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Rivers there is much irrigation, and cereals, fruits and vegetables are grown with wool, cotton and silk production. Ill is the chief town. The population of Sinkiang is estimated at 1,200,000 and its

area at 550,340 square miles.

It is from Sinkiang that much of the jade comes. The province has been restive and made a declaration of independence in Kashgar (Jan. 23, 1934).


Thibet, in Western China, is a country_little known, situated between the Himalaya and Kwenlun Mountains, and hithmerto practically shut to strangers. The trade is with India mostly, being carried on through lofty passes, some of which are 14,000 to 18,000 ft. high, which are impassable in winter. China's hold on Thibet was visibly loosened when the revolution (1911) broke in China. The Thibetans expelled the Chinese garrisons. The capital is Lhasa. The area of Thibet is 463,200 square miles with wide areas unexplored. Population is estimated at 3,000,000. Some recent estimates place it as high as 6,000,000 and as low as 700,000. A 6-year-old peasant boy-Ling-ehr-la-mu-tan

chu-was enthroned (Feb. 22, 1940) in Potala Palace, Lhasa, as the 14th Dalai Lama, chief civil and religious ruler of Thibet. Supposedly the child-born of a peasant family in Kokonor Province in China and taken to Lhasa by Thibetan monks-was born at the exact moment the 13th Dalai Lama stopped breathing (Dec. 17, 1933). Until the new Dalai Lama is 18 years old the head Lama of Reting Lamasery will rule the forbidden land.

The religion is Lamaism, a modified form of Buddhism.

The highest grade musk is obtained from the muskdeer, now becoming very scarce in Tsarung mountains in Southeastern Thibet.


(LA REPUBLICA DE COLOMBIA) Capital, Bogota-Area, 448,794 square miles-Population (1941) 9,334,392 The Republic of Colombia, situated in the extreme northwest of South America, extends up the Isthmus of Panama to the Republic of Panama. It has a coast line of 782 miles on the Pacific Ocean, and 1056 miles on the Caribbean Sea. It has as neighbors Venezuela and Brazil on the east, and Ecuador and Peru on the south.

normal army is approximately 10,000 with 50,000 available for war. The Navy consists of two destroyers and small boats. The naval personnel numbers slightly more than 800.

Three great ranges of the Andes, the Western, Central and Eastern Cordilleras, run through the country from north to south. The eastern range consists mostly of high table lands, cool and healthful, the most densely populated part of the country. The Magdalena River, in the east, rises in the high Andes and flows north into the Caribbean Sea, 12 miles from Barranquilla. It is navigable for river steamers for 970 miles, as far as Girardot. Steamers ascend to La Dorada, 590 miles.

Snow-crested mountains standing almost directly over the Equator are one of many examples of scenic splendor in Colombia. Tourists are also attracted by the famous Tequendama Falls, a natural wonder near Bogota.

The country, conquered and ruled by Spain for 300 years, won its freedom in the revolt of the Spanish-American colonies (1811-24), the liberator, Simon Bolivar, establishing the Republic of Colombia (1819). Venezuela and Ecuador withdrew (1829-30).

Bogota, the capital (founded in 1538), is situated in the Andes 8,660 ft. high. To reach it by the Magdalena River and rail requires nearly a week; but a daily airplane service makes it in 212 hours. The population is mainly whites and half castes with only 105,807 Indians. Education is free but not compulsory. The National University (founded 1572) is in Bogota. There are four other universities. Roman Catholic is the prevailing religion but all are tolerated. Spanish is the language of the country.

Military service is compulsory between the ages of 21 and 30 with actual service for one year. The

There is tri-weekly airplane service to the United States. Twenty-four air lines cover 9,280 miles of routes in Colombia.

The Federal Congress consists of a Senate of 57 members, elected for a term of four years, and a House of Representatives of 119, elected directly by the people every two years. The President is elected by direct vote for four years and is ineligible for two successive terms. The President is Dr. Eduardo Santos (inaugurated Aug. 7, 1938) for a four-year term.

The elections (1939) returned to the house 75 Liberals, 42 Conservatives and 1 Nationalist. The Liberals' also gained a majority in the assemblies of each of the 14 departments which elect the Senators.

The soil of Colombia is fertile and agriculture is a growing industry. Mild coffee is produced extensively. Rice, tobacco and cotton are cultivated, besides cocoa, sugar, tagua, wheat and bananas. Dyewoods are important commercially. Rubber, tolu balsam and copaiba trees are being exploited.

The country is rich in minerals. Seventy-five miles from Bogota are the Muzo emerald mines, which have been in operation for four centuries. Near Somondoco are the Chivor emerald mines, worked long before the conquest and later for a time by the Spaniards, but abandoned. Rediscovered, they have been opened again by an American company. Other minerals are gold, silver, copper, lead, mercury, cinnabar, manganese, platinum, coal, iron, limestone, salt and petroleum.

Colombia's principal imports are textiles, metallic products, transport materials, food, chemicals and machinery.

The monetary unit is the gold peso with an average value of $.57. The budget (1941) is estimated to balance at 84,601,000 pesos.

Costa Rica


Capital, San Jose-Area, estimated, 23,000 square miles-Population (est. 1934), 616,000 Costa Rica, in the southern part of Central duction and the distillation of spirits are an America, has Nicaragua for its neighbor on the important industry. north and Panama on the south. The lowlands The by the Caribbean have a tropical climate. interior plateau, with an altitude of about 4,000 ft., has a temperate climate.

San Jose, the capital, situated inland-103 miles by rail from Puerto Limon on the Atlantic Ocean; 72 by rail from Puntarenas on the Pacific Oceanis a city of great charm with Spanish balconies and patios. The crater atop Poas Volcano is the largest in the world. Puerto Limon occupies the site where Columbus landed on his fourth and last visit to America.

Costa Rica is well served by steamship and airplane services. There are two international airports, one at Santa Anna, about 15 miles due west of San Jose and another at Sabana, only five minutes from the heart of San Jose.

Coffee of a high quality is the chief crop. Bananas and cocoa are profuse. Corn, sugar-cane, rice and potatoes are cultivated. Tobacco pro

The forests are extensive, but the lumber industry is negligible. Gold and silver are mined on the Pacific slope. Other minerals are quartz, alabaster, granite, oil, alum, slate, onyx, mercury, sulphur and copper.

The Constitution (adopted Dec. 7, 1871) has been many times modified. The legislative power is vested in a Chamber of Deputies, 44 in number, with four-year terms, one-half elected directly every two years by manhood suffrage. The President, elected for four years, appoints a Ministry of elected president (Feb. 11, 1940) under the first seven. Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, 42, was secret and obligatory balloting. For failure to vote the first time there is a fine of five colones, the second time a fine of fifty colones with a ban of holding office for two years. Roman Catholic is the religion of the state, but the nation has religious liberty. Primary education is compulsory and free. The National School of Agriculture is in San Jose. The language of the country is Spanish.

The monetary unit is the colon with an average

value of $.06. The budget (1940) produced revenues of 30,750,000 colones with expenditures of 31,298,644.

Chief imports are cotton, iron and steel, flour, mineral oil and derivatives, motor vehicles, silk goods.

A start on production of rubber was made (1939)

when more than 1,000 acres were planted in the lowlands along the Atlantic littoral.

The standing army, by convention (1923) among the Central American States, is limited to 500, but with the reserve and national guard, it is estimated the protective forces number approximately 150,000.


Capital, Havana-Area, 44,164 square miles-Population (1939) 4,228,000

the Constitution. The amendments went into effect (Oct. 10, 1940).

Col. Fulgencio Batista was elected president Democratic coalition. Dr. Gustavo Cuervo Rubio (July 15, 1940) as the candidate of the Socialistis Vice President.

Cuba, the "Pearl of the Antilles," largest island | 1939) drafted wide and general amendments to of the West Indies, lies among the Gulf of Mexico, the Strait of Florida and the Atlantic Ocean on the north and the Caribbean Sea on the south. Key West, Fla., is about 100 miles distant. The Windward Passage, 50 miles wide, separates it from Haiti to the east, and Jamaica (British) lies 85 miles to the south. Yucatan is 130 miles to the west. Its length is 730 miles, and the breadth averages 50 miles, with a maximum of 160 miles. The coast line, including the larger keys. is about 2,500 miles in length. It has numerous harbors, notably that of Havana, one of the finest and safest in the world, also Guantanamo, and Bahia Honda. Guantanamo was leased for an annual rental of $2,000 to the United States (July 2, 1903) and has since been maintained as a naval base.

Mountains rise in Pinar del Rio Province in the west, and in Camaguey and Oriente in the east, where they reach a general elevation of about 3,000 ft.. with Monte Turquino (8,320 ft.) as the highest point. Santa Clara is rough and broken, but Matanzas and Havana are flat and rolling.

The soil is alluvial and under the tropical heat and humidity the vegetation is of rare richness. It is estimated officially that 8,628,434 acres are covered with dense forest. The royal palm tree dominates every landscape. All tropical fruits and vegetables flourish. At Havana the mean temperature is 76 and the mean rainfall 40.6 inches. Hardly a decade passes without a destructive hurricane. The population is about 68% native white.

The island was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage of exploration (Oct. 28, 1492). He landed at what is now known as the Bay of Nuevitas and took possession of the country in the name of the King of Spain. It was called successively Juana, Santiago and Ave Maria, finally regaining its Indian name of Cuba.

Cuba, with the exception of the period (1762-63) remained a Spanish colony until the sovereignty was relinquished (Dec. 10, 1898) under the terms of Treaty of Paris which ended the armed intervention of the United States in the fight of the Cubans for freedom. The island assumed a republican form of government (1902) with the Constitution providing for the election of a president for a term of four years (he is ineligible to succeed himself); a Vice President, a Senate and a House of Representatives with four-year terms. Women have the right to vote. A constitutional convention (elected Nov. 15,

A new treaty between the United States and Cuba was ratified by the U. S. Senate (1936). It superseded that of May 22, 1903, and abandoned the right of the United States to intervene in the internal affairs of Cuba under the Platt Amendment. (See The World Almanac for 1934, page 629.)

Sugar is the predominant crop, and 1,500,000 acres are given over to growing it. Cuba is the second largest sugar producer in the world. Tobacco raising and the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes rank next in importance. The amount of sugar exported to the United States is in accordance with a quota established by the Washington government. It called for the admission (1939) of 1,932,343 short tons. Molasses and other derivatives, together with sugar, represent 73% of the country's exports. Tobacco is cultivated chiefly in the famous Vuelta-Abajo district. Other agricultural products are coffee, pineapples, bananas, citrus fruit and cocoanuts. Cabinet woods (mahogany and cedar), dyewoods, fibres, gums, resins and oils are important commercially. Iron, copper, manganese, gold, petroleum and salt are some of the minerals,

The live stock industry has grown in recent years, especially in Camaguey. There are more than 3,000 miles of railroads, with a main trunk line running across the Island from Guantanamo Bay to Guane, a distance of more than 500 miles. Havana is an important air base.

The Republic has no lands for sale. Large areas are held by native owners and many of these tracts can be purchased. Some land has been given to the poor.

Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 14. Among the higher institutions of learning is the University of Havana (founded in 1721). The Roman Catholic religion is predominant. The language is Spanish with English widely understood.

The monetary unit is the peso with an average value of $.98. The budget (1941) estimated receipts at 84.000.000 pesos and expenditures 83.987,000. The personnel of the Army, Navy and police is estimated at 20,000 with 30,000 reservists, including men and women.



Capital, Prague (Praha)-Area, 38,190 square miles-Population (1939), 9,807,000 Czecho-Slovakia lies in the very heart of Central Europe. Its boundaries are, in the north, Germany and Poland; in the south, Rumania, Hungary and Austria, now a part of Germany; in the east. Poland; and in the west, Germany. Its extreme length from east to west is 600 miles and its width varies from 50 to 100 miles. The Czecho-Slovak Republic was the realization of a dream that has lived for centuries. i.e., some sort of restoration of the ancient Kingdom of Bohemia. In fact, the Czecho-Slovak Republic was fused from the territory of Bohemia, Moravia, part of Silesia, Slovakia and Carpatho-Ruthenia.

are numerous labyrinths and towns of rock such as the Decin Walls (in the Bohemian-Saxon Switzerland), and the Tissa Walls at the point where the Elbe leaves Bohemia.

There are two extensive mountain systems in Czecho-Slovakia-the Carpathian in the eastern parts of Moravia, Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia and the Sudeten in the west on the German border. Forests are famous for hunting and are the habitat of the bear, the chamois, the ibex, wildcat and whole herds of wild boars. Throughout the country mighty ruins of ancient castles rise on rocky heights, and in the valleys there are mansions of great beauty and interest.

The subterranean caverns of Czecho-Slovakia are among the curiosities of Europe. In the Moravian Kras not far from Brno there stretches an extensive system of caverns, lakes and abysses all underground. One of the famous sights of Centrai Europe is the magnificent ice caves in Dobsina in a district known as the "Slovak Paradise." There

The Czecho-Slovak spas and mineral springs are among the foremost in all Europe and the country boasts of more thermal and mineral water sources than any other country on the continent.

Prague, the capital, has a wealth of mediaeval architecture equalled by few other cities of Europe. More than 3,500 years back there was a settlement within the territory which is now occupied by present day Prague, on the site of the castle of Vysehrad.

Of the population 8,527,154 are Czecho-Slovaks, 377,830 Germans, 100.379 Hungarians, 512,289 Russians, 4,157 Poles, 126,310 Jews, and 31,949 of other races with 127,028 aliens.

Germany obtained the Sudeten area of CzechoSlovakia in the international crisis (1938) culminating in the Munich conference. The Sudeten area is an ancient name of uncertain origin applied to the Sudeten mountains in the northwest part of the country. The Germans there never were a part of the Reich proper, but were subjects of pre-war Austria. At the close of the World War the Hlucin section of Germany-area 110 square miles, 82 per cent of whose population were Czecho-Slovaks and the remainder Germans--was reded to Czecho-Slovakia.

The German demands for the return of the area were put forward by Chancellor Hitler (Sept. 12, 1938) and later the Berlin Government issued an ultimatum in which it threatened to seize the territory by force (Oct. 1, 1938). The German forces soon were in the Sudeten area and had occupied all the territory claimed by the Reich (Oct. 10, 1938). There followed a four-power conference among Great Britain, France, Germany, and Italy in which the Germans obtained all their demands. The new frontier was fixed (Nov. 20, 1938) and the result was Czecho-Slovakia lost 10,056 square miles of territory and a population of 4,922,440. This was divided as follows: Country Germany Hungary Poland

Area Population .11,701 3,653,292 4,566 1,027,450 419 241,698

Poland had demanded the cession of Teschen by Czecho-Slovakia and Hungary also had put forward demands which were granted when the new frontier was defined.

The name of the country was changed to CzechoSlovakia and a central government with three autonomous governments for Bohemia and Moravia, Slovakia and Ruthenia, renamed CarpathoUkraine, were created under the Munich agreement.

German troops invaded Bohemia (March 14, 1939) and seized Prague. Two days later Chancellor Hitler declared Czecho-Slovakia no longer existed and that Reich forces would preserve order. Bohemia and Moravia, with an area of 28,717 square miles and a population of 10,897,000 (1939) were organized as a Protectorate of the Reich and Baron Constantin von Neurath was named Protector. Reinhard Heydrich was named Protector (Sept. 27, 1941) when von Neurath asked temporary leave and a state of emergency was decreed.

The Reich assumed supervision of military and foreign affairs, communications and customs. The reichsmark and crown became the legal tender with the Reich to determine their relative value. The Customs border between Germany and the Protectorate was abolished (Sept. 15, 1940).

The establishment of the protectorate has not been recognized by the Governments of the United States, Great Britain and France. Italy formally recognized the annexation (Sept. 14, 1939). Slovakia, with an area of 14,836 square miles and a population of 2,450,096, declared its independence (March 14, 1939) and Hitler offered to protect it. A treaty was signed in Vienna four days later in which Germany guaranteed to protect the boundaries of Slovakia for twenty-five years and in return received permission to construct and man fortifications along the Slovakian border. Slovakia was to remain an independent State, with its own army, currency and diplomatic representatives abroad. Dr. Josef Tiso was named Prime Minister and elevated by Parliament to be President (Oct. 26, 1939). Hungary recognized the independence of Slovakia (July 1, 1939).

Universal military service for a period of two years from 20 to 50 years was decreed (Jan. 18, 1940).

Parliament adopted a Constitution (July 21, 1939) that made the remnant of Czecho-Slovakia an authoritarian republic with a National Council of ten to govern, a president elected for seven years, with a Parliament of eighty elected for fiveyear terms. The National Council has authority to issue decrees without a ratification by Parliament.

Hungary marched into Carpatho-Ukraine (March 4, 1939) and annexed that country.

Czecho-Slovakia possesses one of the richest territories in Europe, both in the matter of natural resources and industrial development. Agriculture and forestry claim 40% of the population. Wheat,

rye, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beets, corn and hops are grown in abundance. Beer production was enormous. Czecho-Slovakian munitions factories were among the most extensive and efficient in the world. There were also numerous textile and paper mills, glass, furniture, stone, metal and chemical factories. Since 1924, when the land reform bill was actually followed by the sequestration of the large estates owned by the former Austrian aristocracy, the country has been developed into a land of peasant holdings. Mineral wealth is great and comprises both soft and hard coal, iron, graphite and garnets, silver, copper, lead, and rock-salt.

The peace treaty (World War) gave CzechoSlovakia, which has no outlet to the sea, 200 miles distant, the right to certain wharves in Hamburg and Stettin. The Dunaj (Danube) is the principal burg). waterway, its chief port being Bratislava (PressCzecho-Slovakia through Germany the main ports On the Labe (Elbe), which flows from are Usti (Aussig) and Decin (Teschen). CzechoSlovakia has 800 miles of navigable rivers.

The term Czecho-Slovak refers to two national groups of inhabitants, the Czechs and the Slovaks, ning of the independent kingdom of Bohemia in both distinct branches of Slav origin. The beginCentral Europe reaches to the fifth century. Bohemia, which thus became united through a The Habsburgs (1526) were elected to the throne of common dynasty to Austria and Hungary. Religious persecution in the seventeenth century led to unsuccessful rebellions and to the loss of independence. The persecution of the Czechs by the Habsburgs left great bitterness. Czecho-Slovakia of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, of which it was came into being (Oct. 28, 1918) on the break-up the northwest portion bordering on Germany and Poland. The Constitution of the republic was providing for a National Assembly with legislative adopted by the National Assembly (Feb. 29, 1920). authority over the whole country, Carpathian by universal suffrage, and with proportional repRussinia to have autonomy. The Assembly, elected resentation, is composed of a Chamber of Deputies, six-year tenure, and a Senate, eight-yeartenure; both in joint session to elect the President of the republic for a seven-year term.

Dr. Eduard Benes (born in Kozlany, Bohemia, May 28, 1884), was elected President (Dec. 18, 1935) and resigned, in the face of German diplomatic pressure (Oct 5, 1938).

A reconstructed provisional Czecho-Slovakian Government formed in London by the CzechoSlovak National Committee was recognized (July 21, 1940) by Great Britain. Dr. Benes is head of the new Government.

The United States extended diplomatic recognition to the Provisional Government (July 30, 1941). Similar action had been taken previously by Russia and Great Britain.

The majority of the population of the Republic was Roman Catholic.

Institutions of higher learning were the Czech University at Prague (founded in 1348); the University of Brno and the German University in Prague. The Reich protector closed all the universities (1939).

Government receipts (1939) for the Central Government alone were estimated at 3,191,600,000 crowns, expenditures 3,191,300,000. The estimates provided for additional revenue from Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia of 4,638,000,000 crowns and expenditures of 4,902,000,000.

Peace time exports are woollen goods, cottons, coal, glass, sugar, iron and steel, grains, timber and leather. Imports are largely fruit and vegecables, cottons, woollen goods, fats and oils, iron and steel, machinery, mineral oils, coal and chemicals.


(DIE FREIE STADT DANZIG) Area, 754 square miles-Population, 415,000

The Free City of Danzig is on the Baltic Sea, with the Polish corridor to the west, Poland to the south, and East Prussia, of which it was formerly a part, to the east. The River Vistula, coming from the extensive Polish hinterland, runs through the territory to the Baltic. The population (census of Aug., 1929) is preponderantly German. The district contains 258 localities, of which 252 are rural communes, two forest-estate divisions, and four cities, including the municipality of Danzig. Education is compulsory.

The Free City of Danzig was established under the Treaty of Versailles (Nov. 15, 1920) to create a port for Poland. It was under the protection of

the League of Nations. It had a Volkstag of 72 members. The Senate consisted of 22 members elected from the Volstag: the President and seven of these are Chief Senators, form the Ministry, and are elected for a four-year term.

The Senate (March 22, 1939) disregarded the Constitution and prolonged for another four years the terms of the Volkstag expiring in May. The Volkstag at the time was 100 per cent Nazi, the Opposition deputies having been forced to resign. The Senate voted (Aug. 24, 1939) to make Albert Forster, Nazi party leader, chief of state, giving him precedence over Arthur Greiser, hitherto head of the government as Senate President.

Forster proclaimed the reunion of Danzig to the Reich (Sept. 1, 1939) and the Free City was accepted into the Reich at once by Chancellor Hitler.

Chief exports are grain, sawn timber, coal, ores

and sulphates; principal imports are salt herrings, coffee, cocoa and tea.

The monetary unit is the gulden, worth about 25 cents in American money. The budget (1939) balanced at 126,880,000 gulden.



Capital, Copenhagen-Area, 16,575 square miles-Population (est. 1939), 3,805,000 Denmark occupies the peninsula of Jutland, thrusting out to the north from Germany, which is its only land neighbor, between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, with the adjacent islands. The Skagerrak separates it from Norway, and Kattegat from Sweden. The country consists of low, undulating plains.

The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic, about 300 miles northwest of the Shetlands, belong to Denmark. Great Britain established a protectorate over the islands (April 11, 1940). The islands have a combined area of 540 square miles and a population (1935) of 25,744.

The origin of Copenhagen dates back to ancient times, when the fishing and trading place named Havn (port) grew up on a cluster of islets in the Sound, but Bishop Absalon (1128-1201) is regarded as the actual founder of the city. On one of the islets he built a stronghold against the pirating Wends and the remnants of this still exist underground in front of Christiansborg.

Regular boat service is maintained from the Havnegade quay in Copenhagen to Klampenborg. Elsinore and various other points along the coast. Klampenborg is a popular bathing resort. Elsinore (Helsingor) contains the reputed grave of Hamlet, the Danish prince immortalized by Shakespeare. A great attraction here is the castle of Kronborg with historic casemates and old bastions, the bronze guns of which once commanded the Sound when duties were exacted from every passing vessel.

One-third of the population lives in normal times exclusively by agriculture and approximately onehalf by manufactures and trade. The cultivated area (1938) showed the following crop acreage: wheat, 325,000; rye, 358,500; barley, 982,000; oats. 926,100; mixed grain, 746,000; potatoes. 195,700.

There were in Denmark (July, 1939) 564,000 horses. 3,258,000 head of cattle, 3,127,000 swine and 27,500,000 hens. There were (March, 1940) 3,066,000 pigs.

Danish dairy products are world famous and the country in normal times exports more butter than any in the world and produces more bacon than any other with the exception of the United States. The fisheries also are important.

The first cooperative consumers society was

established (1866) and today the system has 1,964 affiliated societies and includes 370,000 households, about 45% of the whole population, and employs about 21,000 workers. Danish farmers operate more than 1,400 co-operative dairies, 60 Co-operative bacon factories and slaughterhouses.


The chief exports in normal times are dairy products, eggs, provisions and fodder, animals and animal products. The principal imports in normal times are chemicals, wood, cork, paper, textiles, fuels, lubricants and metals.

Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, the succession being hereditary. The King and the Rigsdag (Diet) jointly hold legislative power. The Rigsdag is of two bodies-the Folketing (House of Commons), with 149 members, and the Landsting (Senate), with 76 members. Men and women of 25 years of age have the franchise. The Premier (1939) is Thorvald Stauning.

The King of Denmark is Christian X (born Sept. 26, 1870). He succeeded his father, Frederik VIII (May 14, 1912) and married (April 26, 1898) Princess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg. His heir, Crown Prince Frederik (born March 11, 1899), was married (May 24, 1935) to Princess Ingrid (born March 28, 1910), daughter of Crown Prince Gustav Adolf of Sweden. The King of Denmark is also King of Iceland.

Germany invaded Denmark (April 9, 1940) although a ten-year pact pledging Germany not to make war or use force against Denmark had been signed (May 3, 1939).

In the elections to the Folketing (April 3, 1939) the Government Coalition of Social Democrats and Radicals maintained a majority with 78 seats against 71 for the opposition. The Nazi party won three seats and the Communists three.

The Evangelical Lutheran is the established religion. Education is compulsory. The University of Copenhagen was founded (1479).

The army is in the form of a national militia, every able-bodied man being liable for service from 20 to 36.

The monetary unit is the krone with an average value of $.20. The budget (1941-1942) estimates revenue at 522,300,000 kroner and expenditures at 589,000,000.


Greenland, a huge island between the North Atlantic and the Polar Sea, is separated from the North American continent by Davis Strait and Baffin Bay. It extends northward from 60°-86° N. lat. Its total area is 736,518 square miles, 705,234 of which are ice-capped. Most of the island is a lofty plateau 9,000 to 10,000 ft. in altitude. The average thickness of the ice cap is 1,000 ft. The population (1941) is 18,000, composed of 16,222 natives and 408 Danes. The capital is Godthaab: its population is 1,313. Greenland is the only Danish colony.

The United States formally relinquished its claim to land in Northern Greenland discovered by Admiral Peary when it bought the Virgin Islands from Denmark (1916).

Greeland and the United States signed an agreement (April 9, 1941) whereby the United States get the right to establish military and naval bases on the island and in turn pledges protection to Greenland against aggression. The agreement was signed by the Danish Minister to the United States, the Government of German-occupied Denmark not participating

Greenland trade has been a state monopoly of Denmark since 1776. Denmark declared the entire island Danish territory (May 10, 1921) and (June 16) ordered all coasts and islands closed to nonDanish vessels.

Trade is chiefly with Denmark. The deposits of cryolite are the largest in the world. Fish, fur and graphite are the other exports. Trade in Greenland is a state monopoly.

Dominican Republic


Capital, Ciudad Trujillo—Area, 19,332 square miles-Population (est. 1939), 1,616,561 The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern portion, about two-thirds, of the Island of Santo Domingo, or Hispanola, the name given it by Columbus, the second largest of the Greater Antilles, situated between Cuba on the west and Puerto Rico on the east. The boundary between it and the Republic of Haiti, which occupies the western part of the island, is 193 miles long. It has a coastline of 1,017 miles.

The population is a race of mixed European, African and Indian blood. Spanish is the language of the country. The State has no religion and there is toleration for all faiths. The population is almost wholly Roman Catholic. Education is compulsory.

The land is very fertile, about 15,500 square miles being cultivable; agriculture and stock raising are the principal industries. Sugar, cacao, coffee, rice, corn and tobacco are the chief products.

The country contains deposits of silver, platinum, copper, iron, salt, coal and petroleum, but the mining industry is undeveloped.

The Army consists of a force of 300 officers and 3.000 of other ranks. There is a coastal patrol of four boats.

A new constitution was proclaimed (June 20, 1929) and modified (June 9, 1934). The President is elected by direct vote every four years. The National Congress consists of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies Dr. M. J. Troncoso de la Concha was inaugurated President (March 8, 1940).

The Dominican Republic has its own monetary

standard, same base and value as the United States' coin system (there is no Dominican gold or paper money). The paper money in circulation is from the United States. Government revenues (1940) were estimated at $12,139,954 and expenditures at $12,134,956.

The Republic has opened its lands to colonization by refugees from Europe. The first refugees arrived

(May 8, 1940) and established the Sosua settlement, a tract of 25,000 acres, 15 miles east of the town of Puerto Plata, on the north coast, a gift of Rafael L. Trujillo, former president of the Republic. He made available (1941) another tract of 50,000 acres, adjacent to the Sosua colony. It is estimated that the lands will accommodate a colony of 2,500 refugees.



Capital, Quito-Area, 275,936 square miles-Population (estimated 1941), 3,200,000 Ecuador, on the Pacific Coast of South America, extends from about 100 miles north of the Equator to 400 miles south of it. It is bounded by Colombia on the north and Peru on the south. The boundary in the east is in dispute, much territory being claimed by Peru. Two cordillera of the Andes cross the country, with a dozen peaks above 16,000 ft. in height, of which Chimborazo (21,424 ft.), Cotopaxi (19,550 ft.), Cayambee (19.534 ft.) and Antisana (19,260 ft.) are the highest.

stormy even for a Latin-American republic.

Roman Catholic is the dominant religion. Primary education is compulsory. Military service is compulsory. The Army (1938) numbered approximately 8.000 officers and men.

Ecuador is a republic. According to the Constitution (adopted March 26, 1929) the President is elected directly by the people for a four-year term and the Congress consists of two Houses: the Upper with 32 Senators and the Chamber with 56 Deputies. A Constituent Assembly was convened (Aug. 10, 1937) to draft a new Constitution, following the suspension of the old (Sept. 27, 1935). Women voted for the first time in 1939.

Dr. Arroyo del Rio was elected President (1940) for four years. Congress granted (Aug. 6. 1941) unlimited powers in economic affairs to the president. The country is rich in undeveloped minerals. Rich silver ore is found at Pillzhum in Cañar, Petroleum output is increasing. Large deposits of copper, iron, lead, coal and sulphur are known to exist. Agricultural products include cereals, potatoes, fruits, cocoa, coffee. Wild rubbles, mangrove bark, (for tanning) alligator skins, and kapok are important commercially The so-called Panama or Jipi-jappa" hats, made of Toquilla straw, are manufactured in Ecuador.

Ecuador's independence dates from the Battle of Pichincha (May 29, 1822) and its history has been

The monetary unit is the sucre with an average value of $.066.

The budget (1941) was estimated to balance at 117,200,000 sucres.

The chief imports are cotton goods, metals, jewelry, foodstuffs, liquors, drugs. chemicals: woolen, silk, rayon and linen goods. The United States ranks first as the source of Ecuarodean imports.

Guayaquil, the "Pearl of the Pacific," chief port of Ecuador, on the northern bank of the Guayas river, and 50 miles upstream from the Great Gulf of Guayaquil on the Pacific Ocean, was founded in 1537. The Guayaquil-Quito railway is one of the greatest engineering feats in the world. At Nariz del Diablo (Devil's Nose) a forbidding mountain intercepts the railway, and the train ascends 2,900 ft. in five minutes, along a daring zig-zag road cut out of solid rock along the mountain side and supported by huge retaining walls. Quito is reached in the middle of the afternoon on the second day. The streets of Quito are narrow and steep, many houses being literally perched on the mountainside. Quito was once the capital of an empire ruled by the Incas after they had vanquished the Caras. The Spanish settlement dates from 1534. In colonial times it was the most important art center in America and today the churches contain works of sculptors and painters whose names have survived the centuries.



Capital, Cairo-Area, estimated, 383,000 square miles-Population (1937), 15,920,703 Egypt occupies the northeast corner of Africa with the Mediterranean Sea on the north and the Red Sea on the east Beyond that, between the Gulf of Suez and the Canal and the Gulf of Akabah, lies the Sinai peninsula, 150 miles long, flat and sandy. On the south is the Soudan, the parallel of the 22 north latitude forming the boundary. To the west is Libya.

The Valley of the Nile and the delta are the real Egypt of 60 centuries. Here are 13,600 square miles of cultivated area; 1,900 square miles are taken up by canals, roads, date and other agricultural plantations, and 2,850 by the surface of the Nile, its marshes and lakes. The Nile has a length of 4,000 miles from the Victoria Nyanza to the Mediterranean. In the 960 miles of its course through Egypt it receives no tributary stream. The river at Aswan is at its lowest at the end of May, rises slowly until the middle of July and rapidly throughout August, reaching its maximum at the beginning of September; then it falls slowly through October and November. At Cairo the maximum rise (average about 13 feet) is reached the beginnig of October. The river carries a heavy traffic.

Great dams regulate the flow of the Nile and one of them, the Gabel Awlia dam (completed April 25, 1937), is the longest in the world, measuring 16,400 ft.

The Nile irrigates 5,400,000 acres and this number may be increased to 7,600,000 by engineering improvements. King Mena (about 4000 B. C.) is credited with being the founder of the first scientific system of using the water of the Nile for irrigation purposes, and that plan, the basin system, is still used for all the land south of Deirut in Upper Egypt.

By this system the land is divided into rectangular areas from 5,000 to 50,000 acres in size and surrounded by banks; water is admitted to these basins during the flood period (August) to an average depth of three ft. and is left on the land for about 40 days; it is then run off and the seed sown broadcast on the uncovered land. A system of perennial irrigation by digging deep canals was

introduced (1820) by Mohammed Ali Pasha; this was restored and greatly improved during the British occupation. Two million acres of cultivable land were added, and under the basin system, cereals, beans and lentils are grown; under the new perennial system cotton, wheat, cereals, beans, sugar cane, vegetables and fruit are the chief products. Two and three yields a year are grown.

A variety of minerals is found in Egypt, principally phosphate rock and petroleum. Others are ochres, sulphate of magnesia, talc, building stones, gypsum, natron, salt, gold, alum, copper, beryl, granite and sulphur.

Many automobile highways-some of them through the desert-have been constructed.

Four-fifths of the people are of ancient Egyptian stock, whose forbears by their labor built the pyramids for alien kings, and whose physical characteristics were pictured in the mural paintings of the temples and tombs and on the papyrus scrolls 6,000 years ago.

Moslems form 91.40% of the population, Christians 8.19%, and Jews, 0.40%. Illiteracy, which was high until some years ago, is being eradicated by the Government. Education is now compulsory for all children between the ages of 7 and 12. There is a famous seat of Moslem learning in the University of Al-Azhar at Cairo, founded with the Metropolis about the year 968 A.D.; and another, quite modern and up-to-date, the Fouad I University, at Giza, opposite Cairo, founded in


Originally a part of the Turkish Empire, with more or less semi-independent status, England declared a Protectorate over her temporarily as a war measure in December (1914), and so remained until the Declaration of Feb. 28, 1922, when England formally recognized Egypt as a sovereign, independent State. The then Sultan assumed the new title of King as Fouad I (March 15, 1922). An Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of Alliance was signed at London (Aug. 26, 1936) whereby England was allowed, as the ally of Egypt, the presence of a force of 10,000 men and 400 airplanes at the Suez

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