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The native ruler of Tunis is Sidi Ahmed Bey dance, besides almonds, oranges, lemons, shad(born 1862).
docks, pistachios, alfa grass, henna and cork. The army of occupation consists of 25,000 men Lead, iron, phosphate and zinc are the most imwith 1.150 officers.
portant minerals. There are large fertile valleys in the mountain- Textiles, manufactured metals, and minerals ous north, excellent land for fruit culture in the comprise the chief imports; agricultural products, northeast peninsula, high tablelands and pastures olive oil, and minerals are the principal exports. in the center, and famous oases and gardens in the Governmental receipts (1940) were 811,198,000 south, where dates grow in profusion. The chief francs; expenditures 810,954,000. industry is agriculture, and wheat, barley, oats, (For information on the French protectorate of olives, grapes and dates are produced in abun- | Morocco, see Morocco).
FRENCH WEST AFRICA French West Africa reaches from the Atlantic and hardware, and spirits. Trade is mainly with Ocean at about 17° west longitude across Africa France. to the Soudan at about 15° east longitude and from Colony
Sq. M. Pop., 1937 the southern desert boundaries of Morocco, Algeria, Senegal, incl. Dakar Dist.
77.730 1,666.374 Tunis and Italian Libya to the Gulf of Guinea and Mauritania
323,310 370,764 the indeterminate boundary of French Equatorial French Guinea
96,886 2,065.527 Africa. It has been formed by consolidation of Ivory Coast
184,174 3,981,459 seven colonies.
43,232 1,289,128 The population included 26,614 Europeans. The French Sudan.
590,966 3,635 073 capital, Dakar, has about 40,000 population. The Niger
499.410 1.809.576 governmental budget for 1938 was estimated to Dakar and dependencies
60 126,929 balance at 1,126,264,486 francs. The colonies export fruits, palm nuts and oil, Total
1,815,698 14,944,837 rubber, cotton, cacao, timber, and peanuts, The The general budget (1938) balanced at 349.000.000 chief imports are foodstuffs, textiles, machinery | francs.
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA
(French Congo) French Equatorial Africa is in the heart of Africa Colony
Sq. M. Pop., 1931 and has a seacoast on the South Atlantic Ocean Gabun
93,218 408,516 between Spanish Guinea and the Belgian Congo. Middle Congo
166.069 744,503 Its other neighbors are the Cameroons, Anglo- Ubangi-Shari
238,767 833,041 Chad
461,202 Egyptian Soudan, Libya, French West Africa and
1,432,006 Nigeria. French acquisition began (1841) and its
959,256 3,418,066 territory has since been extended by exploration
Europeans number 4.949. and occupation. That part (107,270 square miles)
There are 300,000 square miles of tropical forests, ceded to Germany as compensation for acknowl
rich in timber, but the output as yet is only wild edgment of the Morocco protectorate (1911) was rubber, and palm oil and ivory. Copper, lead and restored to France in the Treaty of Versailles and
zinc are found. Commerce is chiefly with France. incorporated in this territory. The capital is Braz- The general budget (1938) was balanced at 224,zaville. The constituent colonies are:
CAMEROON AND TOGOLAND Cameroon is that part of the former German almonds, hides, cacao and ivory. Trade is princiColony Kamerun (captured Feb. 1916) It pally with France. consists of 166,489 square miles and was allotted Of Togoland, the only German colony that was to France as a Mandate by the Treaty of Versallles. self-supporting. France received 21,893 square It was constituted an autonomous territory by de- miles, about two-thirds. It is attached to French cree (March, 1921). It is governed by a Com- Dahomey, and is a mandated territory with a popumissioner. The capital is Yaounde. Its popula- lation of 780,497. tion (1938) is 2,516,623, including 3,106 Europeans. The local budget (1939) balanced at 50.354,000
The colony has two seaports, Douala and Kibri. francs; in addition there was a railroad budget of Its chief products are palm oil, ground nuts, 12,889.000 francs.
FRENCH SOMALILAND French Somaliland lies between Eritrea (Italian). 14,870), its port on the Gulf of Aden, acquired Ethiopia and British Somaliland and is separated (1862) but not developed until 1884. The budget by the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb from Aden
(1939) balanced at 26,000,000 francs.
The colony has few industries, but hides, coffee (British).
and ivory are exported. Jibuti is connected with The area is 8,492 square miles and population Addis Ababa by railroad and much of Ethiopia's (1936), 44,240; the capital is jibuti (population, commerce passes through it.
MADAGASCAR Madagascar, an island off the east coast of Africa Madagascar came under a French protectorate from which it is separated by the Mozambique (1885) and was declared a French colony (1896). Channel (240 miles wide at its narrowest part), is More than 3,000,000 acres are under cultivation, about 980 miles long and 360 miles wide at its the chief crops being rice, manioc, beans, vanilla, greatest breadth. It is nearly as large as the corn, coffee, cloves, tobacco, sugar cane and cocoa State of Texas. Its area is 241,094 square miles; The forests are rich in cabinet and tanning wood, its population (1936, including Mayotte and Comoro raffia, resins, gums and beeswax. Islands) 3.797.936. The capital is Tananarivo. Agriculture and stock-raising are the chief inTo Madagascar is attached for government the dustries Minerals found include graphite, mica, prosperous archipelago of the Comoro Islands with phosphates, gold and radium an area in all of about 790 square miles, and with, The estiinated budget (1939) balanced at 343,660,in 1931, 130,253 inhabitants.
REUNION Reunion is in fact an integral part of France, of whom 203,319 are of French extraction. The as it is represented in Parliament at Paris by a chief products are sugar, rum, coffee, manioc. Senator and two Deputies. It is an island in the tapioca, vanilla and spices. The chief imports are Indian Ocean, about 420 miles east of Madagascar, rice and cereals. Trade is principally with and has belonged to France since 1643. The area France. The budget (1937) balanced at 61,620,700 is 970 square miles; the population (1936), 208,858, francs.
FRENCH INDIA The French possessions in India lie along the dernagor, 36,254; Mahe, 13.661: Yanaon, 5,437. The Coromandel coast, on the Bay of Bengal, in the colonies send one Senator and one Deputy to Parsoutheastern part, to the north of the island of liament at Paris. Agriculture is the chief industry Ceylon. The most important is Pondicherry, estab- and oil seed the chief export. Pondicherry has lished by the French East Indian Company (1674), five cotton mills. which, after changing hands eight times, finally The total population of French India is 304,680 rested in the control of France (1814). The colo- the area is 196 square miles. Pondicherry is the nies are divided in five dependencies: Pondicherry, capital. The budget (1939) balanced at 3,444,08 population (1939), 186,366; Katikal, 62.902; Chan- rupees.
FRENCH INDO-CHINA Area:
Population: miles to Thailand, Cambodia yielded 16,887 square Cochin-China 26,476 sq. m.
4,615.968 miles and Laos 4.863. Annam 56.913 sq. mi.
6,211,228 French Indo-China was placed under the armed Cambodia 50,663 sq. mi.
2,046,432 protection of Japan (1941) according to an agreeTonkin 40.530 sq. m.
8,970,464 ment reached by the French Government (Vichy) Laos 84,457 sq. mi.
1,011,695 and Japan. Under the terms of the accord Japan Kwangchow
325 sq. m.
220.000 occupied military and navy bases in Indo-China.
The whole country was under a Governor-General Total
260,034 sq. mi. 22,853,861 with a Secretary-General and a superior Council, French Indo-China, situated in the southeastern and each state had a head, that of the colony being part of Asia with China on the north, Siam on the a Governor, and those of the protectorates being west and the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China
called Residents Superior. There was a common Sea on the east and south, comprises five states, as
budget for Indo-China, which (1940) balanced at
134.678.870 piastres. The piastre was stabilized shown above. It is as large as Texas. The popula
(1920) at 10 francs (39.2 cents gold). tion includes about 42,000 Europeans. The capital The chief exports are rice, rubber, fish, coal, is Hanoi, Tonkin.
pepper, cattle and hides, corn, zinc and tin. The Under the terms of settlement (1941) of a border principal imports are cotton and silk tissues, metal dispute, French Indo-China ceded 21,750 square ) goods, kerosene and motor cars.
GUADELOUPE Guadeloupe, consisting of two large islands, ernor and an elected Council. The soil is very Basse-Terre and Grande-Terre, separated by a nar- productive. The area of the entire group of islands row channel, and five smaller islands, is a group is 688 square miles; population (1936) is 304,209. of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, be- Basse-Terre is the capital. The budget (1939) baltween Antigua and Dominica. They have been in anced at 86,608,979. the possession of France since 1634 and are repre- The principal exports are sugar, coffee, rum, sented in Parliament Paris by a Senator and cacao, vanilla, bananas. Trade is mainly with two Deputies. The government consists of a Gov- France.
MARTINIQUE Martinique, one of the Windward Islands, in the place of the Empress Josephine. West Indies, has been a possession of France since Martinique has a population (1936) of 246,712. 1635. It is represented in the French Parliament and an area of 385 square miles. The capital is by a Senator and two Deputies. It is administered Fort-de-France. by a Governor, a General Council, and elective The chief exports are sugar, rum, bananas, pineMunicipal Councils. In Martinique is located the apples and cocoa beans. Trade is mainly with famous volcano, Mt. Pelee, which in eruption on France. The franc is the monetary unit. The (May 8, 1902) destroyed the city of St. Pierre with governmental budget (1937) was balanced at 101,all its 40,000 inhabitants. The island is the birth- 100.000 francs.
ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON
franc, is the medium of exchange. The budget ships were abolished (July 18, 1935) and an aa
(1940) was balanced at 13,738,690 francs. ministrator, assisted by a council, rules the islands.
The St. Pierre group has an area of 10 square The exports are chiefly cod, dried and fresh, and miles; Miquelon, 83 square miles. The population other fish products. Imports consist of textiles, is-St. Pierre: 3.396; Miquelon: 520: total: 3,916. salt, wines, foodstuffs and meat. A regular boat The capital is St. Pierre.
The capital is Cayenne. on the west and Brazil on the east and south. The 6,000 prisoners.
Immense forests of rich timber cover the terri. country has lost heavily in population in the last
tory. Very little of the land is cultivated. The several decades, the census of 1911 returning 49,009 principal crops are rice, corn, manloc, cocoa, bainhabitants as compared with 37,005 in 1936 (in
nanas, and sugar cane. Placer gold mining is the cluding the hinterland of Inini, separated territo- most important industry. Exports comprise cocoa, rially from Guiana July 6, 1930). The area of bananas, various woods, gold, fish glue, rum, roseGuiana is 34,740 square miles. The area of Inini wood essence, balata and hides. Trade is chiefly is 30,301 square miles. Guiana sends one Deputy to with France, the Chamber at Paris. The colony has a Governor
The franc is the monetary unit. The budget and & Council General of 16 elected members. (1938) balanced at 17,704,755 francs.
OCEANIA-TAHITI The French possessions, widely scattered in the Islands, the Huon Islands. Fortuna and Alofi. southern Pacific Ocean, were grouped together The group was acquired by France (1854), and a (1903) as one homogenous colony under one Gover- penal colony was maintained on Nou Island until nor, with headquarters at Papeete, Tahiti, one of 1896. the Society Islands The other groups are the Mar
The Colony is administered by a Governor and quesas, the Tuamoli Group, the Leeward Islands,
an elective council general. Noumea is the capital. the Gambier, the Tubuai, and Rapa Islands. Ta
Mining is the chief industry. Chrome, cobalt, hiti is picturesque and mountainous with a pro- nickel, iron and manganese abound. Other minductive coastland bearing cocoanut, banana and
erals found are antimony, mercury, cinnabar, silorange trees, sugar-cane, vanilla and other tropi
ver, gold, lead and copper. Agricultural products cal fruits. Preparation of copra, sugar and rum
include coffee, copra, cotton, manioc (cassava), are the chief industries. Trade is largely with
corn, tobacco, bananas and pineapples. France.
The New Hebrides, 250 miles northeast of New The area of the islands administered at Tahiti Caledonia and 500 miles west of Fiji, is a group is 1,520 square miles; the population is 39,920. with an aggregate area of 5,700 square miles, hay
New Caledonia, with an area of 8,548 square ing a native population estimated at about 60,000, miles and a population (census of 1936) of 53,245.
and a white population, (1930): British, 219; is 248 miles long and has an average breadth of French, 931. The group has been a condominium 31 miles. It is about half way between Australia since 1906 and administered jointly by High Comand the Fiji Islands. Its dependencies are: The missioners of France and Great Britain. Chief le of Pines, the Wallis Archipelago, the Loyalty products are copra, cotton, cacao and coffee.
(Including Austria and the Sudetenland.) The German Reich, as it is called officially, is Germany, was returned to the Reich by the League situated in the heart of Europe. It is bounded (March 1, 1935.) on the north by the North Sea, Denmark and The plebiscite in Upper Silesia (March, 1921) the Baltic; on the east by Poland, Lithuania,
resulted in a majority for retention in the Reich, Czecho-Slovakia and Hungary; on the south by
but, notwithstanding, that territory of 1,255 square Czecho-Slovakia. Yugo-Slavia, Switzerland and
miles with a population of 891,669 was annexed by
Poland. Italy; and on the west by France, Luxembourg,
The Ruhr, seized and held by France and Belgium Belgium, Holland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The climate of Germany is quite mild in sum
under the "sanctions of the Treaty of Versailles
(Jan. 11, 1923) and extended subsequently, is a mer and rather cold in winter, as in all western Europe. The soil is not naturally fertile, being 4,000,000 inhabitants. It was evacuated (Oct. 14,
territory of approximately 965 square miles with largely a glacial plain over which the action of the
1925.) ice moved truch sand: it has always demanded un
Following an ultimatum from Berlin, Dr. Kurt usual artificial fertilization. The land is heavily
von Schuschnigg, Chancellor of Austria, resigned wooded. Forestry is far advanced, perhaps more
(March 11, 1938) and was succeeded by the Ausperfected as a science than in any other country.
trian Nazi leader, Arthur Seyss-Inquart. The Black Forest of Germany is famed for its
Seysstimber and as a resort. The highest mountains are
Inquart immediately asked the Reich to send troops
to help in preserving order, and some 50,000 highly the Bavarian and Austrian Alps in the south. The
armed and mechanized forces crossed the border. northern part is a plain sloping to the north and
Chancellor Adolf Hitler entered Austria (March west. The longest river within the Reich until recently proclaimed the unity of the country with Germany,
12) and in a speech before a great throng at Linz was the Oder, whose length is 515
miles. Only 402 He was preceded by large forces of troops which miles of the 'Danube lay within German territory occupied important cities, a detachment going to until the addition of 217 miles of the Austrian
the capital and another to Brenner Pass on the Danube made this historical and romantic old Italian frontier. Schuschnigg, was placed under river the longest.
arrest. The census (1930) gives Germany a population
Austria was formally incorporated into of 79,375,281, not including Bohemia and Moravia,
the Reich (March 13), President Wilhelm Miklas Danzig and Memel. The census reported 38,812,032 Seyss-Inquart Statthalter (governor).
was forced out of office and Hitler appointed males and 40,764,726 females (the total does not accord with the official population figures.), The
The Sudeten area of Czecho-Slovakia was anGovernment announced the density of population nexed by Germany (Oct. 1, 1938) following an had increased from 339.2 inhabitants per square
agreement to that effect signed in Munich (Sept. mile (1933) to 352.3 and that the population of the 29, 1938) by Great Britain, France, Italy and Gerold Reich, excluding the Saar, Austria, Sudetenland,
many and accepted by Czecho-Slovakia (Sept. 30). Bohemia and Moravia and Memelland had in
The agreement further called for a plebiscite on creased about 3,200,000 or more than 4 per cent
afhliation with Germany to be held in other dissince 1933. The census disclosed 1,048 women for
puted areas of Czecho-Slovakia which the Nazis each 1,000 men and that more male babies than claimed were predominantly German. The signafemale were being born in the Reich.
tories were Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier, The census also revealed that there remained
Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, representing in the Reich 330.892 fullblooded Jews;
72,733 half- Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany respecbreed Jews and 42,811 quarterbreeds. These figures
tively. Their meeting climaxed a 15-day interare from the Old Reich and include Austria and
national crisis in which all the great European the Sudetenland, but not Bohemia and Moravia.
powers mobilized for war. of the Jews counted it was said that 88.1 were
Bohemia and Moravia (area 28,717 sq. mi., popuGerman subjects and 11.9 foreigners and statesless.
lation 10,897,000) were occupied by Germany Through its union with Austria the Reich (March, 1938). See Index Czecho-Slovakia. acquired four new neighbors Italy, Yugoslavia,
Memel (area 1,099 sq. mi.; population 152.000) Hungary and Liechtenstein. The Austro-German
the chief port of Lithuania, since absorbed by frontier of 500 miles is abolished, but the Reich Soviet Russia, was returned to the Reich (March, has gained frontiers on the south aggregating
1939) on a demand of the Reich based on the seli 1.300 miles. South of Lake Constance, the Rhine determination of the peoples. Memel was detached now forms the boundary between Switzerland and from East Prussia, Germany, by the treaty of the Reich, while at the point where the Inn River
Versailles and awarded to Lithuania. The harbor flows out of the Lower Engadine Valley, the fron
of Memel, unlike other Baltic ports, never freezes. tiers of Germany, Italy and Switzerland join in a
Shortly after the occupation of Memel, the area sort of triangle. It was the German absorption of was fortified by Germany. Austria with the latter's frontage on southern Danzig (area 754 sq. m.; population 415,000) was Czecho-Slovakia that gave the Reich 'a pincers
absorbed by the Reich in the war against Poland hold on the Czech republic, thus opening the way
(1939). See Index Danzig. to the annexation of the Sudetenland.
German troops occupied Poland (1939): see Vienna, the former capital of Austria, is now
Index, Poland. the second city of Germany, ranking next to Ber- Eupen and Malmedy were incorporated into the lin and ahead of Hamburg. To the 60 large Ger- Reich (1940) by order of Hitler. German forces man cities with populations of more than 100,000 occupied Denmark and invaded Norway the same there are now added Graz and Linz. Former year, German troops occupied Holland, Belgium Czecho-Slovakia cities awarded to the Reich in and Luxemburg (1940) and Germany mastered the four-power accord (Sept. 1938) include Karls- France the same year with the signing of the bad, a famous health resort and porcelain center;
armistice. Komotau, noted for its zinc production, and
The land area and population of the States of Reichtenberg, a textile town.
the Reich (census, 1939) follow: The World War cost Germany 27.275 square
Land area miles and 6,471,581 in population. It lost Alsace- States of the Reich Sq. Miles
Pop. Lorraine. returned to France, 5,604 square miles, Prussia
113.575 41.762,040 and 1,874,014 population; Eupen and Malmedy, Bavaria
30.054 8,280,090 ceded to Belgium, 386 square miles, and 60,924 Wurttemberg
7,532 2,907,166 population; part of Eastern and Upper Silesia, Mecklenberg
910,826 ceded to Poland, 17,787 square miles, and 3,853.354 Baden
5,818 2,518,103 population; Memel, ceded to the Allies, 1,057 square Saxony
5, 206,861 miles, and 140,746 population; Danzig. made a Thuringia
1,760,595 free city, 794 square miles, and 330,252 population; Hesse
2,969 1,469,909 Schleswig northern zone, ceded to Denmark by Oldenburg
582,400 the plebiscite, 1,537 square miles, and 166,895 Brunswick
599. 208 population, part of Upper Silesia, ceded to Czecho- Anhalt
436.213 Slovakia, 110 square miles, and 45,395 population, Lippe
188.598 The Saar Basin, area 738 square miles, was Hamburg
288 1,682.220 separated from Germany after the World War, Schaumburg-Lippe
54.162 and administered by the League of Nations through Bremen
400.086 a commission. The French had the sole right to Saarland
863,736 work the coal mines for 15 years in recompense for German Reich
182,471 *70.108.213 the destruction of the coal mines in North of Austria
7.009.014 France. The Saar, which by a vote of 477,119 to Sudetenland
2,945,20 48,637 (Jan. 13. 1935) declared its desire to rejoin Greater Germany
225, 256 80,062,48% 1
• The official count of the 1939 census was an
directly connected with the nation's war economy. nounced as 79,375,281.
Goering assumed most of the powers held by Dr. The Free State of Waldeck was absorbed by
Funk as minister of economic affairs. Goering Prussia (April 1, 1929). The Free States of Meck
formed a "general council" to direct and colenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were ordinate production, distribution and consump
tion, united as Mecklenburg (Jan. 1, 1934).
Subordinated to him are several cabinet There are 29 universities in 'Germany including members. Included in the council" are several the University of Vienna (founded in 1356) and
high army and Nazi party officials. Heidelberg (founded in 1386). There is compulsory
The National Socialist German Labor Party, to military training in Nazi storm detachments and a give its full name, though familiarly known as one-year term of manual labor for all male under- Nazis, was founded (1920) in Munich by Hitler graduates. Elementary education is compulsory. (then 31 years old). Austrian-born, he had served
When the German Emperor abdicated and fled throughout the war in the German Army and in to Holland (Nov., 1918) the self-constituted Coun
consequence had lost his Austrian citizenship. He cil of People's Commissioners took over the gov
later obtained German citizenship and took the ernment and proclaimed a republic. A call was oath to support the constitution when the State issued for the election of a National Assembly. It
of Brunswick (Feb. 22, 1932) gave him a position met at Weimar (Feb. 6, 1919) and elected Friedrich
in its diplomatic service. Ebert President of the republic (Feb. 11). His term
The Nazis were a small group, anti-Semitic, was extended to June 30, 1925.
with vague socialist leanings but strongly opposed The National Assembly adopted a Constitution
to the Social Democrats and the Republican Con(July 31, 1919). It is known as the Weimar Con
stitution of the Reich. With Hitler and Gen. stitution
Ludendorf as leaders, it staged the so-called Ebert died (Feb. 28, 1925) and was succeeded by
"Beer Hall Putsch" in Munich (Nov. 8-9, 1923). Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg (re-elected
This proved abortive and Hitler was sentenced to 1932). In this election Hindenburg received 19,
five years imprisonment--a sentence soon quashed. 359,642 votes to Adolf Hitler's 13,417,460.
The party was reorganized but was reduced by inThe result of the election (March 5, 1933). as
ternal dissensions to insignificance. In the Reichscompared with the election (Nov. 6, 1932). is
tag, election (1924) the party joined with a party shown in the following table:
called Movement for German Racial Freedom and
the combination won 32 seats. But the next year Parties of March, 1933 Nov., 1932 the Nazis cut loose and reorganized again, The
the Right Vote Seats Vote Seats economic crisis and widespread discontent gave Nation'I Socialists. 17,269,629 288 11.737.195 196
Hitler, a magnetic speaker, renewed opportunity. Nationalists. 3,133,938 52 3,235,896 51
The growth of the Nazis is shown in the following People's Party. 432,234 2 660,672 11
May 20, 1928 Republican
Sept. 14, 1930 6,406.397 107
Preslilential 1st B. Mar. 10, 1932 11.341,119
74 Catholic Centre... 4,423,319
Presidential 2d B. Apr. 10, 1932 13,417,460
July 31, 1932 13,732,777 Bavarian People's. 1.073,815
Reichstag Chris. Soc. People's
Nov. 6, 1932 384,146 4 413,144 5
288 State Party 333,619 5 338,542 2
Mar. 5. 1933 17,269,629 Economic Party.
110,343 1 To crush an incipient revolt against him by the Peasants' Party... 114,237
149,005 3 radicals headed by Capt. Roehm, Chief of Staff Wurtt. Fartners... 83,828 1
96,859 2 of the Storm Troops (8. A). Hitler (June 30,
1934) flew from Berlin to Munich and arrested Totals.. 13,590,258 224 13,685,747 224 Roehm in his own house. Roehm, Heines and Extreme Left
Karl Ernest, head of the Berlin brown shirts, with Communists..... 4,845,651 81 5,980, 240 100 others were shot. In Berlin Goering's special
police with the Nazi Schutz Staffel (the black Grand total...39,319,433 647 35,363.744 583 shirt elite of the storm troops) in carrying out The Nazi vote increased by 5,532,544, 44% of the
their part of the "purge" shot ex-Chancellor Gen.
von Schleicher and his wife while "resisting artotal, and the 288 seats which they won, in com- rest, also the adjutant and two secretaries of bination with the 52 seats of the Nationalists. Vice Chancellor von Papen (later sent to Austria gave them an absolute majority of the Reichstag. as Minister after the murder of Dollfuss), Dr. Hitler became Chancellor,
Erich Klausener, head of the Catholic Action SoThe new Reichstag promptly passed an Enabling ciety, and several others. When Hitler Justined Act (March 5, 1933) by which absolute power was the purge" before the Reichstag (July 13) he conferred on Chancellor Hitler and his cabinet. gave the number of dead as 77. The Reichstag continued (Jan. 31, 1937) the President von Hindenberg died (Aug. 2, 1934). Enabling Act until April 1, 1941. Deriving au- the day after the Cabinet adopted a decree uniting thority from this act, Hitler has completely per- the office of Reich President with that of Reich sonalized government in Germany. He has abso- Chancellor to take effect after his death. lute control of all activities throughout the coun- The result of the plebiscite (Aug. 19, 1934) as try-political, economic, industrial, commercial,
compared with the vote at the plebiscite (Nov. cultural. Freedom of speech and of the press has 12, 1933) when the Reich approved of the governbed abolished. Equality before the law
ment's withdrawal from the League of Nations only to Aryans, the only people in Germany and the General Disarmament Conference, folwho have full citizenship rights which are re- lows: stricted by the Gestapo (secret police).
August, 1934 November, 1933 The Cabinet follows:
45.473,635 45, 146,277 Fuehrer and Chancellor-Adolf Hitler (born Total votes cast
43,529,710 43,460,529 April 20, 1889 in Braunau, Austria.)
38,362,763 40,609,247 Ministers:
4.294.654 2,101,000 Interior-Dr. Wilhelm Frick.
750,282 Foreign Affairs-Joachim von Ribbentrop. Defense Adolf Hitler,
Hitler got 88.1% of the August vote.
93.5% of the vote in November.
votes out of 44,952,476 votes cast, being 98.5% of Labor-Franz Seldte.
the eligible voters. Posts- Dr. Wilhelm Ohnesorge.
Prussia's autonomous rights as a Federated Transport-Dr. Dorpmueller.
State were wiped out (Feb. 6. 1933) by decree Aviation-Reich Marshal Hermann Goering. of President von Hindenburg. Hitler took perJustice-Franz Schlegelberger.
sonal control with Goering as Minister of the InLearning and Education-B. Rust.
terior in command of the police and later as Church Affairs--Hanns Kerri.
Premier. Bavaria's premier was thrown out by National Enlightenment and Propaganda storm troopers (March 9) and Wurttemberg. Dr. Joseph Goebbels.
Saxony, Baden, Hesse, Schaumberg-Lippe and
Bremen likewise came under control.
Schacht. Dr. Heinrich Lammers, Dr. Otto governments or coalition governments dominated
Goering became war-time economic dictator of The President was empowered on nomination by
The anti-Semitic campaign carried on ruthlessly counted 2,957 schools and 274,000 pupils. by Storm troopers by boycotts and violence resulted The government sought (1934) to bring the variin the arrest and detention of 80.000 to 90.000 ous Lutheran churches into a single German Jews, and more than 90,000 Jews fled the country, Evangelical Church under the direction of a promostly in poverty. Sweeping laws ousted nearly ali Nazi bishop and, failing in this, promulgated a Jews from the professions and the public service law (Sept. 24, 1935) giving absolute powers in and from the universities, also from the German church matters to the Minister for church AlLabor Front and even the chess League. A "non- fairs. In the course of the conflict more than Aryan" was defined as "a person descended par- 700 Lutheran pastors were arrested. Conflict with ticularly from Jewish parents or grandparents." the Roman Catholic Church developed over conThe census (1933) returned 499,682 (0.746) Jews. trol of education of youth organizations, the adIt was estimated that as defined the non-Aryan" ministration of which was guaranteed to the total would reach 2,500,000.
Church under the terms of the German-Vatican All Jewish cultural activities, it was decreed, concordat of July 20, 1933. must be united in one officially recognized Jewish Recent ordinary budgets, in millions of gold Cultural Organization to which directly or through marks, have been: one of its affiliated societies all non-Aryan doctors,
Receipts Expenditures writers and actors must belong in order to exer 1930-31 (March 31)
10,585.4 11,877.2 cise their profession.
8,567.6 10,042.0 The number of German grammar schools and 1932-33
6,327.1 7.944.7 pupils decreased (1939), schools at the rate of 0.7 1933-34
6,028.0 6,270.0 per cent and pupils 1.4. In the old Reich territory, 1934-35
7,806.5 8,232.3 exclusive of Austria, the Sudeten provinces and the former Polish territories, there were (1939) The budget law for the fiscal year (1939-40) 50,592 schools and 186,582 classes and 7,503, 195 contains no figures since none has been issued pupils, taught by 177,303 teachers. For every 10,000 since 1935. It presents this blanket order: population there were 7.3 schools, 1,078 pupils and "The Reich Minister of Finance is authorized, 25.4 teachers. There was an average of 40.3 pupils in agreement with competent Reich ministers, to to a class and 42.4 pupils to a teacher. For every allot to the respective Reich administrations the 100 girls there were 101.2 boys, which is regarded necessary working funds and to determine their as the average relationship.
utilization." The budget decree is signed by The decrease in the number of Jewish pupils Chancellor Hitler and Count Lutz Schwerin von (1939) was 80 per cent of the 1938 total. There Krosigk, Finance Minister. were 2,008 Jewish pupils attending grammar Germany does not report officially its expendischools (1939) as against 10,069 (1938). Including tures, although the Government does make public private schools there were (1939) 8,962 Jewish its revenues. The following table from Foreign pupils as against 19,913 the previous year.
Commerce Weekly, published by the United States In Austria the count (1939) showed 4,721 public Department fo Commerce, gives Germany's finan. schools with 657,000 pupils; the Sudeten provinces | cial conditon:
(Amounts in millions of reichsmarks)
amount debtedness available debtedness
available Fiscal Tax re-for expen- Fiscal
Tax re- lor expenyears At end Increase ceipts ditures
years At end Increase ceipts ditures of during during of during
during period period
period 1933-1934 11.793 103
6,846 6.949 1939-1940. 52,060 21,383 23,580 44,963 1934-1935 12,452 659 8,223 8,882
60,145 8,085 6,067 14,152 1935-1936 14.372 1.920 9,654 11.574
69,721 9.577 7.351 16,928 1936-1937 17,570 1,686 11,492 13.178
379.000 49,279 6,987 16,266 1937-1938. | 19,098 3,040 13,964 17.004 1939-1940. 379,000 44,488 38,764 83,252 1938-1939. 30.676 11,578 17.710 29,288
NATIONAL INCOME 1
(Amounts in millions of reichsmarks) Amount Year
71,000 1934 52.700 1936 64.900 1938
79,700 1 Estimates of Reich Statistical Office. 2 Estimate for Old Reich; estimate for the Great Reich is 88,000,000,000 reichsmarks. . Estimate of Herr Reinhardt; actual figure for and of November was 76,980,000 reichsmarks. * On the basis of estimate mentioned in footnote 3.
The national income (1939) was estimated at Coffee grounds yield wax and resin and a powder 90,000,000,000 reichsmarks and (1941) at 100.000,- useful in filling dolls and pillows. Garbage is 000,000.
steamed and sterilized and used as hog feed. E. W. Schmidt, director of the Deutsche Bank, To conserve tin, foods are packed in transparent reported (Feb. 7, 1941) that the German people plastic containers. The scientists have made a were paying an annual war-time tax bill of wool substitute from a mixture of fish albumen 34,000,000,000 reichsmarks out of an estimated and cellulose; also from casein, a milk derivative 100,000,000,000 reichsmarks national income. He and from German beech wood. Sugar is extracted also reported that after the payment of the cost of from wood. "Pumpkin milk" competes with cow's civil administration there remained approximately milk; potato starch is used in bread; and "fish 20.000.000.000 reichsmarks a year available for war sausage" vies with the real thing. finance. Neutral quarters estimated (1941) that The unit of "currency is the Reichsmark. It the war was costing Germany 60.000.000.000 reichs
averages around forty cents in value in United marks annually. Schmidt said the national debt States money. was covered by various types of loans, averaging Germany has had social insurance since 1883 and 292 per cent interest. Surplus cash is brought the law makes mandatory the insurance of workabout, he said, through limitations on what the
ingmen against sickness (including maternity), populace may buy (rationing).
accidents, unemployment, old age and infirmity. The Nazi government has endeavored to assure Workers pay two-thirds of the contributions to the the country's economic self-sufficiency by pro- State and employers one-third. ducing synthetic substitutes for many of the neces- The network of motor highways spreading over saries of life. To conserve Germany's few natural Germany--Reichsautobahnen as they are called resources, the public has been encouraged to sal- is one of the marvels of modern engineering. They vage anything that industry might use, from old are completely free from obstructions and fast razor blades to dog bones. Storm troopers, the motoring on them is not hindered either by passing Hitler Youtn, and school children everywhere are through villages, level crossings or cross-roads, mobilized in the service, with 150.000 boys and Two lines of traffic are separated by a verge of girls from Berlin alone. Bottle caps and tooth- 1616 ft. wide planted with grass or bushes. Hence paste containers are wanted for light metals; hu- there is a special roadway 24'1 ft. wide for traffic man hair for felt and cardboard manufacture and in each direction on which three cars can travel carpets: bones for fodder, fats, fertilizer and glue. abreast. There is also a firm embankment 612 ft.