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Capital, Berne-Area, 15,944 square miles-Population (est. Jan. 1, 1940), 4,218,000 Switzerland is bounded on the west by France. | high mountains in the world. In the Swiss Alps the north by Germany, the east by Germany and Italy, and the south by Italy. It is mostly mountainous, having many high peaks of the Swiss Alps, with many fertile and productive valleys between, in which dairying flourishes, and much foodstuff is produced. The German language is spoken by a majority of the people in 16 of the 22 cantons, French in five, and Italian in one. German was spoken (1930) by 2,924,314 persons. French by 831,100, Italian by 242,034, Romansch by 44,204, and other languages, 24,797. There were (1930) 355.522 foreigners in the country.
The chief cities are: Zurich, 330,000; Basle, 165,000; Berne, 125,000; Geneva, 125,000; Lausanne, 90,000; St. Gall, 65,000; Winterthur, 60,000 and Lucerne, 48,000.
Switzerland is the peacetime winter playground of Europe. Four large riverine districts contribute to its grandeur-the Rhine, Rhone, Po and Danube. Almost three-quarters of the country serve as a watershed for the Rhine, whose more important tributaries are the Aare, Limmat, and Reuss. The Rhine and the Rhone rise in the central part of Switzerland; the Inn flows out of the mountains of the Engadine to the Danube: the most important Swiss tributary of the Po is the Tessin, which rises in the Gotthard range. The formation of the courses of the rivers and the channels which they have carved in the valleys impart to Switzerland-situated as it is in the heart of Europe-great geographical importance from the traffic point of view, for the shortest roads between north and south, east and west, ran through this country from time immemorial. The northern escarpment of the Alps extends into the foothills and rolling midlands, which are bounded by the Jura range running from north-east to south-west. The Alps constitute 61%, the midlands 27%, and the Jura 12% of Switzerland.
The midlands, lying between the Jura and the Alps, is the cultivated and industrial district, where towns, commerce and industry flourish.
The Jura is an ancient deciduous limestone range, which acted as an abutment when the Alps were formed, being thereby mounted in a series of folds running parallel to one another. Their altitudes seldom exceed 4,500 ft. to 5,200, ft.
The Alps, from the scenic point of view, constitute the most varied and beautiful chain of
there are no fewer than 70 peaks with an altitude ranging from 10,000 feet to 15,000. The largest number is in Canton Valais, where the Dufour Peak of Monte Rosa, 15,217 ft. above sea level, is the highest in the country. The lowest point in shore of Lake Maggiore, which is about 650 ft. Switzerland is also in the region of the Alps--the above sea level, while the bottom of the lake itself is 575 ft. below sea level. Other Swiss lakes famous for their beauty are Zurich, Zug, Lugano, Walensee, Brienz, Thoune, Lucerne, Geneva, and Constance. In all, there are 21 large lakes.
2,000,000 acres pasturage. Dairy products form the About 3,000,000 acres are under grass and about chief agricultural industry, followed by cattle, pigs, fruit, poultry, tobacco, wheat, rye, oats and potatoes. The country is famous for its wine and cheese. The principal minerals are salt, iron ore, and manganese. Watchmaking and embroidery are important manufactures.
Switzerland is a confederation of 22 cantons, which are joined under a Federal Constitution (that of May 29, 1874, being now in force), with large powers of local control retained by each canton. The national authority vests in a parliament of two chambers, a "Ständerat" or States Council to which each canton sends two members. The lower house, Nationalrat or National Council, has 187 members elected according to population, one representative to about 22,000 persons. President (1940) is Ernest Wetter and the Vice President Philippe Etter.
Social welfare legislation covers subsidies for sick insurance, accident insurance, unemployment relief, old age pensions and professional training
Primary education has been free and compulsory since 1874. There are seven universities, the oldest, Basel, founded in 1460.
There is complete freedom of worship.
Service in the national militia is compulsory and universal. Service liability extends from 18 to 60. The Federal Council estimated national defense expenditures (1941) at 1,050,000,000 francs compared with 1,136,000,000 (1940) and 392,000,000 (1939).
The monetary unit is the franc with an average value of $.23.
Governmental receipts (1941) are estimated at 518,000,000 francs; expenditures at 592,000,000.
Syria and The Lebanon
Area 57,900 squares miles-Population (1935), 3,630,000 Syria is a former province of the old Turkish Empire, made an independent State by the Treaty mandate given to France by the Supreme Council of Serves (Aug. 10, 1920) and administered under a of the Allied Powers. On the north lies Turkey, on the east the Iraq, on the south Transjordania and Palestine, and on the west the Mediterranean Sea. It is about the size of Michigan. The population is mainly Moslem.
of violent riots and protracted strikes forced his resignation (Feb. 23. 1936).
Syria is divided into the Republic of Lebanon, proclaimed a State as Great Lebanon (Sept. 1. 1920) with Beirut as its capital and the French tricolor, charged with a cedar on the white stripe, for its flag; the State of Syria formed by uniting Damascus, Alexandretta, Aleppo, Hama Homs, Hauran, and Deir Ezzor (1925), with Damascus as the capital; the Government of Latakia (set up May 14, 1930), and the Government of Jebel Druse, both under direct French administration.
The area in square miles of the territorial divisions under the mandate are-Syria, 49,100; The Lebanon, 3,600; Latakia, 2,800; Jebel Druse, 2,400. The population follows-Syria, 1,696,638; The Lebanon, 862,618; Latakia, 286,920; Jebel Druse, 51,780. There are about 250,000 Bedouin tribesmen (nomads).
The French have met in Syria constant difficulties of administration, economic troubles, armed uprisings, notably the Druse rebellion (1925-27) and the Damascus outbreak (1925), and during recent years much turmoil over the Arab nationalist ferment. Although a Franco-Syrian treaty friendship and alllance was signed (Nov. 20, 1933) the Nationalists refused to accept it and the French High Commissioner had to suspend the Syrian Parliament (Nov. 3, 1934) and govern by decree through a puppet Premier, Sheikh Taj. Six weeks
Hashem El Atassi (elected Dec. 21, 1936) resigned as president (July 7, 1939) in protest against French failure to grant complete independence to the Republic. The Cabinet had resigned previously for the same reason. Gabriel Puaux, French High Commissioner, suspended the Constitution and appointed a board of directors to rule the mandated State under his guidance. The French High Commissioner is Henri Dentz.
A Franco-Syrian treaty approving establishment of an independent Syrian State, under French military supervision, was signed (Sept. 8, 1936). Great Britain occupied Syria and the Levant (1941) under the terms of an armistice with the Vichy Government of France terminating a five-weeks' war. France turned her mandate over to the British and Free French forces.
Syria was proclaimed a Republic (Sept. 16, 1941) by the occupying Free French authorities and Sheik Tajeddine Hassani was proclaimed president. The Prime Minister is Hassan Bey Hakin. Free France acted in agreement with Great Britain in,terminating the mandate. The unit of currency is the Syrian pound which is pegged to the French franc at the rate of 20 francs to one Syrian pound.
Tobacco, wheat, fruit, wine and silk are the chief products, followed by cotton, barley, corn, sorghums, sesamé, olives, grapes and citrus fruits.
The population is composed mainly of Moslems. There is a public education system; also private and foreign schools. There is a Syrian University in Damascus, agricultural colleges in Selemie and Bekaa, with an American and a French University in Beirut.
Thailand (formerly Siam)
(PRADES THAI OR MUANG-THAL)
Capital, Bangkok-Area, 221,898 square miles-Population (est, July, 1938), 15,976,000 King Prajadhipok, a liberal, had trouble with Thailand is situated in Southeastern Asia, with for the people, and an elected parliament. both the Communistic and the Reactionary eleurma (British India) on the northwest and west ments of his country. When in England awaiting ad French Indo-China on the northeast and east, an operation on his eyes., the government, which nd the Gulf of Thailand, which is part of the hina Sea, on the south and east. It also occupies had by a coup seized power, presented to him a measure taking away the royal power over life and he neck of the Malay Peninsula as far as the FedIt is of rolling death. He refused to sign it on the ground that rated Malay States (British). Opography with large areas susceptible to irriga- it merely transferred the power to his ministers. Prince Ananda Mahidol (born Sept. 20, 1925). on. of which about 250,000 acres have been under He abdicated, and the throne passed to his nephew. water since 1922.
The Government changed (1939) the official name of the country to Thailand, the ancient name f Siam. The word Thai was substituted for Siamese. Bangkok, the capital, in the delta of the Menam, s a modern city.
The town of Nakon Sritamaraj, 1,000 years old, is the home of perhaps the most distinctive Siamese art, the "Niello" work which has been practised for more than eight centuries. The process consists in the tracing of designs on silver by means of gentle repoussé work and afterward filling up the depressions with a black metallic substance obtained from lead, copper and silver, melted with sulphur.
There are many large forests, teakwood being an important article of export. Labor is higher than in almost any other Oriental country.
The chief crop is rice, the staple food of the people and heavily exported. Other important products are para-rubber, cocoanuts, tobacco, pepper and cotton.
Mineral resources are extensive and include coal, tin, iron, manganese, tungsten, antimony and quick
Thailand, one of the last of the absolute monarchies, underwent a bloodless revolution (June 24, 1932). It was aimed at the elders of the Royal House, of the government, and of the army who had opposed the King in liberalizing his regime. The King (June 29, 1932) signed a new constitution establishing a limited monarchy, full franchise
During the King's minority a Council of Re-
A border dispute arose between Thailand and
All able-bodied males between the ages of 18 and
Capital, Ankara-Area, 294,416 square miles (not including Republic of Hatay)-Population (Oct. 1940)
Up to the beginning of the World War, Turkey, or the Ottoman Empire, included European Turkey, Anatolia, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Armenia and Kurdistan, also groups of islands in
the Aegean Sea.
The areas of the Turkish Empire (so late as 1916) totaled about 710,224 square miles, with about 21,273,900 of population.
In Asia, a part of Armenia has adopted a Soviet government and is at least in harmonious agreement with Soviet Russia, Syria passed under the mandate of France and was occupied by Great Britain (1941). Mesopotamia has been created the independent kingdom of the Iran; Palestine has come under the mandate of Great Britain; and Arabia has asserted its independence, and is now the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Turkey in Europe is now bounded on the north by the Black Sea, Bulgaria and the Caucasus; on the east by the Caucasus and Persia; on the south by Iraq, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea; on the west by Bulgaria, Greece and the Aegean Sea.
Under the Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 10, 1920), imposed on Turkey after the World War, various divisions of her territory were made and a neutral zone was set up on either shore of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora, and the Hellespont.
The Sanjak of Alexandretta (set up Jan. 1, 1925) as part of the State of Syria became an independent province known as the Hatay Republic under a treaty concluded (June, 1938) between France and Turkey. Its capital is Antioch. Hatay was ceded to Turkey by France (June 23, 1939) in a mutual assistance pact.
The real power in the Turkish Empire was seized by the Grand National Assembly and a responsible Ministry set up by the Nationalists at Ankara, in Anatolia, which was the most genuinely Turkish section of the old Ottoman Empire, after the last Chamber of Deputies, sitting at Constantinople, was dissolved (April 11, 1920). The Assembly declared that Mohammed VI was deposed as Sultan, and the Sultanate abolished. It declared (March 2. 1924) that his successor as Caliph, Abdul Medjid II. was deposed as Caliph (spiritual head of Islam) and that the Caliphate was vested in the Assembly.
Turkey (April 10. 1936) asked of the eight powers signatory to the Treaty of Lausanne for its revision so that she might remilitarize the Straits consented at a meeting at Montreaux, Switzerland (June 20). of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. The powers
A constitution replacing the Fundamental Law of 1921 was adopted (October, 1925). It provided for a single legislative National Assembly of 283 Deputies elected on a basis of one to each 50,000 people by males over 18. This provision was changed (Dec. 14, 1934) when the franchise was women made 22 years, and the ratio changed to given to women and the age of both men and one for 40,000. The Assembly elected for four years (March 26, 1939) has 424 members including 14
The National Assembly elects the President of members. In 15 years a steady flow of legislation the Republic for a four-year term from among its has been enacted to Westernize the country. By tacit omission polygamy and slavery were abolished, civil marriages were made obligatory and registraThe Gregorian tion of marriages was ordered. was adopted, the 24-hour clock, and All Turks were ordered to the metric system. calendar adopt family names. The fez was outlawed and most of the younger women discarded the veil and with it the old custom of seclusion. The Assembly (May 28, 1935) made Sunday the weekly day of rest throughout Turkey in place of Friday, the traditional Mohammedan Sabbath.
Islam is no longer recognized as the State religion, but the vast majority of the Turkish Turkish has been substipopulation is Moslem. tuted for the liturgical language in all mosques. cept in places of worship during Divine service. The law forbids the wearing of clerical garb ex
Education is compulsory, free and secular between the ages of 7 and 16. There are primary, with universities in Istanbul and Ankara. intermediate, secondary and vocational schools
Mustapha Kemal Ataturk (Chief Turk), presimet Inonu (Nov. 11) was elected to succeed him. dent of Turkey, died (Nov. 10, 1938) and Gen. IsA new cabinet was formed (Jan. 25, 1939) with only five of the twelve ministers who held office
at the time of the death of Kemal Ataturk. The new cabinet re-elected Ismet Inonu.
Military service is compulsory, 18 months in the infantry, two years in the other services and three years in the Navy. Men are called up at the age of 20 and liability continues for 26 years. Since the outbreak of the war, the Army has been maintained at war strength by calling up reservists, premature calling of new classes and reclassifying men previously exempted.
Reorganization of the Navy, started before the war, continues and the effective fleet comprises one battle cruiser, two cruisers, two gunboats and miscellaneous small craft. The effective strength is approximately 800 officers and 4,000 men.
Turkey adopted (1935) a Five-year plan for industrialization of the country and the next year
adopted a second Five-year plan for mining and electrification.
Agriculture is the chief industry of the Turks, products being tobacco. which goes to almost all world marts; cereals, cotton, figs, nuts, fruits of almost all varieties, opium and gums. About 20 million acres are in forests.
Turkey has large mineral resources, not yet developed, including chrome ore, zinc, manganese, antimony, copper, borax. emery, asphalt, meerschaum, some coal and lignite, salt, some gold and silver. and petroleum on lands bordering the Marmora Sea.
The monetary unit is the piaster with an average value of $.80. Budget estimates (1940-1941) are receipts 268,481,000 Turkish pounds; expenditures, 268,476,321. A pound equals 100 piasters.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Capital, Moscow-Area, 8,819,791 square miles-Population (est. 1940), 192,695,710 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics-in area the largest country in the world-stretches across two continents from the North Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Finland. It occupies the northern part of Asia and the eastern half of Europe, from the Arctic to the Black Sea. Its western borders brush against Finland, the Baltic Sea, Germany (Poland), Hungary and Rumania. On the south it is bounded by Rumania, the Black Sea, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongol People's Republic and Manchukuo.
aristocracy, now sanatoria for the people, contrast with the picturesque villages of the Crimeans, a mixture of Tartar, Turk and Russian. The highway from Sevastopol along the shores of the Black Sea looks on a steadily-changing panorama of mountains and flourishing valleys studded with quaint Tartar villages. The highway winds past Yalta, Alupka, Mischor, Massandra, Gurzuf-a chain of health resorts washed by the warm waters of the Black Sea.
The vast territory of the U. S. S. R., one-sixth of the earth's land surface, contains every phase of climate, except the distinctly tropical, and a varied topography. The European portion is a vast low plain with the Ural mountains on its eastern edge, the Crimean and Caucasian mountains on the south and southeast. The Urals, separating the European from the Asiatic portions of the country, stretch north and south for 2,500 miles. The Asiatic portion of the U. S. S. R. also consists largely of an immense plain, with mountain ranges on its eastern and southern borders. The rivers are important as actual or potential channels of commerce. In the European section these include the Dnieper, flowing into the Black Sea, and the Volga and the Ural, flowing into the Caspian Sea. The Asiatic section is drained by three great rivers, the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena, each over 2500 miles long, flowing into the Arctic Ocean, and contains several large rivers in the south, including the Amur, which flows into the Pacific Ocean. The northern rivers and the Arctic coastline of 4,000 miles have been opened to navigation during recent years.
The area of the Soviet Union contains virtually every material natural resource of modern civilization-minerals of all kinds, base and precious; every variety of timber, except tropical; every character of cereal, vegetable and fruit lands. About 38% of the territory of the Soviet Union is timber area, 3,124,360 square miles. Land potentially suitable for agriculture is estimated at upwards of 1,037,400,000 acres, of which about oneeighth is now cultivation. under Potential hydraulic resources are estimated at 280,000,000 kilowatts.
Known mineral resources include: coal, peat, oil, iron ore, manganese, copper, zinc and lead. The capital of this vast country is Moscow, a city of great charm, called the nerve center of the Soviet Union. Its lofty modern structures tower over quaint remnants of Czarist Russia; and ancient winding streets enter unexpectedly into spacious squares with shining Metro stations, fresh flower-beds and trees. Here is the famous Kremlin, the citadel of Moscow enclosing the former palace of the Czar.
Leningrad (formerly St. Petersburg and Petrograd), situated on the delta of the Neva River and spread out over many islands, is the center of science and research in the U. S. S. R. It is a city of museums and palaces, including the "Museum of the Revolution," the pre-war Winter Palace, the Palace of Count Stroganoff, built by Rastrelli, the Catherine and Alexander Palaces at Detskoe Selo, and the terraced fountains and palaces of Peterhof. Priceless paintings of Rubens, Valesquez and Titian adorn the walls of the Hermitage Museum.
Kiev, the 1,000-year-old capital of the Ukrainian U. S. S. R. is a busy industrial city and the scientific center of the Ukrainian Republic. The ancient Kiev-Perchersky Monastery, now converted into a historical museum, presents an outstanding example of medieval Slavonic architecture.
The Crimea is called the vacationland of the Soviet Union. Shining palaces of the former
The Caucasus is the most scenic part of the Soviet Union. It is a land of ever-varying scenery where glaciers alternate with sub-tropical vegetation, a land where medieval mountain hamlets are just a few hours' ride from great power stations. The stretch of coast between the Caucasus Mountain Range and the sea is known as the "Black Sea Riviera"; Sochi. Matsesta. Cagry, Sukhum and Batum are some of the famous resort towns.
The new Soviet constitution (adopted Dec. 5, 1936), replacing that of 1924, divided the country into eleven Union Republics, each with its separate government for local affairs, patterned on the Union Government. A twelfth Union Republic, the Karelo-Finnish, was formed (1940), followed by the Moldavian, the thirteenth; the Lithuanian, the fourteenth; the Latvian, the fifteenth, and the Estonian, the sixteenth, all in the same year. The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, with nearly two-thirds of the entire population of the Union and upwards of three-fourths of the area, is the largest and most important of the Union Republics. A list of the Union Republics, with areas and populations, follows:
Russian S. F. S. R..
Area, Sq. Mi.
Azerbaijan S. S. R..
Uzbek S. S. F. R
Moldavian S. S. R
Lithuanian S. S. R.
Total U. S. S. R. The twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth Union Republics were occupied by German and Finnish forces (1941) in the war between U. S. S. R. and the Reich.
Large sections of White Russia, the Ukraine and parts of the Byelorussian and Moldavian Republics also were occupied by the Axis forces, including the section of Poland awarded to Russia in the German-Soviet partition.
The census (1939) gives 18.6 per cent of the population (Arctic regions not included) as below the age of 7, and 41 per cent between the ages of 15 and 39, with 6.6 more than 60 years old. It gives 81.2 per cent of the population as literate, or 90.8 per cent of the men and 72.6 per cent of the women. Illiteracy was to have been entirely cleared up by the completion of the second fiveyear plan at the end of January, 1938. [In 1926. literacy of the population of the Soviet Union above the age of 9 was put at 51 per cent.]
As to education, 8.86 per cent of the population was found to have secondary school training and 0.64 per cent university training.
Foreign Countries-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
By nationality Russians made up 58.41 per cent | tin vanadium and molybdenum. Establishment of
There were forty-nine recognized nationalities, plus more than 1,800,000 persons of other national groups.
The constitution (1936) provides for universal direct suffrage with the secret ballot. The first election under the new constitution was held (Dec. 12, 1937) when 90,319,346 persons recorded their vote, or 96.5 per cent of the total voting population of the U. S. S. R.
As a result of the fulfillment of the Second Five Year Plan the export of machinery by the Soviet Union has increased rapidly, especially in agricultural implements and automobiles. Co-incident with the industrial increase there has been a distinct advance in educational facilities.
The autonomous republics, each of which is represented by eleven deputies in the Council of Nationalities. form the most important of the various subdivisions of the Union Republics.
The population (1939 census) was announced by the Government as 170,467,186, including 81,664,981 men and 88,802,205 women, a total gain of 15.9 per cent over the 1926 figures. A movement toward the cities was indicated in an urban population (1939) of 32.9 compared with (1926) 17.9. After the re-union of Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia, the population of the U. S. S. R. increased to 183,267,000. The creation of the Karelo-Finnish, Moldavian, Lithuanian, and Estonian Republics increased the population
made cotton growing important of recent years
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic and the
Tajikistan, in the extreme south of Central
The Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic and the
The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republie was formed (1940) from the territory ceded to the Soviet by the peace treaty with Finland at the close of the war. Seventy per cent of the territory is covered with woods (pine and other). The population is mainly Karelians. Finns and Russians. The mineral resources are copper, lead, zinc, silver also includes the two largest lakes in Europe, Ladoga and Onega. and iron. The territory has 26,000 small lakes, and
The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was created (1940) when Rumania returned to the U. S. sections of Bukowina, which had been taken from Russia after the close of the World War. S. R. the province of Bessarabia and the northern
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was voted into the U. S. S. R. (1940) after Soviet troops had occupied the country, charging a violation of a mutual assistance pact. Elections were held and a Communist dominated Parliament was chosen. People's Bloc. Ballots were cast by 1,386,569 perThe vote showed 99.19 per cent for the Working The new Parliament proclaimed Lithuania a Soviet Socialist Republic (July 21) and asked for incorporation into the U. S. S. R., which was granted by the Supreme Soviet (Aug. 3). The capital is Vilna. (For Lithuania as an independent The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic was estabRepublic, see World Almanac, 1940, page 247). lished (1940), after the U. S. S. R. had occupied the chief cities, charging that Latvia had violated the spirit of a mutual assistance pact with the A new Parliament, dominated by the U. S. S. R. Communist party was chosen (July 14) at the elections. The vote showed 97.6 for the one-party The new Parliament proCommunist ticket. claimed Latvia a Soviet Republic (July 21) and asked for incorporation in the Union of Socialist which the Supreme Soviet Soviet Republics, as an independent Republic, see World Almanac, granted Aug. 5) The capital is Riga. (For Latvia 1940, page 246.)
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was created (1940). The U. S. S. R. charged that Estonia a military alliance with Lithuania and Latvia and had violated a mutual assistance pact by making demanded the establishment of a new government the army had marched into the country (June 16). in conformance with the ideas of Moscow after A new Parliament with a Communist majority was
elected (July 14), the Communist ticket-the only in the field-receiving 92.9 per cent of the vote. The new Parliament proclaimed Latvia a Soviet Republic (July 21) and asked for incorporation into the U. s. S. R., which was granted (Aug. 6) by vote of the Supreme Soviet. The capital is Tallinn. (For Estonia as an independent Republic, see World Almanac, 1940, pages 226, 227.)
Under the constitution (1936), the supreme organ of state power is the Supreme Soviet of the U. S. S. R. (replacing the All-Union Congress Soviets), meeting regularly twice a year and elected for a period of four years. The Supreme Soviet consists of two legislative chambers with equal rights, viz: the Soviet of the Union, elected on the basis of one deputy per 300,000 population (647 deputies, an increase from 569 caused by the addition of the Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Karelo-Finnish and Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republics and additions to the Ukrainian and Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republics); the Council of Nationalities, consisting of 25 delegates selected by the Supreme Soviet of each Union Republic, 11 from each of the 22 autonomous republics, and five from each autonomous province 713, an increase from 574 caused by the addition of the Republics). In case of disagreement between the two Chambers, a conciliation commission is provided, and if its decision fails to bring agreement the Soviet is dissolved and new elections fixed.
The two Chambers in joint session elect a Presidium consisting of a president, sixteen vice-presidents and 24 members, which have wide administrative powers between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, including ratification of treaties and declaration of a state of war. The Presidium supervises the work of the Council of People's Commissars, selected by the Supreme Soviet, which acts as the executive and administrative organ of the State. In addition to a president and vice-president, the Soviet has commissar members, heads of the federal commissariats of defense, foreign affairs, foreign trade, railways, water transport, communications, sea transport, ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, aviation, shipbuilding, armaments, munitions, heavy machine-building, medium machinebuilding, and general machine-building, navy, procurement, construction, electric industry, and electric power stations, coal industry, fuel industry.
Commissariats common to both federal government and the Union Republics are: food industry, fish industry, meat and dairy, light industry, textile industry, timber, state grain and livestock farms, finance, home trade, home affairs, justice, health, building materials industry, agriculture.
The remaining seven members of the Council are the chairman of: The State Planning Commission, the Committees on Art, Higher Education, Geology, Radio Broadcasting and Radiofication, Cinema Industry.
The highest judicial organ is the Supreme Court, which, with the Special Courts, are elected by the Supreme Council for five-year terms.
Land and natural resources are held in trust by the Government for the general population, though collective farms may hold their land under a system of perpetual leasehold. Natural resources are exploited by state trusts. The transport system. as well as posts, telephones and telegraphs, are operated as Government departments. Industry is conducted almost wholly by state enterprises, the output of private industries having declined to a fraction of one per cent of the industrial production. Some industrial enterprises are conducted by the cooperatives.
The Communist Party is the only legalized political organization in the Soviet Union, though non-party candidates are freely elected to public office. The party's directive body is the Central Committee. elected by the membership at the party congresses. The Committee selects a small executive body, the Political Bureau, which by virtue of its position of party leadership, makes decisions on policy which are followed by the Government.
A list of People's Commissariats (All-Union) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics follows:
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars -Joseph V. Stalin, who is also chairman of the State Committee for Defense.
Foreign Affairs and Vice Premier-Viacheslav M. Molotov.
Foreign Trade-Anastase L. Mikoyan.
Chemical Industry-Mikhail F. Denisov.
Heavy Machine Building-Kazakov.
Medium Machine Building-V. A. Malyshev.
Coal Industry-Vasily V. Vakhrushev.
A list of the People's Commissariats (All-Union and Union Republic) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics follows:
Food Industry-Vasili P. Zotov.
Meat and Dairy Industry-Pavel V. Smirnov.
State Grain and Livestock Farms-Pavel P. Lobanov.
Finance-Arseni G. Zverev.
Trade-Alexander B. Lubimov.
United N. K. V. D. (political police)-Lavrenti P. Beria.
Justice-Nikolai M. Richkov.
Public Health-Georgi A. Miterev.
Building Materials Industry-Leonid A. Sosnin. Chairman of the State Planning Commission of the U. S. S. R.-Maxim Z. Saburov
Chairman of the Administration of the State Bank of the U. S. S. R.-N. K. Sokolov,
Chairman of the Commission of Soviet ControlLev Mekhlis.
Chairman of the Supreme Court of the U. S. S. R.-Ivan T. Golyakov.
Procurer of the U. S. S. R.-V. M. Bochkoff. Chairman of the Committee on High Education-Sergie V. Kaftanov.
Officers of the Supreme Soviet:
Chairman of the Presidium-Mikhail I. Kalinin. President of the Soviet of the Union-A. A. Andreyev.
President of the Soviet of Nationalities-J. M. Shverník.
Joseph Stalin is a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the U. S. S. R., a member of the Military Council of the Supreme Soviet, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the U. S. S. R., in addition to being Premier and Defense Commissar. Stalin also is Commander-in-Chief of the Army. A Committee for State Defense was formed (July 1, 1941) with Stalin as Chairman. The other members are Marshal Klementi E. Voroshilov, Lavrenti P. Beria and Georgi M. Malenkov.
Members of the Political Bureau (March, 1939) as elected at the eighteenth congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union are-Andreyev, Khruschev, Stalin, Kaganovich, Mikoyan, Voroshilov, Kalinin, Molotov, Zhdanov, and five candidates: L. Bería, N. Shvernik, N. Voznesensky, G. Malenkov and A. Shcherbakov.
There were organized (April 17, 1940) six new economic councils attached to the Council of People's Commissars, to coordinate the activities of the corresponding commissariats. These councils, with chairmen, are:
Metallurgy and Chemistry-N. I. Bulganin. Machine-building-V. A. Malyshev, Defense Industry-N. A. Voznesensky. Fuel and Electro-Industry-M. G. Pervukhin. Consumers Goods-A, N. Kosygin. Agriculture and Procurement M. Benediktov. Education in the Soviet Union is a charge against the various Union Republics and the local budgets, with the exception that higher education is conducted on a federal basis.
Universal compulsory education for children. introduced for a four-year period (1930), has since been extended to seven years.
In the course of the first and second Five-Year Plans new alphabets were adopted for 50 of the minor nationalites that had never before possessed a written language. In most cases the Latin alphabet was adapted.
Appropriations for the cultural needs of the population (1941) were 47.800.000.000 rubles. The number of pupils in elementary and secondary schools (1941-1942) was 36,200,000 and 13,500 secondary and elementary schools were opened (1940). Thirty more colleges and universities also were opened in that year, bringing the total to 781 with a registration of approximately 600,000. A system of tuition was introduced (1940) in the secondary schools and higher educational institutions. Heretofore tuition had been free.
There were (1939) 8,550 newspapers with an aggregate circulation of 37,520,000. The number of public libraries increased from 40,300 (1933-1934)