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found in Limburg. The mines are mostly govern- | 6; National Socialists, 4; Liberty Union, 3; Demment owned.
Canals, of which there are 4,500 miles, are most important in internal communication; elaborate systems are in the cities and feed the harbors. The Rhine and the Scheldt reach the sea through the Netherlands and carry enormous traffic, the Scheldt including that from Antwerp.
The first Constitution after the reconstruction of the Netherlands as a sovereign state was promulgated (1814), and revised (1815) after the addition of the Belgian provinces, and (1840, 1848, 1887, 1917, 1922 and 1938). It assures a hereditary constitutional monarchy. Executive power rests exclusively in the sovereign and the States-General of two Chambers: First Chamber, 50 members, elected for six years (one-half every third year) by the provincial legislatures, and the Second Chamber, 100 Deputies, elected for four years directly. Universal suffrage for citizens of both sexes over 25 years of age and proportional representation are in force. The Sovereign exercises the executive authority through a Council of Ministers, the President thereof corresponding to a Prime Minister. There is a State Council of 14 members, named by the Sovereign, of which she is President, to be consulted on all legislative and some executive matters.
The reigning Sovereign is Queen Wilhelmina Helena, Pauline Maria (born Aug. 31, 1880) who succeeded on the death of her father, Willem III. (Nov. 23, 1890) and was crowned (Sept. 6, 1898) She married Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Prince Consort) (Feb. 7, 1901). He died (July 3, 1934). The heir to the throne is Princess Juliana, only daughter, (born April 30, 1909) and married (Jan. 7, 1937) to Prince Bernhard zu Lippe-Biesterfeld (born June 29, 1911). They have two daughters, Princess Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard (Born Jan. 31, 1938) and Princess Irene Emma Elisabeth (Born Aug. 5, 1939).
Pieter S. Gerbrandy is Premier.
The political complexions of the two chambers (elected May, 1937) follows:
First Chamber-Catholics, 16; Social Democrats, 12; Anti-Revolutionists, 7; Christian Historicals,
Second Chamber-Catholics, 31; Social Democrats, 23; Anti-Revolutionists, 17; Christian Historicals, 8; Democrats, 6; Liberty Union, 4; National Socialists, 4; other parties. 7.
Under the revision of 1922 Netherland India has been abolished as a colony and made an integral part of the Kingdom.
Germany invaded and occupied the Netherlands (May 10-14, 1940) and a German Commissioner, responsible directly to Chancellor Hitler of Germany, was made Governor Commissar of the occupied areas with a German trade expert to direct economic recovery. Arthur Seyss-Inquart was named Commissar for the duration of the war with the promise to the Netherlands that its independence would be restored after the close of the war." Queen Wilhelmina and Cabinet fled for England at the time of the invasion and established a refugee Government in London.
Army service was compulsory with every man liable from the ages of 19 to 40. There were recruited annually 30,500, with 1,000 for sea service.
The Navy is maintained for the protection of home waters and the coast and the defense of the East Indian possessions with three cruisers assigned to the East Indian fleet with destroyers, submarines and most of the vessels of the Navy. Entire liberty of worship and conscience is guaranteed. The royal family belongs to the Dutch Reformed Church. The state contributes to the support of several religious denominations. Education is obligatory from ages six to thirteen. Instruction is free in both public and denominational schools and teachers are paid by the State. There are universities in Amsterdam (Two), Utrecht, Leyden, Delft (Engineering), Groningen, Wageningen (Agriculture), Rotterdam (Commerce), Nijmegen (Roman Catholic), and Tilburg (Commerce, Roman Catholic).
The monetary unit is the guilder (florin) with an average value of $.53, based on the official German rate.
Government revenues (1940) were estimated at 770,005,000 guilders, expenditures 1,015,599,000. NETHERLANDS INDIES
The overseas territories of the Netherlands in the East Indies consist of great islands and archipelagoes lying along the Equator from about 6° north latitude to 10° south latitude, between the Asiatic mainland and the Philippines, and Australia. They form the bulk of the Malaysia. Java is the most densely populated land mass in the world (821 to the square mile). The great majority of the natives are Mohammedans. The estimated (1941) total population of Netherlands Indies is 67,000,000, of which 250,000 are white. They are distributed as follows: Java and Madura, 46,000,000: Sumatra, 9,000,000; Borneo, 2,400,000; Celebes, 4,600,000; rest of the Archipelago, 5,000,000. The capital is Batavia, Java. The total area is 735,267 square miles, divided as follows-Java and Madura, 50,752; Sumatra, 163, 145; Borneo, 206,819; Celebes, 48,060.
The islands are luxuriant, even for the Tropics, and produce annually enormous natural wealth. The Netherlands East Indies figures in world exports in the following percentages: cinchona bark 90%, pepper 85%, kapok 82, rubber 334. coconut 30%, hard cordage fibre 25%, palm oil products 24%, and tea 17%. Other products of major importance are tobacco and sugar; also coffee, cocoa and teak wood. The export of rubber is controlled by the International Rubber Regulation Committee for Netherland India. The main
Netherlands Guiana, also called Surinam, is situated on the north coast of South America, between French Guiana on the east and British Guiana on the west; inaccessible forests and savannas on the south stretch to the Tumuc Humac Mountains. The area is 54,291 square miles. The population is 177,980. Paramaribo is the capital.
The Dutch by the Treaty of Breda (1667) gave New Netherlands (New York) to England in exchange for Surinam.
The chief export is aluminum ore "bauxite," and 65 per cent of the American consumption of this important raw material comes from Surinam. Other exports are sugar, coffee, bananas, balata and high quality lumber. The Netherland guilder is the monetary unit. Government revenues (1941) are estimated at 4,348,000 guilders; expenditures at 5,846,000.
mineral riches are tin and oil. Raw materials are of great strategic value. Tin production is also regulated. Huge high quality iron ore deposits are still unused.
The inter-island and coastal traffic is handled by a large fleet of small steamers and an extensive network of air lines. In peacetime three times weekly airplanes connected the Netherlands with the Netherlands Indies.
A colonial army, separate from the home army, is maintained in the East Indies. There is compulsory militia service for whites between the ages of 19 and 32 and in the landstorm between 31 and 45. The army consisted (Jan. 1, 1939) of 1,783 reservist officers, 13,263 militiamen, and 17,596 in the landstorm.
The navy in the East Indies normally has three cruisers, eight destroyers, 14 submarines and additional small craft. The main naval base is Sourabaya, with an auxiliary Naval Air Base in Ambon. The Naval Air Force consists of 72 seagoing hydroplanes and 18 additional planes aboard ships. Forces were largely increased (1941) by the threats of war. The budget (1941) carried $220,000,000 for defense measures.
The monetary unit-the guilder-has the same foreign exchange valuation as that of the Netherlands. Governmental revenues (1941) were estimated at 694,140,035 guilders; expenditures at 829,304,901.
The colony of Curacao consists of a group of six islands in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Venezuela. The area of the group is 403 square miles; of Curacao it is 210 square miles; of Aruba it is 70 square miles. The population (Jan. 1, 1939) is 101,021. Willemstad is the capital. The chief products are corn, pulse, cattle, salt and phosphates; the principal industry is the refinery of oil. On Curacao the Royal Dutch Shell and on Aruba the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey have large oil refineries, refining the oil from Venezuela. The harbor of Curacao is very important. In 1939 nearly 7,000 ships with a gross register of about 27,000,000 tons entered the harbor. These included the many cruise ships whose passengers bought European cosmetics and other articles in this duty-free port Government revenues (1939) were estimated at 11,822,760 guilders; expenditures, 11,587,117.
(REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA)
Capital, Managua-Area, 60,000 square miles-Population (1940) 1,380,287 Nicaragua lies between the Caribbean Sea, with a coastline of 280 miles, and the Pacific (200 miles), with Honduras on the north and Costa Rica on the south. The Cordillera range of mountains, including many volcanic peaks, runs from northwest to southeast through the middle of the country. Between this range and a range of volcanic peaks to the west lie Lake Managua, 30 miles long by 15 miles wide, and Lake Nicaragua, 100 miles long and 45 miles wide, of great importance in the transport system of the country. The Pacific Railroad, running from Corinto to Leon and from Managua to Granada (171 miles), the only one in the country is Government owned.
Other products are mahogany and hides and skins. Chief imports are textiles, machinery, chemicals and flour.
The United States acquired by the BryanChamarro treaty (1916) the right to construct a canal through Nicaragua and also to build a naval base in the Bay of Fonseca on the Pacific coast and at Corn Island on the Atlantic coast. United States paid $3,000,000 for the option.
The country has had a stormy politcal history: revolutions have been frequent and it has been necessary for the United States to land Marines there on several occasions to protect American lives and property.
The country has valuable forests, some gold is mined, but it is essentially an agricultural and stock raising community. On the broad tropical plains of the east coast, bananas and sugar cane are cultivated, and coffee is grown on the mountain slopes. The production of gold has attained first rank in the country, taking precedence over coffee, which held the lead until 1940.
The Constitution (March 12, 1912) amended (1913) provides for a Congress of two Houses, a Senate of 24 members elected for six years, onethird each two years, and a House of 43 Deputies elected for four years by universal suffrage. The President is elected for four years and has a Council of five Ministers. General Anastasio Somoza was elected President (Dec. 8, 1936) to serve until 1940. A new constitution was approved by the constituent assembly (March 22, 1939) and President Somoza elected for an eight-year term (expiring May 1, 1947.) The Roman Catholic is the prevailing religion. The teaching of English is compulsory in the schools.
A Central University of Nicaragua was established (1941) by President Sonazo. The university. located in Managua, consists of schools of medicine. law, arts, pharmacy and engineering. Nicaragua also has universities in Leon and Granada.
The National Guard (1939) numbers 3,538 officers and men with a trained reserve of 4,000. The period of enlistment is for three years and during that period soldiers are barred from voting. Aviation is being developed with the construction of commercial and military airports.
The monetary unit is the cordoba with an average value of $.17. The budget (1939-1940) was estimated to balance at 20,281,429 cordobas. The (1940-1941) budget was increased to almost 26,000,000 cordobas because of war expenditures.
Capital, Oslo-Area, 124,556 square Norway occupies the west part of the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northwest Europe from the Skagerrack, which separates it from Denmark, to the North Cape in the Arctic Ocean, where on the east it meets Finland. The Kjolen Mountains, which separate Norway from Sweden to the east. give to Norway in the northern part but a narrow fringe of country washed by the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans, and cut deep by fjords of scenic grandeur. The climate is mild and moist, on the west coast, but cold and dry in the interior and in the north and east sections. The country is 1,100 miles long and its greatest width is 270 miles. The coastline, including the fjords and greater islands, is 12,000 miles long, and includes 150,000 islands.
miles-Population (est. 1940), 2,937,000
Norway has only 4.300 square miles of land under cultivation; rivers and lakes occupy 5,000; and forests 29,455; three-fourths of the land is unproductive. Norway is essentially a maritime-country. The chief agricultural products are wheat, barley, oats, rye, corn, potatoes and hay. Forests are one of the principal natural sources of wealth. Nearly 70,000 men are engaged in cod fisheries; 31,500 in winter herring fisheries, and 30,000 in summer herring fisheries. Huge quantities of whale, walrus, seal, mackerel and salmon are also caught. Mining is an important industry and the country yields silver, copper, pyrites, nickel, iron, zinc and lead.
The country lacks coal but has become a great power producing country by utilizing by electrical transmission, its greatest natural asset-water power
The principal manufactures are food products. machinery and metal work, paper and pulp, textiles, wood, animal oils, soap and electrochemical products, especially nitrates.
The Evangelical Lutheran religion is endowed by the state and its clergy are nominated by the King. All religions are tolerated.
Education is compulsory from seven to fourteen, and the school system is highly organized. There is, so to speak, no illiteracy. The University of Oslo (founded in 1811) is subsidized by the state.
The Army was the national militia with universal and compulsory service beginning at the age of 18 and continuing until 55. The first call was at the age of 21 and for 12 years the recruit belongs to the line. Males from 18 to 21 and from 45 to 55 belonged to the landstorm, subject to call in national emergency. Service for the ages of 33 to 45 was in the landvaern. Military training in all branches was for 90 days. The strength of the army (1939) including officers and men, was approximately 60,000. The Norwegian Navy was de
signed solely for coast-defense duty and numbered approximately 10,000 officers and men. All seafaring men between the ages of 20 and 44 are enrolled on the active list and are liable to conscription.
After Norway's entry into the war no effort has been spared to build up a better navy and air force. Some 50 Norwegian men-of-war are now active on the seas, among them a number of the destroyers handed over by the United States Government to England and by the British Government put at the disposal of the Norwegian Government; and an air-force of about 2,000 men are on the wings.
Norway, under its Constitution (adopted May 17, 1814) is a constitutional hereditary monarchy. Independent for centuries, Norway entered into a union with the Kingdom of Denmark (1381). By treaty (Jan. 14, 1814) the King of Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden, but the Norwegian people declared themselves independent and elected a Danish Prince as their King. The foreign powers refused to recognize this election; as a result a convention (Aug. 14) proclaimed the independence of Norway in union with Sweden, and (Nov. 4) elected Charles XIII, of Sweden King of Norway. This union lasted until 1905. Disagreements having arisen, culminating in Norway's claiming the right to maintain its own consular service. Norway declared the union dissolved (June 7) and after negotiations a repeal of the union by mutual agreement was signed (Oct. 26, 1905). After a plebiscite Prince Charles of Denmark was elected King and ascended the throne as Haakon VII.
The legislative power is vested in the Storthing, the members numbering 150, elected for four years by direct vote on universal suffrage of citizens, both male and female of 23 years of age. The Storthing discusses and votes on all political and budgetary questions, but divides itself into two sections for questions of legislation, onefourth of the membership forming the Lagthing. and three-fourths the Odelsthing, which consider the legislation separately, sitting in joint session on failure to agree separately, when decision is made by a two-thirds majority. The King may exercise the veto twice, but if the same bill is passed a third time, it becomes law.
The king of Norway is Haakon VII. (born Aug. 3, 1872) second son of Frederick VIII., King of Denmark. He was elected King of Norway by the Storthing (Nov. 18, 1905) and crowned (June 22, 1906) married (July 22, 1896) to Princess Maud who died (Nov. 20, 1938) third daughter of King Edward VII. of Great Britain. The heir to the throne, Crown Prince Olaf (born July 2, 1903) was married (March 21, 1929) to Princess Martha of Sweden, daughter of Prince Charles. A son, Heredi
tary Prince Harold, was born (Feb. 21, 1937) and two daughters, Princess Ragnhild Alexandra. (June 9, 1930) and Princess Astrid, (Feb. 12, 1932). Germany invaded and occupied Norway (April, 1940). The war, following the invasion, lasted until mid-June when the Allied forces evacuated. King Haakon, the Crown Prince, the Government and all military forces that could be accommodated on board ships and airplanes at their disposal, evacuated Norway to continue the fight from Allied soil. The seat of the Norwegian
Government is in London, and Norwegian military training camps are maintained, mainly in Canada. The Crown Princess and her children, at the invitation of the President of the United States. came to America (Aug. 23, 1940) aboard the American Legion. The German Governor General of Norway is Joseph Terboven.
The monetary unit is the krone with a value of $.20 based on the official German rate. The budget (1940-1941) was estimated to balance at 790,000,000. kroner.
Spitzbergen, a mountainous group of islands in the Arctic Ocean between 76° 26' and 80° 50′ north latitude and 10° 20′ and 32° 40' east longitude, the largest being West Spitzbergen (12,000 square miles), lies about 370 miles due north of Norway, half-way to the Pole. Discovered by Norsemen (1194) and rediscovered by Barents (1596,) the islands had been the resort of whalers of several nations. Norway has periodically asserted (since 1261) her claims to the islands, and from 1870 the demand became more insistent, increasing as Norwegian exploration discovered rich outcropping seams of coal-a necessary which Norway lacks.
Jan Mayen, a desolate area of 144 square miles between Greenland and Northern Norway and about 300 miles north of Iceland. The Norwegian Meteorlogical Institute established (1921) a weather station there. Otherwise Jan Mayen is uninhabited.
The war ended the negotiations, but, following action by the Peace Conference (1919) a treaty was signed in Paris (Feb. 9, 1921) by the United States, Great Britain, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, which put Spitzbergen under the flag of Norway. The area is about 24,290 square miles; the population around 2,700.
The development of the coal fields has proceeded rapidly. The resources are estimated at 9,000,000,000 tons. There are large deposits of low-grade iron ore and gypsum, and signs of oil have been reported.
Bouvet Island, area 22 square miles, is an uninhabited tract in the Southern Atlantic. Great Britain relinquished (1928) its claim to the Island to Norway.
Peter I Island, with an area of 94 square miles, lies in the Antarctic and is uninhabited.
Capital, Jerusalem-Area, 10,429 square miles-Population (est. June, 1940), 1,529,559 Palestine, the Holy Land, lying between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, was formerly a vilayet of the Turkish province of Syria. It was conquered during the World War by British troops under General, later Field Marshal, Viscount Allenby, Jerusalem being surrendered (Dec. 9, 1917). Jerusalem had been in Moslem hands since 1244. had been conquered and reconquered in the Crusades, and had been under the rule of the Turk since 1517. It remained under British Military Administration until July 1, 1920, when Sir Herbert L. Samuel was appointed High Commissioner and a civil government set up. The country has been governed (since Sept. 29, 1923) by Great Britain under a mandate granted by the League of Nations. The present High Commissioner (appointed March 1, 1938) is Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael. Palestine is primarily an agricultural country, the growing of citrus fruit being the most lucrative commercial activity. The principal crops include wheat, barley, durra, olives, kersenneh, melons and watermelons, grapes. figs, tomatoes. The citrus fruits are chiefly oranges and grapefruit. Bananas are also grown. Wine making is an extensive industry. Minerals found are limestone, sandstone, gypsum. The valley of the Jordan and the shores of the Dead Sea yield rock salt and sulphur. The center of the wine-making industry is in the Jewish villages of Zichron Jacob and Rishon le Zion. Soap-boiling is chiefly centered in Nablus, Jaffa and Haifa; olive oil in Nablus. Acre and Jaffa, and cement in Haifa.
as a Jewish homeland in accordance with the "Balfour Declaration" has met with much opposition from the Arabs, and outbreaks of violence have marked the history of the country for the past 18 years.
The Balfour declaration (Nov. 2, 1917) was: "His Majesty's Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of that object. It being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."
The Jewish population in Palestine (1920) was estimated at 66,574 urban and 15,000 rural. It was estimated (June 30, 1940) that there were 941,362 Moslems, 456,743 Jews and 119,007 Christians. The official languages are English, Arabic and Hebrew. There were (1938-1939) 1,482 schools with 7,088 teachers and 166,646 pupils. A dual system of education, Arab and Hebrew, prevails. The Hebrew University in Jerusalem (established 1925) has (1939-1940) 133 teachers and 1,106 students.
Legal immigration into Palestine was cut off (Oct. 1, 1939) for a period of six months by orders of the British Government. Immigration was resumed (April, 1940) at the rate of 1,000 a month. Before the World War there were in Palestine 1,235 industrial undertakings, most of them Arab; there were (1933) 5,290, of which nearly 3,000 were Jewish, employing 16,000 workers. The number of Jewish enterprises (1937) was 5,606, employing 30,040. The area of land in Jewish possession has increased from 102,150 acres (1920) to 378,000 acres (1939).
There has developed considerable trade in manufactured commodities, both in local and imported raw materials. Small scale industries and handlcrafts still predominate although there has been a flow of capital equipment for industrial enterprises.
The effort of Great Britain to establish Palestine
Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister, Colonial Secretary (Oct. 31, 1933) restated the policy of the Mandatory Power: "There is under the Mandate the obligation to facilitate the establishment of a National Home for the Jewish people in Palestine, but at the same time there is an equally definite obligation to safeguard the rights of all inhabitants of Palestine. Both obligations will be most carefully observed.'
Lord Passfield in a White Paper (Oct. 20, 1930) announced that "no margin of land available for agricultural settlement by new immigrants remained," therefore it was the duty of the mandatory power to suspend such immigration until the unemployed portion obtain work."
Both civil and religious courts have been established. A new code of commercial law has been enacted, and many laws modernized. The official languages are English, Arabic and Hebrew.
The British Government and the Administration in Palestine recognize the Jewish Agency (composed of Zionists and non-Zionists) as the agency of the Jewish people in building a National Jewish Home.
Great Britain announced (Feb. 28, 1940) new restrictions on the sale of land by Jews to Arabs. The new regulations divide the country into three areas as follows:
First, Zone A, in which the transfer of land to any one other than a Palestine Arab is prohibited except in exceptional cases, includes "the Hill Country as a whole, together with certain areas of the Gaza and Beersheba subdistricts where the land available already is insufficient for the support of the existing population."
Second, Zone B, in which the transfer of land to Jews is forbidden except under certain conditions, includes "the plains of Asdraelon and Jezreel in Eastern Galilee, the maritime plain between Haita and Tantura and between the southern boundary of the Lamleh subdistrict and Beer Tuviya and the southern portion of the Beersheba subdistrict [the Negeb]."'
Third, the zone in which Jews may purchase any land available includes all the rest of Palestine not included in Zones A and B, the unre
Foreign Countries-Palestine; Panama; Paraguay
cricted zone including "all municipal areas, the Caifa industrial zone and, roughly speaking, the mariti ne plain between Tantura and the southern oundary of the Remleh subdistrict." Jerusalem, the Holy City, is visited annually by arge pilgrimages of Orthodox Greek Christians. The Mosque of Omar occupies the site of Solomon's Temple. It contains the sacrificial stone of Abraham and a relic of Mahomet. Bethlehem is also visited, the Church of the Nativity being reputed the oldest Christian church in existence. Jerusalem mas (1940) a population of 135,900.
On the west is the coastal plain a hundred miles long and 15 wide, fertile and well watered. In the center is the plateau of Judea. The eastern border drops sharply into the depressed valley of the River Jordan and the Dead Sea, 46 miles long, with
an average width of eight miles, 1,292 ft. below
An income tax was imposed (1941) for the first
The principal imports are cotton, textiles, sugar, petroleum, cigarettes and rice; and the chief exports are oranges, soap, wines, melons, apricots, port and almonds.
The chief ports of Palestine are Haifa and Jaffa with light draft vessels going to Tel-Aviv, Gaza and Acre.
The unit of currency is the Palestine pound, equal in value to the British pound. The budget (1940-1941) estimates revenues of £8,435,836 and expenditures of £8,857,584.
Transjordan is an Arab state set up within the Palestine Mandate yet separate from Palestine (since Sept. 1, 1922). It is under the responsibility of the High Commissioner for Palestine, who has a British agent there, in accord with an agreement concluded between the British Government and the Emir (signed Feb. 20, 1928) and ratified (Oct. 31, 1929). Under the Organic Law the Emir administers the country under a council of advisers. The first legislative assembly, of 22 elected deputies was opened (April 2, 1929).
The Emir is Abdullah, second son of King Hussein of the Hejaz, and brother of King Feisal of Iraq. (born in Mecca in 1882) and became ruler (April, 1921).
The boundaries of Transjordan have not been determined, but roughly, on the west the line separating it from Palestine runs from the Lake of Tiberias down the Jordan to the Dead Sea and thence south across Wadi el Araba to Marashash on the Gulf of Sinai; on the north it is separated from Syria by the River Yarmuk, thence eastward to Imtar and thence a straight line northeast to
ward Abu Kamal on the Euphrates; on the east the boundary between it and the Iraq runs south of the Iraq and Nejd; on the south lies the kingdom from Abu Kamal to the junction of the boundaries of Saudi Arabia.
The area is approximately 34,740 square miles, and the population is estimated at 300,000, chiefly nomad Arabs, of whom about 260,000 are Mohammedan, 30,000 Arab Christians, and 10,000 CircasThe official language is Arabic. sians.
The King of the Hejaz (1924) transferred The country is largely desert except for a 30-mile Akaba, Maan and Tebuk to Transjordan. which traverses the country from Dera to Maan, strip between the Jordan and the Hejaz railroad its present terminus. A road fit for motor traffic extends from Jerusalem to the capital, Amman, where there is a British aerodrome and air-force detachment.
The Transjordan frontier force numbers 47 officers and 1,577 men. There is an additional force of some 700 men raised in Palestine and Transjordan, and officered largely by the British.
(REPUBLICA DE PANAMA) Capital, Panama-Area, 33,667 square miles-Population (1930), 467,459 In 1513 Vasco Nuñez de Balboa forced his way through the jungles to discover the Pacific Ocean. Spain's Emperor Charles V established (1858) the Real Audiencia de Panama with jurisdiction over Nicaragua to the north and all the Spanish Provinces to the south as far as the Strait of Magellan, including the Provinces of Cartagena, Peru, Chile and what is now Argentina. Panama became independent from Spain by a movement of its own (Nov. 28, 1821) and subsequently joined the Great Colombian Confederation formed by Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. Panama broke away from New Granada (Colombia) on several Occasions but always joined her again until (Nov. 3, 1903, it finally seceded from Colombia and became an independent Republic and was recognized (Nov. 13) by the United States. It occupies the entire isthmus of that name connecting North and South America, lying between the Caribbean Sea on the north and the Pacific on the south. The Costa Rican boundary was settled by a treaty signed May, 1941). The Colombian boundary line to the east was determined by a boundary commission appointed by both governments which fixed the boundary and whose work was finished (1938). By treaty (Nov. 18, 1903) ratified (Feb. 23, 1904) and with a supplemental (Taft) agreement (1904) the United States acquired the right to construct the Panama Canal across the Isthmus, a strip (the Canal Zone) extending for five miles on each side of the Canal, the terminal cities of Cristobal, adjacent to Colon, and Balboa, adjacent to Panama, and islands for defensive purposes in the bay, in perpetuity and exclusive control for police, judicial, sanitary and other purposes. The United States also has complete jurisdiction over sanitary and quarantine matters in the two cities of Colon and Panama and owns and operates the Panama Railroad, 47 miles long, connecting these cities. In return the United States paid Panama $10,000,000 outright, and $250,000 gold a year rental, beginning after the lapse of nine years.
the Taft agreement (abrogated June 1, 1924) was signed in Washington (March 2, 1936). by which the United States renounced its guarantee of Panaman independence specified in the treaty of 1903, also the right to intervene to maintain order rental charge of $250,000 in gold was changed in the cities of Panama and Colon. The annual (retroactive to Feb. 26, 1934, in consequence of the dollar devaluation) to 430,000 balboas, the that no new private business be established in the currency of Panama. The treaty further provided Canal Zone, and only Government employees allowed to reside there.
Of the total area of Panama, five-eighths are unoccupied and only a small part of the remainder is properly cultivated. Immigration is restricted. The forest resources are great. Stock raising is extensively carried on. The chief exports are bananas, cacao and coconuts.
A new treaty with the United States replacing
A new Constitution (adopted in a plebiscite Dec. 15, 1940, and put into force Jan. 2, 1940), extends the term of the president to six years and bars reelection. It continues the National Assembly, composed of 32 members, elected for four years on the basis of one for each 15,000 inhabitants. The three vice presidents, chosen by the National Cabinet of six members is continued. There are Arnulfo Arias was elected president Assembly. (June 2, 1940) and fled the country (Oct. 7, 1941) on foreign policy. The Panama Supreme Court after failure to collaborate with the United States declared the post vacant and Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia was sworn in two days later. The Roman Catholic religion prevails, but religious freedom is guaranteed. Primary education is free and compulsory. There is no army; the national police has the dual role of Army and police and numbers 2,500 officers and men. Spanish is the official language and its use is compulsory. Women have the ballot.
The silver balboa is the unit of currency. The budget (1939-1940) was estimated to balance at 22,795,000 balboas.
Capital, Asuncion-Area (including Chaco), 174,854 square miles-Population (est. 1940), 1,000,000
the world. The Paraguay River, the Republic's most important waterway, is navigable for vessels of 12-foot draft as far as Asuncion and Concepcion, and beyond for smaller craft for practically its entire length (1,800 miles).
Regular steamer service is maintained from Buenos Aires on the Parana-Paraguay Rivers as far as Asuncion, where extensive port improvements have been made, including the dredging of an adequate river channel and the construction of fireproof warehouses and railway terminals. There are air mail and passenger services between the two cities.
The population is chiefly white. There are about 20,000 aborigines in the wilds, and Negroes are unknown.
The area of Paraguay was increased 91,800 square miles (Oct. 10, 1938) by the terms of the Gran Chaco Peace Settlement by which almost the entire Chaco country was awarded to Paraguay, thus ending a dispute with Bolivia since 1870. Shortly after the war (1870), a constitution, modeled after that of the United States, providing for a republican form of government, was adopted.
A new constitution (accepted in a plebiscite 163,628 to 13,521, Aug. 4, 1940) is designed to eliminate anti-social abuses, regulate national economic life with a view to preventing monopolization of consumption goods and artificial price fixing. The new constitution retains the fundamental rights of the 1870 constitution and restrains Congress from endowing the president with extraordinary powers. The new pact is designed to eliminate oligarchic or other anti-social conditions, gives to all citizens the right to work, to meet peacefully, to petition the authorities, to publish their views in the press without previous censorship, to dispose of private property as the owner sees fit and to form associations for legitimate ends.
Congress is composed of one Chamber, with the members elected one for each 25,000 inhabitants. A Council of State succeeds the Senate and the members are nominated by the Government on a corporative basis. The President is elected for five years and appoints a Cabinet which exercises all the functions of the Government. It informs the Chamber and Council of State of its polícies. Private property is guaranteed by the constitution,
but the State has the right to regulative economic activities.
Felix Paiva became President (Aug. 15, 1937) by a military junta that displaced Col. Rafael Franco. The National Congress of Paraguay (Oct. 11, 1938) elected Paiva President for an indefinite term. Gen. Jose Felix Estigarribia was elected President for a 4-year term (April 30, 1939) in the first presidential election since the beginning of the Chaco war in 1932. He was inaugurated (Aug. 15, 1939). Estigarribia was killed in an airplane accident (Sept. 6, 1940) and was succeeded by Gen. Higino Morinigo, Minister of War.
All citizens from 18 to 22 years of age are subject to obligatory military service. In case of general mobilization all citizens from 18 to 45 are subject to conscription. In the peace-time army there are 5,000 men and 250 officers. A modernly equipped naval fleet patrols the rivers.
More than sixty colonies of various foreign peoples are settled in various parts of the Republic, engaged in developing agriculture and stockraising, and have their own schools, churches, hospitals and stores. One of these is the colony of Mennonites (about 6,000), mostly from Canada, but a few from western parts of the United States and others from Europe as well.
The Roman Catholic religion is established, but others are tolerated. Primary education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 14. There are six normal schools, one in the capital and five throughout the country, and a university in Asuncion. Spanish is the universal language.
Tobacco is one of the leading crops. Cotton raising possibilities are great, the fertile soil assuring large yields. The livestock industry is growing. Latest statistics show that Paraguay has about 4,000,000 cattle, excluding hogs and other livestock. Several saladeros, or beef curing establishments, are located near Asuncion.
The chief exports are oranges, yerba mate, timber, hides, tobacco, beef products, quebracho wood, cotton, tannin, lace and vegetable oils. Chief imports are textiles, foodstuffs, hardware, fancy goods, wines and spirits, pharmaceutical products, automobiles, ready-made clothing and hats.
The monetary unit is the Argentine peso with an average value of $.24. The budget (1936-1937) balanced at 10,732,862 gold pesos.
(REPUBLICA DEL PERU) Capital, Lima-Area, 532,000 square miles-Population (1940) 7,000,000 Peru, situated on the Pacific coast of South America, is bounded on the north by Ecuador, on the northeast and east by Colombia and Brazil, and on the southeast by Bolivia; at its southernmost tip is the narrow Republic of Chile. With a Pacific coastline of 1,410 miles and an extreme width, from coast to eastern jungle, of about 800 miles, it is the fourth nation in population and third in size in South America. Culturally it is the oldest of the South American nations, having been for centuries the leading political power on the continent, first as the center of the Inca Empire; later as Spain's foremost viceroyalty in the New World.
sugar production was 389,080 metric tons. Wheat, rice, potatoes, beans, barley and quinua are also raised. Corn, native to Peru, is grown throughout the country, forming a staple food for a large part of the Indian population.
Here the Andes reach their highest altitudes, seven peaks towering above 19,000 feet. The 30mile wide strip of land along the Pacific is a desert except as it is irrigated from streams from the mountains; the uplands or western slopes of the Andes are well watered and also the eastern descent to the Amazon basin, tropical lowlands, very fertile, thickly wooded in parts with much wild rubber, and thinly populated. Iquitos, the capital of this district, is over 2,000 miles up the Amazon.
Lima, the capital, has a population of 500,000. Called "City of the Kings", it is the most important commercial center of the country. Callao (80,000 population), important industrially and the chief seaport, is connected with the capital by two railroads and three highways. Arequipa (75,000) ranks third in commercial importance, being surpassed only by the Lima-Callao district in manufacturing.
Though agricultural and pastoral products comprise only 40% of the value of the total exports, 85% of the population is dependent, directly or indirectly, upon them by agriculture and stock raising.
The chief crop and leading agricultural export is cotton and averages 20% of the country's total exports. About 100.000 persons are engaged in the industry. Second only to cotton as a money crop is sugar. With 130.000 acres devoted sugar cane, the production of cane amounts to more than three million metric tons; 80% of the crop is exported. For the same period (1937)
Of the total arable area of 29,460,000 acres it is estimated that only 3,617,000 acres (12%) are actually under cultivation.
The mountains are rich in minerals and many valuable mines, some dating back to the Incas. are being worked. The country is the largest producer in the world of vanadium. Petroleum and its derivatives account for nearly half of the value of total mineral production. Copper, gold and silver are also mined and (1937) the country ranked fourth in the world production of silver. Mineral production (1937) was valued at $72,042,782.
An effort to revive the production of rubber was made (1941) with the help of the United States. There are thousands of rubber trees in the forests near the Amazon and experienced workers have been sent to these districts to train natives in the tapping of the trees and routine plantation rubber production.
The chief exports are crude petroleum and petroleum derivatives, sugar, copper bars and cotton; imports are machinery and vehicles, foodstuffs, textiles, metals and products, chemicals, dyes and paints.
The President, Manuel Prado, was elected (Dec. 8, 1939) to succeed Gen. Oscar Benavides, who was elected by Congress (1933) to fill out the unexpired term, three and a half years, of President Luis M. Sanchez Cerro, who was assassinated that day, to succeed him. His term expires July 28, 1945.
By the Constitution (April 9, 1933) the government consists of a President and two Vice-Presidents, elected by direct suffrage for a period of six years and are barred from re-election. National legislative authority is vested in a Congress composed of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. The number of members in each is determined by law, and elections are for six years. Chamber members must be at least 25 years of age; Senate members at least 35 years of age, and all must be native-born Peruvians and in pos sion of the right to vote.