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Rivers there is much irrigation, and cereals, fruits area at 550.340 square miles. and vegetables are grown with wool,

cotton and It is from Sinkiang that much of the jade comes. silk production. Ili is the chief town. The popula- The province has been restive and made a declaration of Sinkiang is estimated at 1,200,000 and its tion of independence in Kashgar (Jan. 23, 1934).

THIBET Thibet, in Western China, is a country little chu-was enthroned (Feb. 22, 1940) in Potala Pal. known, situated between the Himalaya and Kwen- ace, Lhasa, as the 14th Dalai Lama, chief civil lun Mountains, and hithmerto practically shut to and religious ruler of Thibet. Supposedly the strangers. The trade is with India mostly, being child-born of a peasant family in Kokonor Prove carried on through lofty passes, some of which ince in China and taken to Lhasa by Thibetan are 14,000 to 18,000 ft. high, which are impassable monks-was born at the exact moment the 13th in winter. China's hold on Thibet was visibly Dalai Lama stopped breathing (Dec. 17, 1933). loosened when the revolution (1911) broke in China. Until the new Dalai Lama is 18 years old the The Thibetans expelled the Chinese garrisons. The head Lama of Reting Lamasery will rule the forcapital is Lhasa. The area of Thibet is 463,200 bidden land. square miles with wide areas unexplored. Popula- The religion is Lamaism, a modified form of tion is estimated at 3.000.000. Some recent esti- Buddhism. mates place it as high as 6,000,000 and as low as The highest grade musk is obtained from the 700,000

muskdeer, now becoming very scarce in Tsarung A 6-year-old peasant boy-Ling-ehr-la-mu-tan- mountains in Southeastern Thibet.

Colombia

(LA REPUBLICA DE COLOMBIA) Capital, Bogota-Area, 448,794 square miles-Population (1941) 9,334,392 The Republic of Colombia, situated in the ex- normal army is approximately 10,000 with 50.000 treme northwest of South America, extends up the available for war. The Navy consists of two Isthmus of Panama to the Republic of Panama. destroyers and small boats. The naval personnel It has a coast line of 782 miles on the Pacific

numbers slightly more than 800. Ocean, and 1056 miles on the Caribbean Sea. It

There is tri-weekly airplane service to the United

States. Twenty-four air lines cover 9,280 miles of has as neighbors Venezuela and Brazil on the routes in Colombia. east, and Ecuador and Peru on the south.

The Federal Congress consists of a Senate of 57 Three great ranges of the Andes, the Western; members, elected for a term of four years, and a Central and Eastern Cordilleras, run through House of Representatives of 119, elected directly the country from north to south. The eastern by the people every two years. The President is range consists mostly of high table lands. cool elected by direct vote for four years and is inand healthful, the most densely populated part eligible for two successive terms. The President of the country. The Magdalena River, in the is Dr. Eduardo Santos (inaugurated Aug. 7, 1938) east, rises in the high Andes and flows north into for a four-year term. the Caribbean Sea. 12 miles from Barranquilla. The elections (1939) returned to the house 75 It is navigable for river steamers for 970 miles, Liberals, 42 Conservatives and i Nationalist. The as far as Girardot. Steamers ascend to La Dorada, Liberals also gained a majority in the assemblies 590 miles.

of each of the 14 departments which elect the Snow-crested mountains standing almost directly Senators. over the Equator are one of many examples of The soil of Colombia is fertile and agriculscenic splendor in Colombia. Tourists are also at ture is a growing industry. Mild coffee is protracted by the famous Tequendama Falls, a natural duced extensively. Rice, tobacco and cotton are wonder near Bogota.

cultivated, besides cocoa, sugar, tagua, wheat and The country, conquered and ruled by Spain for bananas. Dyewoods are important commercially. 300 years, won its freedom in the revolt of the Rubber, tolu balsam and copaiba trees are being Spanish-American colonies (1811-24), the liber- exploited. ator, Simon Bolivar, establishing the Republic The country is rich in minerals. Seventy-five of Colombia (1819). Venezuela and Ecuador miles from Bogota are the Muzo emerald mines, withdrew (1829-30).

which have been in operation for four centuries. Bogota, the capital (founded in 1538), is situated Near Somondoco are the Chivor emerald mines, in the Andes 8,660 ft. high. To reach it by the worked long before the conquest and later for Magdalena River and rail requires nearly a week; a time by the Spaniards, but abandoned. Redisbut a daily airplane service makes it in 212 hours. covered, they have been opened again by an Ameri

The population is mainly whites and half castes can company. Other minerals are gold, silver, with only 105.807 Indlans. Education is free but copper, lead, mercury. cinnabar, manganese, not compulsory. The National University platinum, coal, iron, limestone, salt and petroleum (founded 1572) is in Bogota. There are four Colombia's principal imports are textiles, metallic other universities. Roman Catholic is the pre- products, transport materials, food, chemicals vailing religion but all are tolerated. Spanish is and machinery. the language of the country.

The monetary unit is the gold peso with an Military service is compulsory between the ages average value of $.57. The budget (1941) is estiof 21 and 30 with actual service for one year. The mated to balance at 84,601,000 pesos.

Costa Rica

(REPUBLICA DE COSTA RICA) Capital, San Jose_Area, estimated, 23,000 square miles Population (est. 1934), 616,000 Costa Rica, in the southern part of Central duction and the distillation of spirits are an America, has Nicaragua for its neighbor on the important industry. north and Panama on the south. The lowlands The forests are extensive, but the lumber indusby the Caribbean have a tropical climate. The try is negligible. Gold and silver are mined on the

Pacific slope. Other minerals are quartz, alabaster, interior plateau, with an altitude of about 4,000 ft., has a temperate climate.

granite, oil, alum, slate, onyx, mercury, sulphur

and copper. San Jose, the capital, situated inland--103 miles

The Constitution (adopted Dec. 7, 1871) has been by rail from Puerto Limon on the Atlantic Ocean; many times modified. The legislative power is 72 by rail from Puntarenas on the Pacific Ocean- vested in a Chamber of Deputies, 44 in number, is a city of great charm with Spanish balconies with four-year terms, one-half elected directly and patios. The crater atop Poas Volcano is the every two years by manhood suffrage. The Presilargest in the world. Puerto Limon occupies the

dent, elected for four years, appoints a Ministry of site where Columbus landed on his fourth and last

seven. Dr. Rafael Angel ilderon Guardia, 42, was

elected president (Feb. 11, 1940) under the first visit to America.

secret and obligatory balloting. For failure to vote Costa Rica is well served by steamship and the first time there is a fine of five colones, the airplane services. There are two international second time a fine of fifty colones with a ban of airports, one at Santa Anna, about 15 miles due holding office for two years. Roman Catholic is the west of San Jose and another at Sabana, only five religion of the state, but the nation has religious minutes from the heart of San Jose.

liberty. Primary education is compulsory and free. Coffee of a high quality is the chief crop. The National School of Agriculture is in San Jose, Bananas and cocoa are profuse. Corn, sugar-cane, The language of the country is Spanish. rice and potatoes are cultivated.

Tobacco pro

The monetary unit is the colon with an averas

value of $.06. The budget (1940) produced revenues when more than 1,000 acres were planted in the of 30,750,000 colones with expenditures of 31,- lowlands along the Atlantic littoral. 298,644.

The standing army, by convention (1923) among Chief imports are cotton, iron and steel, flour, the Central American States, is limited to 500, mineral oil and derivatives, motor vehicles, silk but with the reserve and national guard, it is estigoods.

mated the protective forces number approximately A start on production of rubber was made (1939) 150,000.

Cuba Capital, Havana-Area, 44,164 square miles-Population (1939) 4,228,000 Cuba, the “Pearl of the Antilles," largest island | 1939) drafted wide and general amendments to of the West Indies, lies among the Gulf of the Constitution. The amendments went into Mexico, the Strait of Florida and the Atlantic effect (Oct. 10, 1940), Ocean on the north and the Caribbean Sea on the (July 15, 1940) as the candidate of the Socialist

Col. Fulgencio Batista was elected president south. Key West, Fla., is about 100 miles distant.

Democratic coalition. Dr. Gustavo Cuervo Rubio The Windward Passage, 50 miles wide, separates is Vice President. it from Haiti to the east, and Jamaica (British)

A new treaty between the United States and lies 85 miles to the south. Yucatan is 130 miles to Cuba was ratified by the U. S. Senate (1936). It the west. Its length is 730 miles, and the breadth superseded that of May 22, 1903, and abandoned averages 50 miles, with a maximum of 160 miles. the right of the United States to intervene in the The coast line, including the larger keys, is about

internal affairs of Cuba under the Platt Amend. 2,500 miles in length. It has numerous harbors, ment. (See The World Almanac for 1934, page notably that of Havana, one of the finest and 629.) safest in the world, also Guantanamo, and Bahia Sugar is the predominant crop, and 1,500,000 Honda. Guantanamo was leased for an annual acres are given over to growing it. Cuba is the rental of $2,000 to the United States (July 2, 1903) second largest sugar producer in the world. Toand has since been maintained as a naval base. bacco raising and the manufacture of cigars and

Mountains rise in Pinar del Rio Province in the cigarettes rank next in importance. The amount west, and in Camaguey and Oriente in the east, of sugar exported to the United States is in acwhere they reach a general elevation of about 3.000 cordance with a quota establishe by the Washingft., with Monte Turquino (8,320 ft.) as the highest ton government. It called for the admission (1939) point. Santa Clara is rough and broken, but of 1,932,343 short tons. Molasses and other derivaMatanzas and Havana are flat and rolling.

tives, together with sugar, represent 73% of the The soil is alluvial and under the tropical heat country's exports. Tobacco is cultivated chiefly in and humidity the vegetation is of rare richness. the famous Vuelta-Abajo district. Other agriIt is estimated officially that 8,628,434 acres are cultural products are coffee, pineapples. bananas, covered with dense forest. The royal palm tree citrus fruit and cocoanuts. Cabinet woods (madominates every landscape. All tropical fruits and hogany and cedar), dyewoods, fibres, gums, resins vegetables flourish. At Havana the mean tempera- and oils are important commercially. Iron, copture is 76 and the mean rainfall 40.6 inches. per, manganese, gold, petroleum and salt are Hardly a decade passes without a destructive some of the minerals. hurricane. The population is about 68% native

The live stock industry has grown in recent white.

years, especially in Camaguey. There are more The island was discovered by Columbus on his than 3,000 miles of railroads, with a main trunk first voyage of exploration (Oct. 28, 1492). He line running across the Island from Guantanamo landed at what is now known as the Bay of Nue- Bay to Guane, a distance of more than 500 miles. vitas and took possession of the country in the Havana is an important air base. name of the King of Spain. It was called suc- The Republic has no lands for sale. Large areas cessively Juana, Santiago and Ave Maria, finally are held by native owners and many of these regaining its Indian name of Cuba.

tracts can be purchased. Sorne land has been Cuba, with the exception of the period (1762-63) given to the poor, remained a Spanish colony until the sovereignty Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 was relinquished (Dec. 10, 1898) under the terms and 14. Among the higher institutions of learning of Treaty of Paris which ended the armed inter

is the University of Havana (founded in 1721). vention of the United States in the fight of the

The Roman Catholic religion is predominant. The Cubans for freedom. The island assumed a re- language is Spanish with English widely underpublican form of government (1902) with the Con

stood. stitution providing for the election of a presi

The monetary unit is the peso with an average dent for a term of four years (he is ineligible to

value of $.98. The budget (1941) estimated receipts succeed himself); a Vice President, a Senate and a at 84.000.000 pesos and expenditures 83.987.000. House of Representatives with four-year terms.

The personnel of the Army, Navy and police is Women have the right to vote.

estimated at 20,000 with 30,000 reservists, includ. A constitutional convention (elected Nov, 15, ing men and women.

Czecho-Slovakia

(CESKOSLOVENSKA REPUBLIKA) Capital, Prague (Praha)--Area, 38, 190 square milesPopulation (1939), 9,807,000 Czecho-Slovakia lies in the very heart of Central are numerous labyrinths and towns of rock such Europe. Its boundaries are, in the north, Germany as the Decin Walls (in the Bohemian-Saxon and Poland: in the south, Rumania, Hungary and Switzerland), and the Tissa Walls at the point Austria, now a part of Germany; in the east. where the Elbe leaves Bohemia. Poland; and in the west. Germany. Its extreme The Czecho-Slovak spas and mineral springs are length from east to west is 600 miles and its width among the foremost in all Europe and the country varies from 50 to 100 miles. The Czecho-Slovak boasts of more thermal and mineral water sources Republic was the realization of a dream that has than any other country on the continent. lived for centuries. ie.. some sort of restoration of Prague, the capital, has a wealth of mediaeval the ancient Kingdom of Bohemia. In fact, the architecture equalled by few other cities of Europe, Czecho-Slovak Republic was fused from the ter- More than 3,500 years back there was a settlement ritory of Bohemia, Moravia, part of Silesia,

within the territory which is now occupied by Slovakia and Carpatho-Ruthenia.

present day Prague, on the site of the castle of There are two extensive mountain systems in Vysehrad. Czecho-Slovakia--the Carpathian in the eastern of the population 8,527,154 are Czecho-Slovaks, parts of Moravia, Slovakia and Carpathian

377.830 Germans, 100.379 Hungarians, 512,289 RusRuthenia and the Sudeten in the west on the sians, 4,157 Poles, 126,310 Jews, and 31,949 of other German border. Forests are famous for hunting races with 127.028 aliens. and are the habitat of the bear, the chamois, the Germany obtained the Sudeten area of Czechoibex, wildcat and whole herds of wild boars. Slovakia in the international crisis (1938) culmiThroughout the country mighty ruins of ancient nating in the Munich conference. The Sudeten castles rise on rocky heights, and in the valleys area is an ancient name of uncertain origin apthere are mansions of great beauty and interest. plied to the Sudeten mountains in the northwest

The subterranean caverns of Czecho-Slovakia are part of the country. The Germans there never among the curiosities of Europe. In the Moravian were a part of the Reich proper, but were subjects Kras not far from Brno there stretches an ex- of pre-war Austria. At the close of the World War iensive system of caverns, lakes and abysses all the Hlucin section of Germany-area 110 square underground One of the famous sights of Centrai miles, 82 per cent of whose population were Europe is the magnificent ice caves in Dobsina in Czecho-Slovaks and the remainder Germans was & district known as the "Slovak Paradise." There reded to Czecho-Slovakia.

419

The German demands for the return of the area rye, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets, corn and were put forward by Chancellor Hitler (Sept. 12, hops are grown in abundance. Beer production was 1938) and later the Berlin Government issued an enormous. Czecho-Slovakian munitions factories ultimatum in which it threatened to seize the were among the most extensive and efficient in the territory by force (Oct. 1, 1938). The German world. There were also numerous textile and paper forces soon were in the Sudeten area and had occu- mills, glass. furniture, stone, metal and chemical pied all the territory claimed by the Reich (Oct. factories. Since 1924, when the land reform bill 10, 1938). There followed a four-power confer- was actually followed by the sequestration of the ence among Great Britain, France, Germany, and large estates owned by the former Austrian arisItaly in which the Germans obtained all their tocracy, the country has been developed into a demands. The new frontier was fixed (Nov. 20, land of peasant holdings. Mineral wealth is great 1938), and the result was Czecho-Slovakia lost and comprises both soft and hard coal, iron, 10.056 square miles of territory and a population graphite and garnets, silver, copper, lead, and of 4,922,440. This was divided as follows:

rock-salt. Country

Area Population

The peace treaty (World War) gave CzechoGermany

11,701 3,653,292 Slovakia, which has no outlet to the sea, 200 miles Hungary

4,566 1.027,450 distant, the right to certain wharves in Hamburg Poland

241,698 and Stettin. The Dunaj (Danube) is the principal Poland had demanded the cession of Teschen by burg).

waterway, its chief port being Bratislava (Press.

On the Labe (Elbe), which flows from Czecho-Slovakia and Hungary also had put for- Czecho-Slovakia through Germany the main ports ward demands which were granted when the new are Usti (Aussig) and Decin (Teschen). Czechofrontier was defined.

Slovakia has 800 miles of navigable rivers. The name of the country was changed to Czecho

The term Czecho-Slovak refers to two national Slovakia and a central government with three

groups of inhabitants, the Czechs and the Slovaks, autonomous governments for Bohemia and Mo- both distinct branches of Slav origin. The beginravia, Slovakia and Ruthenia, renamed Carpatho

ning of the independent kingdom of Bohemia in Ukraine, were created under the Munich agree

Central Europe reaches to the fifth century. ment.

The Habsburgs (1526) were elected to the throne of German troops invaded Bohemia (March 14,

Bohemia, which thus became united through a 1939) and seized Prague. Two days later Chancellor

common dynasty to Austria and Hungary. ReHitler declared Czecho-Slovakia no longer existed

ligious persecution in the seventeenth century led and that Reich forces vould preserve order. Bo

to unsuccessful rebellions and to the loss of indehemia and Moravia, with an area of 28,717 square

pendence. The persecution of the Czechs by the miles and a population of 10,897,000 (1939) were

Habsburgs left great bitterness. Czecho-Slovakia organized as a Protectorate of the Reich and Baron

came into being (Oct. 28, 1918) on the break-up Constantin von Neurath was named Protector. of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, of which it was Reinhard Heydrich was named Protector (Sept.

the northwest portion bordering on Germany and 27, 1941) when von Neurath asked temporary leave Poland. The Constitution of the republic was and a state of emergency was decreed.

adopted by the National Assembly (Feb. 29, 1920). The Reich assumed supervision of military and providing for a National Assembly with legislative foreign affairs, communications and customs. The

authority over the whole country, Carpathian reichsmark and crown became the legal tender with the Reich to determine their relative value. by universal suffrage, and with proportional rep

Russinia to have autonomy. The Assembly, elected The Customs border between Germany and the

resentation, is composed of a Chamber of DepuProtectorate was abolished (Sept. 15, 1940).

ties, six-year tenure, and a Senate, eight-yearThe establishment of the protectorate has not

tenure; both in joint session to elect the President been recognized by the Governments of the United

of the republic for a seven-year term. States, Great Britain and France. Italy formally

Dr. Eduard Benes (born in Kozlany, Bohemia, recognized the annexation (Sept. 14, 1939).

May 28, 1884), was elected President (Dec. 18, 1935) Slovakia, with an area of 14,836 square miles and

and resigned, in the face of German diplomatic a population of 2,450,096, declared its independ

pressure (Oct 5, 1938). ence (March 14, 1939) and Hitler offered to pro

A reconstructed provisional Czecho-Slovakian tect it. A treaty was signed in Vienna four days later in which Germany guaranteed to protect the

Government formed in London by the Czecho

Slovak National Committee was recognized (July boundaries of Slovakia for twenty-five years and in

21, 1940) by Great Britain. Dr. Benes is head of return received permission to construct and man

the new Government. fortifications along the Slovakian border. Slovakia

The United States extended diplomatic recogwas to remain an independent State, with its own army, currency and diplomatic representatives

nition to the Provisional Government (July 30, abroad. Dr. Josef Tiso was named Prime Minister

1941). Similar action had been taken previously and elevated by Parliament to be President (Oct.

by Russia and Great Britain, 26, 1939). Hungary recognized the independence

The majority of the population of the Republic of Slovakia (July 1, 1939).

was Roman Catholic. Universal military service for a period of two

Institutions of higher learning were the Czech years from 20 to 50 years was decreed (Jan. 18.

University at Prague (founded in 1348); the Uni1940).

versity of Brno and the German University in Parliament adopted a Constitution (July 21,

Prague. The Reich protector closed all the uni1939) that made the remnant of Czecho-Slovakia

versities (1939). an authoritarian republic with a National Council Government receipts (1939) for the Central Govof ten to govern, a president elected for seven ernment alone

were estimated at 3,191,600,000 years, with a Parliament of eighty elected for five- crowns, expenditures 3,191,300,000. The estimates year terms, The National Council has authority provided for additional revenue from Bohemia, to issue decrees without a ratification by Parlia- Moravia and Silesia of 4,638,000,000 crowns and ment.

expenditures of 4,902,000,000. Hungary marched into Carpatho-Ukraine (March Peace time exports are woollen goods, cottons, 4, 1939) and annexed that country.

coal, glass, sugar, iron and steel, grains, timber Czecho-Slovakia possesses one of the richest ter- and leather. Imports are largely fruit and vegeritories in Europe, both in the matter of natural cables, cottons, woollen goods, fats and oils, Iron resources and industrial development. Agriculture and steel, machinery, mineral oils, coal and and forestry claim 40% of the population. Wheat, ) chemicals.

Danzig
(DIE FREIE STADT DANZIG)

Area, 754 square miles-Population, 415,000 The Free City of Danzig is on the Baltic Sea, the League of Nations. It had a Volkstag of 72 with the Polish corridor to the west, Poland to the members. The Senate consisted of 22 members south, and East Prussia, of which it was formerly elected from the Volstag; the President and seven a part, to the east. The River Vistula, coming of these are Chief Senators, form the Ministry, and from the extensive Polish hinterland, runs through are elected for a four-year term. the territory to the Baltic. The population (cen- The Senate (March 22, 1939) disregarded the sus of Aug. 1929) is preponderantly German. The Constitution and prolonged for another four years district contains 258 localities, of which 252 are the terms of the Volkstag expiring in May. The rural communes, two forest-estate divisions, and Volkstag at the time was 100 per cent Nazi, the four cities, including the municipality of Danzig. Opposition deputies having been forced to resign. Education is compulsory.

The Senate voted (Aug. 24, 1939) to make Albert The Free City of Danzig was established under Forster, Nazi party leader, chief of state, givin the Treaty of Versailles (Nov. 15. 1920) to create him precedence over Arthur Greiser, hitherto head 2 port for Poland. It was under the protection of l of the government as Senate President,

Forster proclaimed the reunion of Danzig to and sulphates; principal imports are salt herrings, the Reich (Sept. 1, 1939) and the Free City was coffee, cocoa and tea. accepted into the Reich at once by Chancellor The monetary unit is the gulden, worth about Hitler

25 cents in American money. The budget (1939) Chief exports are grain, sawn timber, coal, ores balanced at 126,880,000 gulden.

Denmark

(KONGERIGET DANMARK) Capital, Copenhagen-Area, 16,575 square miles Population (est. 1939), 3,805,000 Denmark occupies the peninsula of Jutland, established (1866) and today the system has thrusting out to the north from Germany, which 1,964 affiliated societies and includes 370,000 houseis its only land neighbor, between the North Sea holds, about 45% of the whole population, and and the Baltic Sea, with the adjacent islands. employs about 21,000 workers. Danish farmers The Skagerrak separates it from Norway, and

operate more than 1,400 co-operative dairies, 60 Kattegat from Sweden. The country consists of

co-operative bacon factories and numerous low, undulating, plains.

slaughterhouses. The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic, about The chief exports in normal times are dairy 300 miles northwest of the Shetlands, belong to products, eggs, provisions and fodder, animals and Denmark. Great Britain established a protec

animal products. The principal imports in normal torate over the islands (April 11, 1940). The times are chemicals, wood, cork, paper, textiles, islands have a combined area of 540 square miles

fuels, lubricants and metals. and a population (1935) of 25.744.

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, the sucThe origin of Copenhagen dates back to ancient

cession being hereditary The King and the times, when the fishing and trading place named Rigsdag (Diet) jointly hold legislative power. Havn (port) grew up on a cluster of islets in the The Rigsdag is of two bodies-the Folketing Sound, but Bishop Absalon (1128-1201) is regarded

(House of Commons), with 149 members, and the as the actual founder of the city. On one of the Landsting (Senate), with 76 members. Men and islets he built a stronghold against the pirating

women of 25 years of age have the franchise. The Wends and the remnants of this still exist under Premier (1939) is Thorvald Stauning. ground in front of Christiansborg.

The King of Denmark is Christian X (born Regular boat service is maintained from the Sept. 26, 1870). He succeeded his father, Frederik Havnegade quay in Copenhagen to Klampenborg. VIII (May 14, 1912) and married (April 26, 1898) Elsinore and various other points along the coast: Princess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg: His heir, Klampenborg is a popular bathing resort. Elsinore Crown Prince Frederik (born March 11, 1899), was (Helsingor) contains the reputed grave of Hamlet, married (May 24, 1935) to Princess Ingrid (born the Danish prince immortalized by Shakespeare: March 28, 1910), daughter of Crown Prince Gustav A great attraction here is the castle of Kronborg Adolf of Sweden. The King of Denmark is also with historic casemates and old bastions, the King of Iceland. bronze guns of which once commanded the Sound

Germany invaded Denmark (April 9, 1940) when duties were exacted from every passing although a ten-year pact pledging Germany not to vessel

make war or use force against Denmark had been One-third of the population Ilves in normal times signed (May 3. 1939). exclusively by agriculture and approximately one

In the elections to the Folketing (April 3, 1939) half by manufactures and trade. The cultivated the Government Coalition of Social Democrats and area (1938) showed the following crop acreage:

Radicals maintained a majority with 78 seats wheat, 325,000; rye, 358.500; barley, 982,000, oats. against 71 for the opposition. The Nazi party won 926,100; mixed grain. 746,000; potatoes, 195,700, three seats and the Communists three.

There were in Denmark (July, 1939) 564,000 The Evangelical Lutheran is the established horses, 3,258,000 head of cattle, 3.127.000 swine and religion. Education is compulsory. The University 27.500,000 hens. There were (March, 1940) 3,066,000 of Copenhagen was founded (1479). pigs.

The army is in the form of a national militia, Danish dairy products are world famous and the every able-bodied man being liable for service country in normal times exports more butter than from 20 to 36. any in the world and produces more bacon than

The monetary unit is the krone with an average any other with the exception of the United States. value of $.20. The budget (1941-1942) estimates The fisheries also are important.

revenue at 522,300,000 kroner and expenditures at The first cooperative consumers Society was / 589,000,000.

GREENLAND Greenland, a huge island between the North Greeland and the United States signed an agreeAtlantic and the Polar Sea, is separated from the ment (April 9, 1941), whereby the United States North American continent by Davis Strait and get the right to establish military and naval bases Baffin Bay. It extends northward from 600-86° on the island and in turn pledges protection to N. lat. Its total area is 736,518 square miles,

Greenland against aggression. The agreement was

signed by the Danish Minister to the United States. 705,234 of which are ice-capped. Most of the the Government of German-occupied Denmark not island is a lofty plateau 9,000 to 10,000 ft. in alti

participating tude. The average thickness of the ice cap is Greenland trade has been a state monopoly of 1.000 ft. The population (1941) is 18,000, composed Denmark since 1776. Denmark declared the entire of 16,222 natives and 408 Danes. The capital is island Danish territory (May 10, 1921) and (June Godthaab: its population is 1,313. Greenland is the 16) ordered all

coasts and islands closed to nononly Danish colony.

Danish vessels. The United States formally relinquished its claim Trade is chiefly with Denmark. The deposits of to land in Northern Greenland discovered by cryolite are the largest in the world. Fish, fur and Admiral Peary when it bought the Virgin Islands graphite are the other exports. Trade in Greenland from Denmark (1916).

is a state monopoly.

Dominican Republic

(REPUBLICA DOMINICANA) Capital, Ciudad Trujillo Area, 19,332 square miles-Population (est. 1939), 1,616,561 The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern The population is a race of mixed European, portion, about two-thirds, of the Island of Santo African and Indian blood. Spanish is the lanDomingo, or Hispanola, the name given it by Co-guage of the country. The state has no religion lumbus, the second largest of the Greater Antilles, and there is toleration for all faiths. The popusituated between Cuba on the west and Puerto Rico lation is almost wholly Roman Catholic. Education on the east. The boundary between it and the Re- is compulsory. public of Haiti, which occupies the western part The Army consists of a force of 300 officers and of the island, is 193 miles long. It has a coastline 3.000 of other ranks. There is a coastal patrol of of 1,017 miles.

four boats. The land is very fertile, about 15,500 square miles A new constitution was proclaimed (June 20, being cultivable; agriculture and stock raising are 1929) and modified (June 9, 1934). The President the principal industries. Sugar, cacao, coffee, rice, is elected by direct vote every four years. The corn and tobacco are the chief products.

National Congress consists of a Senate and a The country contains deposits of silver, plati- Chamber of Deputies Dr. M. J. Troncoso de la num, copper, iron, salt, coal and petroleum, but Concha was inaugurated President (March 8, 1940). the mining industry is undeveloped.

The Dominican Republic has its own monetary

standard, same base and value as the United (May 8, 1940) and established the Sosua settleStates' coin system (there is no Dominican gold ment, a tract of 25,000 acres, 15 miles east of the or paper money). The paper money in circulation town of Puerto Plata, on the north coast, a gift of is from the United States. Government reve- Rafael L. Trujillo, former president of the Renues (1940) were estimated at $12,139.954 and public. He made available (1941) another tract of expenditures at $12.134,956.

50,000 acres, adjacent to the Sosua colony. It is The Republic has opened its lands to colonization estimated that the lands will accommodate a colony by refugees from Europe. The first refugees arrived of 2.500 refugees.

Ecuador

(REPUBLICA DEL ECUADOR) Capital, Quito-Area, 275,936 square miles—Population (estimated 1941), 3,200,000 Ecuador, on the Pacific Coast of South America, stormy even for a Latin-American republic. extends from about 100 miles north of the Equator Roman Catholic is the dominant religion. Prito 400 miles south of it. It is bounded by Colombia mary education is compulsory. Military service on the north and Peru on the south. The boundary

is compulsory. The Army (1938) numbered apin the east is in dispute, much territory being proximately 8.000 officers and men.

The monetary unit is the sucre with an average claimed by Peru. Two cordillera of the Andes cross

value of $.066. the country, with a dozen peaks above 16,000 ft. in

The budget (1941) was estimated to balance at height, of which Chimborazo (21,424 ft.), Cotopaxi 117,200,000 sucres. (19,550 ft.). Cayambee (19.534 it.) and Antisana

The chief imports are cotton goods, metals, (19,260 ft.) are the highest.

jewelry, foodstuffs, liquors, drugs, chemicals; Ecuador is a republic. According to the Consti

woolen, silk, rayon and linen goods. The United tution (adopted March 26, 1929) the President is

States ranks first as the source of Ecuarodean elected directly by the people for a four-year term

imports. and the Congress consists of two Houses: the Guayaquil, the "Pearl of the Pacific," chief port Upper with 32 Senators and the Chamber with of Ecuador, on the northern bank of the Guayas 56 Deputies. A Constituent Assembly was con- river, and 50 miles upstream from the Great Gulf vened (Aug. 10, 1937) to draft a new Constitution. of Guayaquil on the Pacific Ocean, was founded in following the suspension of the old (Sept. 27, 1935). 1537. The Guayaquil-Quito railway is one of the Women voted for the first time in 1939.

greatest engineering feats in the world. At Nariz Dr. Arroyo del Rio was elected President (1940) del Diablo (Devil's Nose) a forbidding mountain for four years. Congress granted (Aug. 6. 1941) intercepts the railway, and the train ascends unlimited powers in economic affairs to the presi- 2.900 it. in five minutes, along a daring zig-zag dent. The country is rich in undeveloped minerals. and supported by huge retaining walls. Quito is

road cut out of solid rock along the mountain side Rich silver ore is found at Pillzhum in Canar, reached in the middle of the afternoon on the Petroleum output is increasing. Large deposits of second day. The streets of Quito are narrow copper, iron, lead, coal and sulphur are known to

and steep, many houses being literally perched on exist. Agricultural products include cereals, potatoes, fruits, cocoa, coffee. Wild rubbles, man

the mountainside. Quito was once the capital of

an empire ruled by the Incas after they had van. grove bark, (for tanning) alligator skins, and kapok are important commercially The so-called

quished the Caras. The Spanish settlement dates Panama or "Jipi-jappa" hats, made of Toquilla from 1534. In colonial times it was the most imstraw, are manufactured in Ecuador.

portant art center in America and today the Ecuador's independence dates from the Battle of churches contain works of sculptors and painters Pichincha (May 29, 1822) and its history has been whose names have survived the centuries.

Egypt

(MISR) Capital, Cairo-Area, estimated, 383,000 square miles-Population (1937), 15,920,703 Egypt occupies the northeast corner of Africa introduced (1820) by Mohammed Ali Pasha; this with the Mediterranean Sea on the north and the was restored and greatly improved during the Red Sea on the east Beyond that, between the British occupation. Two million acres of culGulf of Suez and the Canal and the Gulf of Aka- tivable land were added, and under the basin bah, lies the Sinal peninsula, 150 miles long, flat system, cereals, beans and lentils are grown; under and sandy. On the south is the Soudan, the the new perennial system cotton, wheat, cereals, parallel of the 22° north latitude forming the beans, sugar cane, vegetables and fruit are the boundary... To the west is Libya.

chief products. Two and three yields a year are The Valley of the Nile and the delta are the grown. real Egypt of 60 centuries. Here are 13,600 square A variety of minerals is found in Egypt, princimiles of cultivated area: 1,900 square miles are pally phosphate rock and petroleum. Others are taken up by canals, roads, date and other agri- ochres, sulphate of magnesia, talc, building stones, cultural plantations, and 2,850 by the surface of gypsum, natron, salt, gold,' alum, copper, beryl, the Nile, its marshes and lakes. The Nile has a granite and sulphur. length of 4.000 miles from the Victoria Nyanza to Many automobile highways-some of them the Mediterranean. In the 960 miles of its course through the desert-have been constructed. through Egypt it receives no tributary stream. Four-fifths of the people are of ancient EgypThe river at Aswan is at its lowest at the end of tian stock, whose forbears by their labor built May, rises slowly until the middle of July and rap. the pyramids for alien kings, and whose physical idly throughout August, reaching its maximum at characteristics were pictured in the mural paintthe beginning of September; then it falls slowly ings of the temples and tombs and on the papyrus through October and November. At Cairo the scrolls 6,000 years ago. maximum rise (average about 13 feet) is reached Moslems form 91.40% of the population, Christhe beginnig of October. The river carries a heavy tians 8.19%, and Jews. 0.40%. Illiteracy, which traffic.

was high until some years ago, is being eradicated Great dams regulate the flow of the Nile and by the Government. Education is now compulone of them, the Gabel Awlia dam (completed sory for all children between the ages of 7 and 12. April 25, 1937), is the longest in the world, measur- There is a famous seat of Moslem learning in the ing 16,400 ft.

University of Al-Azhar at Cairo, founded with The Nile irrigates 5,400,000 acres and this num- the Metropolis about the year 968 A.D.; and ber may be increased to 7,600,000 by engineering another, quite modern and up-to-date, the Fouad improvements. King Mena (about 4000 B. C.) is i University, at Giza, opposite Cairo, founded in credited with being the founder of the first 1908. scientific system of using the water of the Nile for Originally a part of the Turkish Empire, with irrigation purposes, and that plan, the basin sys- more or less semi-independent status, England tem, is still used for all the land south of Deirut declared a Protectorate over her temporarily as a in Upper Egypt.

war measure in December (1914), and so remained By this system the land is divided into rectangu- until the Declaration of Feb. 28, 1922, when Englar areas from 5,000 to 50,000 acres in size and land formally recognized Egypt as a sovereign, insurrounded by banks; water is admitted to these dependent State. The then Sultan assumed the basins during the flood period (August) to an new title of King as Fouad I (March 15, 1922). average depth of three ft. and is left on the land An Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of Alliance was signed for about 40 days; it is then run off and the seed at London (Aug. 26, 1936) whereby England was sown broadcast on the uncovered land. A system allowed, as the ally of Egypt, the presence of a of perennial Irrigation by digging deep canals was force of 10.000 men and 400 airplanes at the Suez

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