124,360 square miles. Land poten- Azerbaijan S. S. R.

32,956 3,209,727 tially suitable for agriculture is estimated at up- Uzbek S. S. F. R

66,392 6,282,446 wards of 1,037,400,000 acres, of which about one

Turkmen S. S. R.

17,384 eighth is cultivation.

1,253,985 now under

Potential

Tadjik S. S. R. hydraulic resources are estimated at 280,000,000

55,040 1,485,091

Kazak S. S. R kilowatts.

1,047,797 6,145,937 Known mineral resources include: coal, peat,

Kirghiz S. S. R

75.926 1,459,301 oil, iron ore, manganese, copper, zinc and lead.

Karelo Finnish S. S. R

16,173

469, 100 The capital of this vast country is Moscow, a city Moldavian S. S. R

19,176 3,464,952 of great charm, called the nerve center of the Lithuanian S. S. R

22,959 2,879,070 Soviet Union. Its lofty modern structures tower Latvian S. S. R

25,402 1,950,502 over quaint remnants of Czarist Russia and

Estonian S. S. R

18,353 1,134,000 ancient winding streets enter unexpectedly into

Total U. S. S. R.

8,819,791 spacious squares with shining Metro stations,

183,736,286 fresh flower-beds and trees. Here is the famous

The twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth Kremlin, the citadel of Moscow enclosing the and sixteenth Union Republics were occupied by former palace of the Czar.

German and Finnish forces (1941) in the war Leningrad (formerly St. Petersburg and Petro- between U.S. S. R. and the Reich. grad), situated on the delta of the Neva River and Large sections of White Russia, the Ukraine and spread out over many islands, is the center of parts of the Byelorussian and Moldavian Republics science and research in the U.'S. S. R. It is a

also were occupied by the Axis forces, including city of museums and palaces, including the “Mu- the section of Poland awarded to Russia in the seum of the Revolution, the pre-war Winter Pal- German-Soviet partition, ace, the Palace of Count Stroganoff, built by Ras- The census (1939) gives 18.6 percent of the trelli, the Catherine and Alexander Palaces at Dets- population (Arctic regions not included) as below koe Selo, and the terraced fountains and palaces the age of 7, and 41 per cent between the ages of of Peterhof. Priceless paintings of Rubens, Vales- 15 and 39, with 6.6 more than 60 years old. It quez and Titian adorn the walls of the Hermitage gives 81.2 per cent of the population as literate, Museum.

or 90.8 per cent of the men and 72.6 per cent of Kiev, the 1,000-year-old capital of the Ukrainian the women. Illiteracy was to have been entirely U.S. S. R. is a busy industrial city and the scien- cleared up by the completion of the second fivetific center of the Ukrainian Republic. The ancient year plan at the end of January, 1938. (In 1926, Kiev-Perchersky Monastery, now converted into a literacy of the population of the Soviet Union historical museum, presents an outstanding ex- above the age of 9 was put at 51 per cent.) ample of medieval slavonic architecture.

As to education, 8.86 per cent of the population The Crimea is called the vacationland of the was found to have secondary school training and Soviet Union. Shining palaces of the former 0.64 per cent university training.

By nationality Russians made up 58.41 per cent tin vanadium and molybdenum. Establishment of of the population of 170,000,000 in the Soviet large irrigation projects during recent years has Union, Ukrainians 16.56 per cent and White Rus- made cotton growing important of recent years a sians 3.11 per cent. Jews, of whom there were high quality Egyptian type cotton has been grown. 3,020,141 in the Soviet Union, made up 1.78 per Three-fifths of the population is composed of Azercent and the Germans, numbering 1,423,534, or baijanians, a Turkish people. Georgia, in west0.84 per cent.

ern Transcaucasus, contains the largest manganese There were forty-nine recognized nationalities, mines in the world. There are rich timber replus more than 1,800,000 persons of other national sources. Large coal deposits have recently been groups.

discovered Output of industrial machinery has The constitution (1936) provides for universal become important of recent years. Grain and wine direct suffrage with the secret ballot. The first grapes are principal crops. The population inelection under the new constitution was held (Dec. cludes two-thirds Georgians. Mountainous Armenia 12, 1937) when 90,319,346 persons recorded their with its arid valleys has been transformed by irrivote, or 96.5 per cent of the total voting popula- gation of recent years into a country of orchards tion of the U. S. S. R.

and vineyards, of cotton and tobacco plantations. As a result of the fulfllment of the Second Five Copper and lead mining have been developed and Year Plan the export of machinery by the Soviet

a diversified industry has grown up. The populaUnion has increased rapidly, especially in agri. tion is 85% Armenian. cultural implements and automobiles. Co-incident The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic and the with the industrial increase there has been a dis- Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in Central tinct advance in educational facilities.

Asia were organized (1924). The Uzbek Republic The autonomous republics, each of which is contains the finest cotton lands in the Soviet represented by eleven deputies in the Council of Union. A high quality caracul fur is produced for Nationalities. form the most important of the export. Its mineral wealth includes coal, sulphur, various subdivisions of the Union Republics. copper and oil. In the Turkmen Republic princi

The population (1939 census) was announced pal crops are cotton, grain and oil seeds. Mineral by the Government as 170,467,186, including 81,- wealth includes oil, coal, sulphur, barite, lime 664,981 men and 88,802,205 women, a total gain kypsum. The Kara Kum desert Occupies fourof 15.9 per cent over the 1926 figures. A move

fifths of the territory. ment toward the cities was indicated in an urban Tajikistan, in the extreme south of Central population (1939) of 32.9 compared with (1926) Asia, bordering on Afghanistan and China. Was 17.9. After the re-union of Western Ukraine and raised from an autonomous republic in Uzbekistan Western Byelorussia, the population of the U. S.

to a federal republic (1929). It is a land of high S. R. Increased to 183,267,000. The creation of the mountains traversed by narrow valleys. Cotton Karelo-Finnish, Moldavian, Lithuanian, Latvia and grain are principal crops. Mineral wealth and Estonian Republics increased the population includes lead. zinc, silver, cadmium, uranium. to 192,695,710.

vanadium, molybdenum. The Russian Soviet Socialist Federated Republic The Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic and the (Soviet Russia proper), contains nearly 70% of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, respective capitals population of the Soviet Union and includes 78% Alma Ata and Frunze, were organized under the of its territory. Its territories stretch from the

constitution (1936) from portions of the Russian Estonian, Latvian and Finnish borders and the Republic. The Kazak Republic occupies one-seventh White Russian and Ukrainian lines on the west,

of the territory of the entire Soviet Union. It has to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and from the great oll deposits in the Ural-Emba district and its Arctic Ocean on the north to the shores of the

coal deposits in the Karaganda coal basin form Black and Caspian seas and the borders of Kezak the third largest coal basin in the country. There S. S. R., Mongolia and Manchuria on the south. are rich deposits of copper, lead and other nonThe capital is Moscow.

ferrous metals. Agricultural output includes Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (White grain, wheat and livestock, Mineral resources of Russia), was proclaimed Jan. 1, 1919.

the Kirghiz Republic include coal, oil, lead. zinc. Under the Czars Byelorussia was the pale of copper, gold, silver and tin. Crops include wheat. settlement of the Jewish population. It suffered rice. sugar beets, tobacco. kendyr and fruits. greatly from ical pogroms and from inter

The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republie racial struggles. Between 1914 and 1920 it was a

was formed (1940) from the territory ceded to the feid for military operations. The racial composi

Soviet by the peace treaty with Finland at the tion is Byelorussians 80.6%; Jews, 10%; others,

close of the war. Seventy per cent of the territory Russians, Ukrainians, Poles. Minsk is the capital

is covered with woods (pine and other). The with a population of 238,772 (1939).

population is mainly Karelians, Finns and Russians. The country is agricultural. Much of the land The mineral resources are copper, lead, zinc, silver is marshy, but modern drainage methods have

and iron. The territory has 26,000 small lakes, and increased the arable area. Principal crops are flax,

also includes the two largest lakes in Europe, grain and potatoes. Chief industries include wood Ladoga and Onega. working, matches, linen, paper, leather, oil press

The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was ing, glass.

created (1940) when Rumania returned to the U. S. The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic is the

S. R. the province of Bessarabia and the northern most densely populated of the Constituent Re- sections of Bukowina, which had been taken from publics. It borders on the Black Sea, with Ger

Russia after the close of the World War. many, Hungary and Rumania on the west and

The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was southwest. The capital is Kiev, population (1939)

voted into the U. S. S. R. (1940) after Soviet troops 846,293.

had occupied the country, charging a violation of a of the population 80% are Ukrainians. 9.5%

mutual assistance pact. Elections were held and Russians, 5.4% Jews, 1.6% Poles, and 3.5% Greeks.

a Communist dominated Parliament was chosen. Bulgarians, Rumanians, Gypsies. There are also

The vote showed 99.19 per cent for the Working about 800,000 Ukrainians living in other portions

People's Bloc. Ballots were cast by 1,386,569 perof the Soviet Union.

sons. The new Parliament proclaimed Lithuania The Ukraine contains the famous black soil belt,

a Soviet Socialist Republic (July 21) and asked for the chief wheat-producing section of the Soviet

incorporation into the U.S. S. R., which was

The Union. Sugar beets and oil seeds are important granted by the Supreme Soviet (Aug. 3). crops and livestock breeding is rapidly advancing.

capital is Vilna. (For Lithuania as an Independent In the Donetz Basin the Ukraine has a huge Republic, see World Almanac, 1940, page 247). storage of coal, iron and other metals. Here are

The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic was estab

lished (1940), after the U. S. S. R. had occupied produced 54.1% of the coal mined in the country, 59.1% of the iron and a large proportion of the

the chief cities, charging that Latvia had violated

the spirit of a mutual assistance pact with the manganese. There are heavily developed chemical and dye industries and salt mines. Electric power

U. S. S. R. A new Parliament, dominated by the development is making rapid advances and in the Communist party was chosen (July, 14) at the rural districts more than 200,000 farms are supplied

elections. The vote showed 97.6 for the one-party

Communist ticket. The new Parliament prowith current. The largest hydro-electric development in Europe. asked for incorporation in the Union

of Socialist

claimed Latvia a Soviet Republic (July 21) and constructed on the Dnieper River and known as

Soviet the Lenín Hydroelectric Station, with an ultimate granted Aug. 5). The capital is Riga. (For Latvia

Republics, which the Supreme Soviet capacity of 558.000 kilowatts, was dynamited (1941) by Russia during the war with Germany.

as an independent Republic, see World Almanac,

1940, page 246.) The three Soviet Socialist Republics of Azer- The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was crebaijan, Armenia and Georgia were formed under ated (1940).

The U. S. S. R. charged that Estonia the new Constitution (1936) by a splitting-up of had violated a mutual assistance pact by making the Transcaucasian Federation.

a military alliance with Lithuania and Latvia and Azerbaijan has in the vicinity of Baku the most demanded the establishment of a new government important oil fields in the U.S. S. R. Its natural in conformance with the ideas of Moscow after wealth includes deposits of pyrites, barites and the army had marched into the country (June 16). fossil copal, as well as zinc, silver, gold, copper, A new Parliament with a Communist majority was

elected (July 14), the Communist ticket-the only Chemical Industry-Mikhail F, Denisov. in the field-receiving 92.9 per cent of the vote. Aviation Industry-A, J. Shakhurin, The new Parliament proclaimed Latvia a Soviet Shipbuilding Industry-I. Nosenko, Republic (July 21) and asked for incorporation Munitions-P. M. Goremkin. into the U. S. S ., which was granted (Aug. 6) Armaments-Dmitri Ustinov. by vote of the Supreme Soviet. The capital is Heavy Machine Building--Kazakov. Tallinn. (For Estonia as an independent Republic, Medium Machine Building—V. A. Malyshev. see World Almanac, 1940, pages 226, 227.)

General Machine Building-Peter I. Parshin. Under the constitution (1936), the supreme organ Navy-Nikolai G. Kuznetsov. of state power is the Supreme Soviet of the U. S. Procurement-V. A. Donskoy. S. R. (replacing the All-Union Congress of Construction - Semen Z. Ginzsburg. Soviets). meeting regularly twice a year and Coal Industry-Vasily V. Vakhrushev. elected for a period of four years. The Supreme A list of the People's Commissariats (All-Union Soviet consists of two legislative chambers with and Union Republic) of the Union of Soviet Socialequal rights, viz: the Soviet of the Union, elected ist Republics follows: on the basis of one deputy per 300,000 population Food Industry-Vasill P. Zotov. (647 deputies, an increase from 569 caused by the Fish Industry-A. Ishkov. addition of the Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Meat and Dairy Industry-Pavel V. Smirnov. Karelo-Finnish and Moldavian Soviet Socialist Re- Light Industry-Sergei G. Lukin. publics and additions to the Ukrainian and Byelo- Textile Industry-I. Akimov. russian Soviet Socialist Republics); the Council of Timber Industry--F. Sergeyev. Nationalities, consisting of 25 delegates selected by Agriculture-Ivan A. Benediktov. the Suprerne Soviet of each Union Republic, 11 State Grain and Livestock Farms-Pavel P. Lofrom each of the 22 autonomous republics, and five

banov. from each autonomous province 713, an increase Finance-Arseni G. Zverev. from 574 caused by the addition of the new

Trade-Alexander B. Lubimov. Republics). In case of disagreement between the United N. K. V. D. (political police)-Lavrenti two Chambers, a conciliation commission is pro- P. Beria. vided, and if its decision fails to bring agreement Justice-Nikolai M. Richkov. the Soviet is dissolved and new elections fixed. Public Health--Georgi A. Miterev.

The two Chambers in joint session elect a Presi. Building Materials Industry-Leonid A. Sosnin. dium consisting of a president, sixteen vice-presi. Chairman of the State Planning Commission of dents and 24 members, which have wide the U. S. S. R.-Maxim z. Saburov administrative powers betweer sessions of the Chairman of the Administration of the State Supreme Soviet, including ratification of treaties Bank of the U. S. S. R.-N. K. Sokolov. and declaration of a state of war. The Presidium Chairman of the Commission of Soviet Controlsupervises the work of the Council of People's Lev Mekhlis. Commissars, selected by the Supreme Soviet, Chairman of the Supreme Court of the U. S. which acts as the executive and administrative S. R.-Ivan T. Golyakov. organ of the State. In addition to a president and Procurer of the U. S. S. R.-V. M. Bochkoff. vice-president, the Soviet has commissar mem- Chairman of the Committee on High Educa. bers, heads of the federal commissariats of defense, tlon-Sergie V. Kaftanov. foreign affairs, foreign trade, railways, water Officers of the Supreme Soviet: transport, communications, sea transport, ferrous Chairman of the Presidium--Mikhail I. Kalinin. metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical in- President of the Soviet of the Union-A, A. Andustry, aviation, shipbuilding, armaments, muni- dreyev. tions, heavy machine-building. medium machine- President of the Soviet of Nationalities–J. M. building, and general machine-building, navy, pro

Shvernik curement, construction, electric industry, and elec

Joseph Stalin is a deputy to the Supreme Soviet tric power stations, coal industry, fuel industry.

of the U. S. S. R., a member of the Military Commissariats common to both federal govern

Council of the Supreme Soviet, and General Secrement and the Union Republics are: food industry, tary of the Communist Party of the U. S. S. R., in fish industry, meat and dairy, light industry, tex

addition to being Premier and Defense Comle industry. timber, state grain and livestock missar. Stalin also is Commander-in-Chief of farms, finance, home trade, home affairs, justice,

the Army. A Committee for State Defense was health, building materials industry, agriculture.

formed (July 1, 1941) with Stalin as Chairman. The remaining seven members of the Council are The other members are Marshal Klementi E. Vorothe chairman of: The State Planning Commission, shilov, Lavrenti P. Beria and Georgi M. Malenkov. the Committees on Art, Higher Education, Geology,

Members of the Political Bureau (March, 1939) Radio Broadcasting and Radiofication, Cinema

as elected at the eighteenth congress of the ComIndustry.

munist Party of the Soviet Union are-Andreyev, The highest judicial organ is the Supreme Khruschev, Stalin, Kaganovich, Mikoyan, VoroshiCourt, which, with the Special Courts, are elected lov, Kalinin, Molotov, Zhdanov, and five candiby the Supreme Council for five-year terms. dates: L. Beria, N. Shvernik, N. Voznesensky, G.

Land and natural resources are held in trust Malenkov and A. Shcherbakov. by the Government for the general population. There sere organized (April 17, 1940) six new though collective farms may hold their land under economic councils attached to the Council of Peoa system of perpetual leasehold. Natural resources ple's Commissars, to coordinate the activities of are exploited by state trusts. The transport system, the corresponding commissariats. These councils, as well as posts, telephones and telegraphs, are with chairmen, are: operated as Government departments. Industry is Metallurgy and Chemistry-N. I. Bulganin. conducted almost wholly by state enterprises, the Machine-building-V. A. Malyshev. output of private industries having declined to a Defense Industry--N. A. Voznesensky. fraction of one per cent of the industrial produc- Fuel and Electro-Industry--M. G. Pervukhin. tion. Some industrial enterprises are conducted by Consumers Goods-A. N. Kosygin. the cooperatives.

Agriculture and Procurement-M. Benediktov. The Communist Party is the only legalized Education in the Soviet Union is a charge political organization in the Soviet Union, though against the various Union Republics and the local non-party candidates are freely elected to public budgets, with the exception that higher education office. The party's directive body is the Central is conducted on a federal basis. Committee. elected by the membership at the Universal compulsory education for children, inparty congresses. The Committee selects a small troduced for a four-year period (1930), has since executive body, the Political Bureau, which by been extended to seven years. virtue of its position of party leadership, makes In the course of the first and second Five-Year decisions on policy which are followed by the Plans new alphabets were adopted for 50 of the Government.

minor nationalites that had never before possessed A list of People's Commissariats (All-Union) of a written language. In most cases the Latin the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics follows: alphabet was adapted.

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars Appropriations for the cultural needs of the -Joseph V. Stalin, who is also chairman of the population (1941) were 47,800.000.000 rubles. The State Committee for Defense.

number of pupils in elementary and secondary Foreign Affairs and Vice Premier-Viacheslav M. schools (1941-1942) was 36,200,000 and 13,500 secMolotov.

ondary and elementary schools were opened (1940), Foreign Trade--Anastase L. Mikoyan.

Thirty more colleges and universities also were Railways-Lazar M. Kaganovich,

opened in that year, bringing the total to 781 Communications-Ivan T. Peresipkin.

with a registration of approximately 600,000. A Sea Transport Semen S. Dukelsky.

system of tuition was introduced (1940) in the River Transport-Zosim A. Shashkov.

secondary schools and higher educational insti. Fael Industry-M. Sedin.

tutions. Heretofore tuition had been free. Electric Industry-V. V. Bogatyrev.

There were (1939) 8.550 newspapers with an Electric Power Stations-A. I. Letkov.

aggregate circulation of 37,520,000. The number of Ferrous Metallurgy-Ivan T. Tevosyan.

public libraries increased from 40,300 (1933-1934) to 245,000 (1941). The number of portable libraries, 18th conference of the Communist party in Moscow which serve the people in the remote districts, in- (Feb. 19, 1941) that, taking the 1929 level of procreased (1941) to 144,000. The portable libraries duction as 100, he rated Russia's 1940 production delivered 30,000,000 books and magazines to their at 534. He also reported that in three years of the readers in a single year. The number of volumes Third Five-Year Plan, Russia's national income in the public libraries (1941) was estimated at increased by 29,500,000,000 rubles for a total in1,500,000,000.

come of 125,500,000,000 in 1940. The Government announced (Aug. 13, 1941) that The State Planning Commission was directed to there were 8,338 churches, mosques and synagogues draw up a 15-year plan "to surpass capitalistic in the country,

countries' in industrial production. The plan is to Military service is compulsory, beginning at the be designed to speed up production in pig iron, age of 18. The Red Army, according to Commissar steel, fuel, electricity, machinery and consumer Voroshilov, numbers (1939) 2,500,000, including goods industries. territorial cadres and frontier guards. The army All large-scale industry in the U.S.S.R. Is state. has a high degree of mechanization. The number owned or operated by cooperative organizations. of airplanes has not been officially divulged, but it The state industries, which include all of the more is believed to be approximately 9,000, divided into important enterprises, account for more than 160 squadrons of 12 machines. Of these 40 are 99.97% of the total industrial output of the counbombing squadrons, 35 fighting squadrons and the try. They are operated under the supervision of rest reconnaissance squadrons.

the industrial commissariats. There are only & Compulsory military training for a period of 110 few scattered private industrial enterprises. days for all males between 16 and 50 began in The Government ordered (June 26, 1940) new September, 1941,

working hours throughout the country. Workers The Soviet Navy is in the process of reconstruc- who had a five-day, 35-hour week had to sacrifice tion and consists (1940) of three battleships, all it for a six-day week of 48 hours. The six-day launched in 1911 and since refitted; seven cruisers, week was suspended and the seven-day week reone launched in 1905, three in 1915, one in 1916, stored. Workers in branches working a six-hour one in 1936 and one in 1937. There were under day are required to work seven; those who worked construction (1938) 23 destroyers, 134 submarines, seven are required to work eight hours. The work 18 torpedo boats, 130 motor torpedo boats, several period of those on an eight-hour day is not mine layers, mine sweeping trawlers and miscel- changed. Industry was put on an overtime basis laneous craft.

during the war with Germany. Admiral Nikolai G. Kuznetsov, Commissar of the The five-day working week was a feature of the Navy. announced (July 27, 1940) that Russia would changes wrought by the Revolution. Soviet trade add 168 warships to her fleet (1940-1941). He said unions urged the change to a longer work day and the fleet was increased (1939) by 112 ships, large work weeks and the Government adopted the sugand small torpedo cutters included. "In 1940," he gestion. added, “we will get 168-that is a 50 per cent

The Government drafts annually from 800,000 to increase. If you consider the tonnage of 1939 as 1,000,000 youths between 14 and 17 years for indus100 per cent, in 1940 the tonnage will be 200 per trial training after which they work for the State cent.

for four consecutive years. Jane's Fighting Ships, an authoritative naval Before the revolution agricultural methods were work, says that "very little reliable information is extremely primitive. More than 60 per cent of the obtainable" about the Russian navy, "but every- arable land was held by the imperial family. thing goes to suggest that shipbuilding still pro- churches, large estates and “kulaks," the receeds at a slow rate."

mainder being parcelled out among some 16,000,000 According to a decree of the Council of People's peasant households whose average holding-divided Commissars (Sept. 29, 1935) consumers' coopera- into three strips-was less than 14 acres. Grain tive organizations in the cities were discontinued area of collective farms increased from 187,500,000 and their property and trade transferred to the acres (1933) to 230,000,000 acres (1938), Grain People's Commissariat of Trade of the U. S. S. R. area of individual peasant farmers dropped in

A system of planned development, embracing not this period from 38,794,000 acres to 1,482,600 acres, only the entire economic field, but all cultural, or 0.6 per cent of the total grain area. scientific and public health activity as well, is in The revolution released much new land for the operation in the U. S. S. R. This has taken the peasants, but over a decade passed before the form of a series of Five-Year Plans, with inter- Soviet Government was able to effect a general mediate annual schedules. The Soviet Union com- change in the set-up. The drive for collectivizapleted (Dec. 31, 1937) its second Five-Year Plantion began (1928-29) and today the bulk of the and embarked on a third.

agricultural output as represented by large-scale, Under the first Plan (completed at the end of mechanized collective farms in which the peasant 1932) broad bases for heavy Industry were estab- holdings are pooled. There were 243,000 collective lished and mass-production was organized in many farms (1941), operated by 18,800,000 households. lines. Many large-scale regional power plants were Individual holdings were still worked by 1,400,000 constructed. Agriculture was completely reorgan- peasant families. A number of large farms, most ized on a collectivist basis. Under the second Plan of which serve as agricultural laboratories and exthese gains were extended and an improved eco- periment stations, are operated directly by the nomic coordination was attained. An important State, Cash incomes in collective farms of rubles factor on the credit side was the rehabilitation and (1933), 5,662,000,000; (1937), 14,180,000,000; (1939), improvement of rail transport along with wide 18,300,000,000. extension of the waterways system. The opening The backbone of mechanization in Soviet agrito navigation of the Northeast Passage and the culture is furnished by the machine and tractor development of the Soviet Arctic were also notable stations, each of which serves collective farms accomplishments. During the first Plan, 51,000,- within its area. These stations operated (1940) 000,000 rubles was expended on new capital con- 523,000 tractors and 182,000 combines. struction; during the second Plan two and a half

The

gth of ait es in the U. S. S. R. (1940) times that amount. The industrial output was was approximately 100,000 miles. Transport aviaincreased 119% during the first Plan; during the tion carried (1939) 307,000 passengers, 11,500 tons second Plan an additional increase of 121% (April | of mail and 39,654 tons of cargo. By the end of 1, 1937--four years and three months of the second the Third Five-Year Plan it is expected 450,000 Five-Year Plan) was registered. Grain production persons will be carried annually. increased 40 per cent under the second Plan. In- Electric power development and operation in dustrial output in 1928 was 232.7% that of 1913; the Soviet Union is conducted under a unified sysand in 1932 was 358.9% that of 1913.

tem on a single technical and organizational founThe first year of each Five-Year Plan is usually dation. Under this system a series of large retaken as a test year. The schedule (1938) called

gional power plants serves the principal industrial for an increase in the output of industry of 15.5% and mining sections of the country. High voltage and commensurate gains in other lines.

grid networks covering wide areas link the regional The annual output of Soviet industry has shown plants. There are some 75 regional plants in opa six-fold increase during the past decade. the eration, furnishing three-fourths of the country's period of the first two Five-Year Plans. The

power supply. increase (1937) was 13%. This was considerably

The budget reflects the economic progress of the below the schedule of increase for the year, owing Soviet Union because of the high degree of sociallto a decided lag in output during the summer and

zation of the nation. The first firm" budget fall. The program (1938) called for an increase

(1923-1924) balanced at 2,317,600,000 rubles. in output of 15.5% and the construction of 147 new

Budgets (in thousands of rubles) for the last large enterprises in heavy industry. The U.S. S. R. four years follow: Receipts Expenditures during the second Five-Year Plan took first place

1938

127,571,000 124,000,000 among the European countries in industrial pro

1939

156,097,000 156,097,000 duction.

1940

.183,955,000 183,955,000 Nikolat Voznesensky, at the time Vice Chairman

1941

222,375,000 216,052,000 of the Council of People's Commissars and chairman of the State Planning Commission, told the The budget (1941) provides for the expenditure of 57,000,000,000 rubles for capital construction. The The State Bank is the center of the banking defense appropriation (1941) is 78,002,000,000 rubles, system. It has a monopoly of short term loan a four-fold increase in four years.

operations and it is the only bank of issue. It also The nominal value of the ruble is 19 cents, but finances the bulk of the foreign trade operations. accurate conversion into American money figures is

Other banks are the Prombank (Industrial Bank) impossible because of the lack of an open market.

which finances capital construction in state indusThe number of workers (1940) was 30, 400,000 and

tries; the Selkhozbank (Agricultural Bank), which the estimate (1941) was 31,600,000. The wage fund

finances capital investments in socialized agri(1940) was 161,000,000,000 rubles and the estimate

culture; the Vsekobank (All-Union Cooperative (1941) 175,000,000,000. State and Cooperative retail

Bank), which finances capital construction for trade reached a value of 174,500,000,000 rubles

cooperative organizations except housing coopera(1940), with an estimate of 197,000,000,000 (1941).

tives, and the Tsekombank (Central Bank for

Public Utilities), which finances municipal public Here are the figures on daily output in tons:

utilities, housing projects and the building of 1940

1937 new cities Coal

467,000

370,000 Soviet currency has circulation only within the Oil with gas.

97-98,000 84-86,000 Soviet Union, both exports and imports thereof Rg. iron

46-47.000

40,000 being prohibited by law. All payments abroad are Steel

58-59,000 50-51,000 made in gold or foreign currency. Gold mining has The volume of capital investments in the na- increased rapidly of recent years and the Soviet tional economy (1940 reached nearly 38,000,000,000

Union is said to stand second among the nations in rubles, and for the three years of the third Five

gold production. No official figures for output are Year Plan reached 108,000,000,000 rubles. During given. these three years 2,900 new factories, plants, power

The Soviet Government exercises & monopoly of stations and other industrial plants were put into

foreign trade, under the Commissariat for Foreign operation. The average annual growth of pro

Trade, and both exports and imports are regulated duction during these three years was 13%.

in accordance with the country's system of planned Industrial production in rubles was:

economy. The Commissariat maintains trading

bureaus in foreign countries. In addition some 1937

1940

1941 (Plan)) of the large industrial syndicates buy equipment 95,500,000,000 137,500,000,000 162,000,000,000 abroad under the supervision of the Commissariat.

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY) Capital, Montevideo_Area, 72,153 square miles—Population (Jan. 1, 1938), 2, 146,545 Uruguay, the smallest republic in South America, year terms. The President appoints a Cabinet of is bounded on the north and east by Brazil, on the nine from the parties which have a majority in south by the South Atlantic Ocean and the River Parliament. President and Ministers are subject to Plata, and on the west by Argentina, the boundary votes of censure. The President of Uruguay is Gen. line being the River Uruguay, which is navigable Alfredo Baldomir (elected March 27, 1938). from the Plata to Salto, 200 miles north. In area Much of the Uruguayan code of advanced social it is slightly larger than the States of New York, legislation was written into the constitution, which New Jersey, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island provides for old-age pensions, child welfare. State and Connecticut. Lying between latitudes 30° and care of mothers, free medical attention for the 35 south and consisting of rolling grassy plains, it poor, workmen's accident insurance, cheap dwellenjoys an extraordinarily healthy climate with a ings for laborers, an eight-hour day and a six-day uniform temperature. More than 2,150,000 acres week, a minimum wage and special consideration are under cultivation. The chief products are

for employed women and minors. It recognizes wheat, corn, pats, linseed, tobacco and olives. Wine workmen's right to strike and form unions. making is a large industry.

Church and state are separate and there is comThe new constitution presented by the Constitu-plete religious tolerance. The preponderant reent Assembly of 284 members who were elected ligion is Roman Catholic. Primary education is (June 25, 1933) was adopted by a plebiscite (April compulsory and free. There is a university in 19, 1934). It provides for a Chamber of Deputies. Montevideo, The language is Spanish, of 99 members elected by the Provinces according The monetary unit is the peso. Government to population, and a Senate of 30 members elected receipts (1940) are estimated at 91,220,000 pesos by the nation as a whole, 15 being from the party with expenditures of 91,143,000. The gold peso has polling the largest vote and 15 from the party with a nominal value of $.44. the next largest vote. Suffrage is universal and Service in the standing army is voluntary, but compulsory, failure to vote being punishable by compulsory military services was adopted (1940) for fine.

Foreigners may become naturalized without men reaching the age of 21 who are called for & losing their former citizenship:

short, intensive military training to pass them The President, Senators and Deputies have four- into the reserves.

Vatican City

(CITTA DEL VATICANO)

Area, 1.6 square miles-Population (Dec. 1932), 1,025 The Popes for many centuries, with some slight the Vatican gardens, and neighboring buildings interruptions, held temporal sovereignty over mid- between Viale Vaticano and the Church. Thirteen Italy (the so-called Papal States), extending from buildings in Rome, although outside the bounsea to sea, comprising an area of some 16,000 square daries, enjoy extra-territorial rights; these include miles, with a population in the nineteenth century buildings housing the congregations or officers necof more than 3,000 000. This territory in the reign essary for the administration of the Holy See. of Pius IX. was incorporated in the Kingdom of The legal system is based on the code of canon Italy, the sovereignty of the Pope being confined law, the apostolic constitutions and the laws to the palaces of the Vatican and the Lateran in especially promulgated for the Vatican City by the Rome and the villa of Castel Gandolfo, by the Sovereign Pontiff or those to whom he may delegate Italian law (May 13, 1871). This law also guaran- legislative power. In all cases not covered the teed to the Pope and his successors in the chair of Italian law of Rome applies. The flag of the State St. Peter & yearly indemnity of 3,225,000 lire is white and yellow, charged with the crossed ($622,425 at par of exchange), which allowance, keys and triple tiara. Postage stamps have been however, remained unclaimed and unpaid.

issued, and a complete coinage was struck (1931). Final settlement of the Roman question came A modern fire department was installed (1940). after negotiations (begun Oct. 4, 1926), when the A wireless station was set up (1930). Treaty of Conciliation, the concordat and the The present Sovereign of the State of Vatican financial convention were signed in the Lateran City is the Supreme Pontifi, Pius XII, Eugenio Palace (Feb. 11, 1929) by Cardinal Gasparri and Pacelli (born March 2, 1876) in Rome and elected Premier Mussolini. The treaty was duly ratified by Pope, 262nd, in succession to Plus XI (March 2, the Pope and by the Italian Parliament (May 14 1939). The Secretary of State is Cardinal Luigi and 25) and signed by the King (May, 27) and Maglione (appointed March 11, 1939). The late became effective (June 7) by exchange of ratifica- Pius XI, in 1933, began to go outside Vatican City, tion at the Vatican.

and summered, with more or less regularity, at (For summary of the Lateran Treaty, see The Castel Gandolfo in the Alban Hills. He modernWorld Almanac for 1930, pages 717, 718, and forized life and habits in the State of Vatican City 1931 pages 716-18).

by full use of wireless, telegraph, telephones, raVatican City includes St. Peter's, the Vatican dios, automobiles and other up-to-date convenPalace and Museum covering more than 13 acres, I lences.

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