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port of Antwerp, which has become the greatest volumes were lost in the last destruction. Lou. port of Continental Europe. The western part is vain University was established (1426) and the low, level and fertile; the eastern, the tableland library grew to rank with the best in the world. of the Ardennes, has a poor soil. The cities of The principal crops are wheat, barley. oats, rye, Bruges, Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp are noted potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets and tobacco. for art and architecture.

The country produces a large quantity of coal but Belgium formed part of the Low Countries from other minerals are of minor importance. the readjustment of Europe in 1815 after Napoleon's The chief imports are wool, cotton, flax, hides, downfall, until when it proclaimed its indepen- building, wood, iron and steel, machinery. coal, dence (Oct. 14, 1830.) The National Congress (1831) chemical products, bitumen, zinc ore, wheat and elected Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg King of the wine. The principal exports are manufactures of Belgians. He died (1865) and was succeeded by wool, cotton, flax, leather and glassware, iron, his son Leopold II, who died (1909.) By the

steel and zinc products and sugar. The coal, Treaty of London, (April 19, 1839) the famous iron and quarry industries are very valuable; as are "scrap of paper," separation from the Nethelands the glass, textile and sugar, and the lace of Brusand the neutrality and inviolability of Belgium sels, Malines and Bruges is famous. were guaranteed by Austria, France, Great Britain, The King of the Belgians, Leopold III, (born the Netherlands, Prussia and Russia. The Ger: Nov. 3, 1901) succeeded his father, Albert, killed mans invaded the Kingdom (Aug. 2, 1914) and by a fall from a precipice of rocks at the Marehe held nearly all of Belgium throughout the war,

les Dames (Feb. 17, 1934) and was crowned (Feb. evacuating it immediately after the Armistice.

23, 1934.) He married (Nov. 10, 1926) Princess Under the Treaty of Versailles, Eupen and Mal- Astrid (born Nov. 17, 1905), daughter of Prince medy and Moresnet were ceded

by Germany, adding Carl, brother of the King of Sweden. Children 382 square miles and 64,250 inhabitants to the of King Leopold are Princess Josephine Charlotte kingdom. These cantons were joined to the

(born Oct. ii, 1927); Prince Baudouin (the Heir province of Liege (March 5, 1925.)

Apparent) (born Sept. 7. 1930) and Albert, Prince Belgium was invaded by Germany (May 10, 1940). of Liege (born June 6, 1934). Queen Astrid was King Leopold announced (May 27) that the Bel- killed (Aug. 29, 1935) near Lucerne, Switzerland, gian Army had surrendered. In Paris, Premier

when the automobile which her husband was drivPierlot, at a meeting attended by the Presidents of ing, plunged from the road. The Queen Dowager is both Chambers of Parliament, declared that the

Elizabeth, Duchess of Bavaria, who married the King's decision was illegal since it had to have late King Albert, (Oct. 2, 1900') their other chilthe approbation of at least one member of the

dren are Prince Charles Theodore, Count of FlanCabinet. The Premier said this approbation was

ders, (born Oct. 10, 1903) and Princess Marie Jose lacking because there was unanimous decision in

(born Aug. 4, 1906) married (Jan. 8, 1930) to Orown the Cabinet not to associate itself with the action

Prince Humbert, of Italy. of King Leopold.

Parliament consists of a Senate of 167 members, Belgium was occupied by Germany which later elected for terms of four years, 101 by direct vote, announced the reincorporation into the Reich of

44 by Provincial Councils and 22 by the Senate Eupen, Malmedy and Moresnet, an area of 348

itself; a House of Representatives of 202 members, square miles with a population of 64,000. The

also elected for terms of four years. Universal Eupen-Malmedy-Moresnet districts were assigned

male suffrage is in force. The following women to Belgium (March 6, 1925) by the League of

may vote in Parliamentary elections: widows, not Nations.

remarried, of soldiers killed in the World War: A Belgian Government-in-Exile was established

widows of Belgian citizens killed by the enemy in in Poitiers, France, with Premier Pierlot as the the War, or failing them, their mothers 11 the head and was recognized by Great Britain. The latter are widows; widowed mothers of bachelor Government later moved to Vichy, France, but soldiers killed in the War; women sent to prison abandoned that place (Sept. 16) with the an

or detained for political reasons during the enemy nouncement that all further attempts to govern occupation of Belgium during the war. Belgium from the French provisional capital had The party strength of the Parliament (elected been given up. The Cabinet later estabushed the April 2, 1939) follows: Government in London. , The Belgian colonies Party

Chamber Senate retain their independence.

Catholics

73

62 Belgium is the most densely populated country Socialists

64

61 in Europe with a population of 710 to the square Liberals

33

25 mile. The population is divided into two well Flemish Nationalists

17

12 defined groups, the Flemish and the Walloons. Communists

9

3 The Roman Catholic is the religion of the great Rexists. majority, but religious toleration prevails. Part of The Prime Minister is Hubert Pierlot (Catholic). the income of the ministers of the Catholic, Jewish, The problem of smoothing the linguistic dinnChurch of England and Protestant Evangelique culties of Belgium was settled (1932) when the religions is paid from the national treasury. Bel government divided the country into three secgium has four universities in Ghent, Liege, Brus- tions for administrative purposes: In the first, sels and Louvain.

Walloonia, only French is used officially; in FlanThe Army, under the Military Law of 1937, is ders, Flemish; the Brussels district remains birecruited by annual calls and voluntary enlist- / lingual. The law does not apply to Eupen and ments. Belgium has no Navy and the Air Force Malmedy, German-speaking annexed districts. has been cooperating with the R. A. F. since the The unit of currency is the franc but the use invasion by Germany,

of the belga (nominal value $. 1685) is compulsory Louvain Library, destroyed during the World in foreign exchange transactions. One belga is War (1914) when the German Army overran Bel- equal to five paper francs, which is the medium of gium and later reconstructed with American funds, exchange in domestic business. was destroyed a second time (May, 1940) in the The budget (1940) estimated revenue at 11,new German invasion. It is estimated 700,000 / 343,032 francs; expenditures 11,632,979,000.

BELGIAN CONGO The Congo Free State had its origin in the vision Belgian Congo has a short coastline on the of King Leopold II of Belgium, who, roused by South Atlantic at the mouth of the Congo, where Stanley's discoveries, realized the great economic is situated the village of Banana on a fine natural possibilities in the development of the vast terri

harbor. Equatorial French Africa lies to the north tory reached by the Congo. The International

and west and Angola (Portuguese) to the south,

beyond which to the east is Northern Rhodesia; Association of the Congo, which he founded and

to the east Tanganyika, now British, but formerly largely financed, sent Stanley back (1879). He

German East Africa, and Uganda (British): to founded the first station, Vivi (Feb., 1880) and the north it also touches the Soudan. Vast, sunin all 24 before he returned (1884). The territory less and well-nigh impenetrable tropical forests all was formally ceded to Belgium by treaty (1907). the upper reaches of the river, covering about

It has an area of 902,082 square miles, and an 25,000 square miles. The principal products of estimated population of 10,356,191. The average

the Congo are palm-oil, cotton, palm-nuts, coffee, mean temperature is 80.6 Fahrenheit but only 70

cocoa, rubber, copal gum, sugar and ivory. degrees in the high country constituting the rim of gold, tin, cobalt, silver and radium. The Belgian

Mineral products consist of copper, diamonds, the Congo Basin and the average rainfall is 43.27

Congo ranks high among copper producing couninches. The native population (1939) is 10,304,084 tries. The diamond fields (in the southwestern and the white population, 25,200. The native re- district) produce over four million carats a year; ligion is gross fetichism, but there are 2,902 rank next after the South African diamond fields. Catholic and 830 Protestant missionaries in the The uranium ore from the Katanga District is of country. About one quarter of the native popula- high grade, and the refinery at Oolen, Belgium, tion has been christianized. The Capital is produces about 90 per cent of the world supply of Leopoldville.

tadium.

The chief industry is copper mining in Katanga Belgian Congo's normal trade is chiefly with Belwhere the copper bearing belt is 250 miles long gium, although commerce with Germany, Japan by 25 to 50 miles wide.

and the United States is large. The Congo imports Tin, (discovered 1910), has been exploited since more goods from Japan than from any other 1918. In the Katanga district is a large deposit of country with the exception of Belgium. pitch-blende ore, from which the factory of Oolen, The monetary unit is the franc. Government Belgium, produces about five grams of finished revenue (1940) was estimated at 747, 208,000 francs: radium a month other important minerals are expenditures at 779.821,500. diamonds, gold, silver, cobalt, uranium and iron. Ruanda and Urandi, districts formerly in Ger

Matadi is the most important port on the Congo, man East Africa, have been ceded to Belgium as which is navigable for large vessels for 95 miles mandatory of the League of Nations. The total to Matadi. A railroad 249 miles long transships area 20,535 square miles. The population is esfreight around the series of falls and rapids to timated (1940) at 3,775,335, of whom 1,404 are EuLeopoldville on ta Pool. From here the river ropeans, chiefly Belgians. Both districts are united and its branches are navigable for about 3,750 administratively with Belgian Congo, under a vicemiles. Railroads have been built around the falls governor at Astrida. The Ruanda Plateau is one on the upper river, and to connect important of Africa's best cattle countries. Several peaks of points.

the Birunga range reach an altitude of 14,000 ft.

Bhutan Capital, Punakha-Area, 18,000 square miles Population (est.) 300,000 The Kingdom of Bhutan is a semi-independent Agriculture is the chief industry. The principal native state in the Himalayas between Thibet on products are rice, Indian corn, millet, lac, wax, the north and British India on the south, with various kinds of cloth, musk, elephants, ponies and Sikkam on the west. It is 190 miles long from chowries. east to west and 90 miles wide at its widest point. The ruler of the kingdom is Maharajah Jig-me Punakha is a fortress of great natural strength. Wang-chuk (born 1906). He ascended the throne The inhabitants of Bhutan are Mongolians and (Aug. 21, 1926). Since 1910 he has received a adhere to a form of Buddhism. There is a mon- subsidy of 1,000,000 rupees from the British govastery-Tashi-Cho-dzong-containing 300 priests. ernment.

Bolivia

(REPUBLICA BOLIVIANA) Capital, La Paz-Area, 537,792 square miles--Population (estimated 1938), 3,426,296 Bolivia is bounded by Peru and Chile on the can read and write have the vote. Congress is west, Brazil on the north and east, Paraguay on composed of a Senate of 27 members elected for the east and Argentina on the south. It lies across six years and a House of Deputies of 70, elected

for four years. the Andes, and its chief topographical feature is the great central plateau at an altitude of 12,000

The century-old dispute with Paraguay over the

Gran Chaco, the interior plain between the two ft., over 500 miles long, lying between two great cordilleras having three of the highest peaks in the Paraguay, which flared up anew (1938) was

countries north of the Pilcomayo River and west of America. More than 50% of the population are

bitterly 'lought out defying all settlement until Indians speaking their own dialects only, and 25%

1935 when, under the good offices of a conference are of mixed blood. The percentage of illiteracy is composed of representatives of Argentina, Brazil, high. Farming. grazing and mining are the chief Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and the United states an occupations.

armistice was signed (June 12). A treaty of peace Agricultural products include potatoes, cacao, and friendship, terminating the Chaco dispute, was coffee, barley, coca, highland rice and rubber. It signed July Under its terms, settlement of ranks' as the second rubber exporting country of the Chaco boundary question was referred to the South America.

Arbitral College composed of representatives of the The most important industry is mining. There six mediating American nations. The boundary are large deposits of tin, silver, copper, lead,

zinc, line was fixed by arbitration (Oct. 10). lime. More than 15% of the world's output of tin by President German Busch, who established a

Constitutional government was suppressed (1939) is produced in Bolivia with an American corpora- totalitarian state. His successor re-established tion in control. The country ranks second to Constitutional government. China in the mining of antimony. The petroleum

Gen. Enrique Penaranda was elected president industry is growing.

(March 10, 1940). Under Spanish rule (1540 to 1750) the mines

There is compulsory military service from 19 produced gold to the value of $2,000,000,000. The years to 50. There is also "pre-military" instrucannual production is now less than $500,000.

tion for boys 12 to 19 and girls 15 to 20. The active La Paz, the capital, a city of great charm, lies in army is limited to approximately 3,500 but with the heart of a gigantic canyon about three miles reserves the total fighting strength approaches wide, ten miles long and 1,500 ft. deep, at an 10,000 effectives. altitude of about 12,700 ft., and framed with high The Government expropriated (May 15, 1941) as Andean peaks. Its huge cathedral where 12,000 & public necessity the Lloyd Aereo Boliviano, people can worship (begun in 1835), was dedicated German air line operating in Bolivia. The line (March 4, 1933).

had an exclusive franchise for air service within In Lake Titicaca, about 125 miles long and 75 Bolivia. miles wide, are the islands of the sun and the The unit of currency is the boliviano; see Index, Moon famous in Inca legends.

FOREIGN MONETARY UNITS. The budget (1941) is Primary education is free and compulsory. The estimated to balance at 556,000,000 bolivanos. University of Sucre was founded (1624). Roman Since Bolivia has no seaport, imports and exCatholic is the recognized State religion but other ports travel through Arica, Mollendo, Antofagasta, forms of worship are permitted. Spanish is the and La Quiaca. The principal imports are sugar, language of the country.

flour,

wheat, coal, petroleum, iron and steel By the constitution (1880) the President is products, míning machinery. rice, wines and elected for four years by direct popular vote. He spirits, textiles and ready-made clothes. Peace is not eligible for re-election until four

years after time trade is divided among the United States, his term has ended. All men over twenty-one who Germany and Great Britain in the order named.

Brazil

(ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL) Capital, Rio de Janeiro-Area, 3,275,510 miles—Population (Preliminary, 1940 Census), 41,356,605. Brazil is the largest state in South America, Peru and Colombia. The northern part is the great exceeding the size of continental United States heavily wooded basin of the Amazon (1,465.637 (exclusive of Alaska) by 250,000 square miles. It square miles in Brazil) which rises in the Peruvian has & coast line on the Atlantic Ocean of 4,889 Andes. and empties into the Atlantic at the miles, and extends approximately 2,676 miles from Equator. north to south and 2.694 miles east' to west. It is The Amazon basin has a network of rivers which bounded on the north by Venezuela and Dutch, are navigable for 15,814 miles. The Amazon river British, and French Guianas: on the east by the by itself is navigable for 1,700 miles. the extent Atlantic Ocean; on the south by. Uruguay, of its course in Brazilian territory. In all its river Argentina and Paraguay, on the west by Bolivia, Brazil possesses 27,318 miles of navigable wat

ways. Mountain ranges, interspersed with fertile throne into exile by a revolution which established valleys, traverse the eastern and southern states. a republic, the United States of Brazil. The ConThe majestic falls of the Iguassú. one of the stitution (adopted Feb. 24, 1891) was modeled natural wonders of the world, are on the border of largely on that of the United States. There are Paraná, a southern state. Brazil's horsepower is 20 states, with limited autonomy, and one terriestimated at about 19,519, 100.

tory (Acre), bought from Bolivia (1902), and one The country is Catholic, but freedom of worship Federal district. is guaranteed. The Protestant population, the Divorces are forbidden. Church weddings resecond most important (1935) was 167.457.

ceive the status of civil weddings. The University of Rio de Janeiro (now University A tax on bachelors was decreed (April 19, 1941); of Brazil was founded 1920. Other universities also provisions for pre-marital physical examinaare in Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul), tions. São Paulo (state of São Paulo) and Belo Horizonte Under the Constitution (1934) suffrage was ex(state of Minas Gerais). Many superior schools, tended to all men and women 18 years of age: the although not yet organized into universities, are president was elected by direct suffrage for a found in the capitals of the most advanced states. term of four years and was barred from succeeding Brazil has approximately 39,000 primary schools, himself. 913 high schools, and 217 colleges. Primary educa- The government was reorganized along semition is free and compulsory. The language of the corporative lines (Nov. 10, 1937) by President country is Portuguese.

Getulio Vargas, who promulgated & Constitution The mineral wealth of Brazil is vast but com- calling for the establishment of a Council of paratively little developed. Manganese ore is now National Economy to govern the economic life exported exclusively to the United States. The of the nation in conjunction with a remodeled country possesses enormous deposits of monazíte. Legislature composed of a Chamber of Deputies Gold production is about 100,000 contos ($50,000- and a Federal Council. Ten members of the Fed000) annually. Other principal minerals are eral Council, including the presiding officer, are cement, diamonds, iron and coal. The iron ore chosen by the President of Brazil; the remainder deposits are in process of development. Brazil are chosen by each of the 20 State legislatures. began the production of petroleum (1940) and also The Chamber of Deputies is composed of repredeveloped plans for the manufacture of steel, using sentatives of the people elected by indirect suffrage. domestic ore, petroleum, and coal.

Members of the Chamber of Deputies are chosen The cultivated area is about 32,250,266,384 acres by the Aldermen of Municipal Chambers and a for the principal crops, cultivation in Brazil being select group of 10 citizens in the various municicharacterized by extensive planting rather than palities elected by the people. concentrated.

President Vargas ordered all State legislatures Cotton is another important agricultural product, and Municipal Assemblies dissolved and fresh elecas is rubber. The country is the only producer of tions after the Constitution has been approved. Carnaúba wax, used for electric insulation, phono- Getulio Vargas, running for President (1929). graph records and many other applications. was defeated, but. charging fraud, seized the

Stock raising is important and the export of meat. government (Nov. 3. 1930) and was installed in hides and skins, and wool is increasing. The ten office (1934). His term expires (Nov. 1943), promost important items exported by Brazil (1940) vided that an amended Constitution is approved were: coffee, cotton, canned meat, hides and skins. at a plebiscite. cocoa, carnaúba wax, castor beans, precious and The monetary unit is the milréis with an semi-precious stones, and timber.

average value of $.05. The ten most important items imported by Brazil The budget (1941) estimates receipts at 4.124,546 (1940) were: machinery and hardware tools, wheat, contos; expenditures, 4,881,197 contos. (One conto iron and steel manufactures, automobiles, coal. equals 1.000 milréis). chemical and pharmaceutical products, other vehi- Brazil launched (Jan, 20, 1939) a five-year plan, cles and accessories, gasoline, steel and iron raw entailing the expenditure of $150,000,000 for the material, and combustibles.

Improvement of public works and national defense. Brazil, discovered (1500) by Cabral, a Portu- All males between the ages of 18 and 45 are subguese navigator, was developed as a colony of ject to military duty under a selective service Portugal until the royal house of Braganza, fleeing system. There is one year of service in the first from Lisbon before Napoleon's army (Nov. 1807) line and eight in the reserve. The strength of the transferred the seat of Government to Rio de Army approximates 95.000. There is an air force Janeiro (March 1808). Brazil was proclaimed with a personnel of 5,000. The Brazilian Navy is a kingdom (1815) and Dom Pedro, son of King being modernized. The Army and Navy 'reJohn VI, who had been left as Regent on his linquished control of their air arms (1940) to the father's return to Portugal, was crowned Con- Air Ministry which controls civil and military stitutional Emperor (1822) and Brazil freed from a viation Portugal. He abdicated (1831) in favor of his son Aviation has made tremendous strides in Brazil. Dom Pedro II, who was then five years old. The number of landing fields (1940) was 512; Crowned (1841), he ruled with varying fortune commercial plane flights. 7.900: passengers carried (until Nov. 15, 1889) when he was driven from the 70,734; and mileage flown, 4,337,300.

Bulgaria

(BLGARIYA) Capital, Sofia–42,808 square miles—Population (1940), 6,549,664 Bulgaria is bounded on the north by Rumania, acts was to dissolve Parliament and political paron the west by Yugo-Slavia, on the south by ties. The government changed hands five times Greece, on the east by the Black Sea, and on the (between May. 1934, and Nov., 1935). M. G, Kiossoutheast by Turkey. It is about the size of Ken- seivanoff became Premier (Nov. 23, 1935). The tucky.

Parliament consists of a single chamber called The Principality of Bulgaria was created by the the Sobranye or National Assembly, with 227 memTreaty of Berlin (July 13, 1878) as autonomous bers elected by direct vote. Suffrage is enjoyed and tributary principality under the suzerainty of by all males over 21 and all married females the Sultan of Turkey. Bulgaria declared its inde- over 21. pendence (Oct. 5, 1908). Eastern Rumelia joined A new cabinet was formed (Feb. 16, 1940) by Bulgaria (Sept. 16, 1885) after revolution against Prof. Bogdan Philoff after the resignation of the the Sultan.

Kiosseivanofi ministry as Balkan affairs again Rumania ceded to Bulgaria (1940) all of southern came to the fore. Dobruja, 2,983 square miles, with a population of Bulgaria signed the Three Power (Axis) pact 378,364. The cession restored the boundary line of (March 1, 1941) as German forces moved into the 1912.

country, occupying the airfields, the port of Varna Bulgaria was an ally of the Central Powers in on the Black Sea and Sofia, the capital. the World War. By the Peace Treaty of Neuilly The treaty of Neuilly limited Bulgarian armed (Paris) (Nov. 27, 1919), Bulgaria ceded Thrace to forces, all ranks, to 30,000, all volunteers. The war Greece and the Strumnitza Line" and a strip of strength is approximately 500.000. Under the terms territory on the northwest to Serbia. The treaty of the Neuilly Treaty Bulgaria surrendered all wardeprived Bulgaria of the Aegean Sea front. The ships and submarines but is permitted to maintain Treaty of Lausanne (1923), giving Thrace to Tur- a police and fishery patrol along the Danube. key, fixes the boundary between Bulgaria and The King of Bulgaria is Boris III (born Jan. Turkey just west of Adrianople.

30, 1894). He ascended the throne on the abdicaA military coup d'etat, executed without blood-tion of his father, Ferdinand (Oct. 3, 1918) and shed (May 19, 1934), turned out the Mushanov was married (Oct. 25, 1930) to Princess Giovanna Cabinet and set up a Fascist government with Col. (born Nov. 13, 1907), third daughter of the King Kimon Gueorgulev as Premier. One of its first and Queen of Italy. The children are Crown Prince Simeon, Prince of Tirnovo (born June 16, 1937). and dairy products are exported in large quantiand Princess Marie Louise (born Jan. 13. 1933). ties.

Bulgaria's language is Slavonic. The state The chief seaports are Varna and Burgas (Bourchurch is Orthodox Greek. Elementary education gas), which account for 80 per cent of the foreign is obligatory from 7 to 14 years of age. There is trade. a state university in Sofia and the American Col- Coal production is extensive. Mining otherlege is also situated there. Agriculture claims 78% wise is negligible. of the population.

The monetary unit is the lev with an average The principal crops are wheat, rye, barley, oats, value of $.0119. The budget (1941) estimates recorn, potatoes and tobacco. Fruit is abundant. ceipts at 10,160,600,000 leva and expenditures

Industrial plants and cultures, fruits, vegetables I 10,095,922,000.

Chile

(REPUBLICA DE CHILE) Capital, Santiago-Area, 296,717 square miles-Population (1940), 5,000,782 The Republic of Chile lies on the west coast of Chilean imports consist mainly of machinery, South America, occupying the strip of land between petroleum, sugar, newsprint, automobiles, coffee, the Andes and the South Pacific, from Peru to tea and mate and textiles. Besides minerals and Diego Ramerez Island 55°59'S., having an extreme

wool the exports are chiefly meats, fresh and length of about 2.620 miles, with a coast line of frozen, and fresh fruits. 2,900 miles. The average breadth north of 40° is

The population is almost entirely of European 100 miles.

origin; there are about 30,000 Araucans (natives)

in the Andes and an indeterminate number of noThe Andes have many lofty peaks, notably Acon.

madic Fuegans in Terra del Fuego. agua (altitude 23,080 st.), on the Chilean-Argentine boundary, the highest peak in the Americas,

Magallanes (former Punta Arenas), in the Corcoputi (22,162 it.), El Muerto (21,227. st.), the the world, and the center of a flourishing sheep

Straits of Magellan, is the southernmost city in Baya (19,993 ft.), the Guallatiri (19,882 ft.) From 1907 to 1924 there were 12,694 earthquakes, an

industry.

Valparaiso, chief seaport, was founded (1536) and average of two daily. Easter Island 2,000 miles west of Chile, with its

Santiago, the capital, three hours Inland, is five hundreds of stone figures, and the two Juan Fer- years younger. The latter has two universities nandez Islands, less than 500 miles west, are na

and a National Library. tional parks of the Chilean Government.

Chile has about 6,000 miles of railroads, over The land in the north part is arid. but two half being state owned. An electric railroad conprovinces there, Tarapaca and Antofagasta, pro

nects Valparaiso with Santiago, 117 miles. duced 95% of the world's nitrate supply until the

Education is free and (since 1920) compulsory. process of obtaining nitrate from the air was made There is a government university and a Catholic commercially profitable. There are 152 nitrate University in Santiago. The Roman Catholic reworks in all (1938) but only about 25 are in actuai ligion is dominant though not maintained by the operation producing about 100,000 metric tons a

state (since 1925) and all religions are protected.. month About 70% of the world's supply of iodine The language is Spanish. is a by-product of Chilean nitrate oncinas. Chile All able-bodied citizens from 19 years to 45 are is the world's second largest producer of copper. liable for army service. Service in the active The provinces of Atacama and Coquimba have Army is for 12 years and with the second reserve enormous iron deposits estimated at a billion tons.

to the end of the 45th year. The strength of the South of Valparaiso are large beds of coal, the Army approximates 20,000 officers and men. The reserve estimated at two billion tons. Other min

Navy consists of one battleship, one armored erals are gold, silver, cobalt, zinc, manganese,

cruiser and two protected cruisers, eight destroyborate, salt, sulphur, marble and onyx.

ers, nine submarines and auxiliary vessels. The Agriculture is an important industry. There are personnel is 8.000 men in normal times. There is many large dairy farms. Wheat, barley, oats, beans, an Air Service of three brigades. lentils, apples, melons, peaches, plums, nectarines,

Chile threw off the Spanish yoke (1810-18). peas and potatoes are grown in abundance. Chile Under the constitution (1925), the President is ranks seventh among wine producing countries. elected for six years, the 45 senators for eight, and

Manufacturing industries have developed greatly 143 deputies for four, all by direct popular vote. during the last ten years. With the creation The President is Pedro Aguirre Cerda (elected Oct. (1939) of the Corporacion de Fomento de la Pro- 25, 1938).

All male persons, 21 years of age or duccion (Corporation for the Promotion of Pro- more, and able to read and write, have suffrage. duction) with a capital of $40,000,000, production The monetary unit is the peso with an average of agriculture

and

manufactures has vastly value of $.16. The budget (1941) is estimated to increased.

balance at 2,194,293,561 pesos.

China (CHUNG-HUA MIN-KUO, I. e. REPUBLIC OF CHINA) Capital (temporary), Chungking-Area, 2,906,475 sq. miles-Population (est. 1936), 457,835,475 China, with a history reaching back to 2205 B. C., situated, having about 36,469,321 people in 41,818 occupies a territory in the eastern part of Asia square miles, is the most densely populated politiabout one-third larger than continental United cal unit in the world.

Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are the States. To the north lie Siberia and Manchukuo; to the west Russian Turkestan; to the southwest religions of China, although there are an esti

mated 48,000,000 Mohammedans with more than and south the well-nigh impassable barrier of the 42,000 mosques in the country, including ManHimalayas forms the Thibetan-Indian frontier. chukuo. It is estimated that there are 2,624,166 French Indo-China borders it on the south; and Catholics and 618,600 Protestants. Most of the the China Sea and Yellow Sea on the east sepa- aboriginal hill tribes are still nature worshippers. rate it from the Philippines, Formosa (now Japa- China is essentially agricultural. Wheat, barnese), the Japanese Empire and Korea. The coun- ley, corn, kaoliang, and millet and other cereals, try is of rolling topography, rising to high eleva- with peas and beans, are produced in the north; tion in the north in the Kinghan and Tarbagatal rice, sugar and Indigo in the south. Rice is the Mountains in Mongolia; the Himalayan and Kwen- staple food of the Chinese. Fruit is grown in lun Mountains in the southwest, in Thibet, and abundance. Fibre crops are important and include the Hinghan Mountains of Manchuria. Its length abutilon, hemp, jute, ramie and flax. Cotton is from north to south is 1,860 miles, and its breadth produced mostly in the Yangtze and Yellow River from east to west is about 1,500 miles.

valleys. Tea is cultivated principally in the west China Proper-China of the 24 Provinces--oc- and south. One of the most important industries of cupies the fertile southeastern part of the country, China is silk culture. It has flourished 4,000 an area nearly twice the size of the United States years. Livestock is raised in large numbers. east of the Mississippi. There the population on Cotton, wool and silk manufacture are importhe generally accepted estimates has a density of tant industries, especially in Shanghai and Can174 to the square mile. China Proper is one of ton, although native looms are found in most the best watered countries of the world. From Chinese dwellings. Many commercial enterprises the mountains on the west four great rivers run are Japanese-owned. In recent years flour and in general course stretching for hundreds of miles rice milling has become extensive; also tanning along the ocean and inland for 300 miles. These and cement and glass manufacture., rivers, the Yangtze, the Yellow, the Si kiang and China is one of the foremost coal countries in the Hanho, drain four-Afths of the country. the world, with reserves estimated at 243,669.000,The Province of Klangsu, in which Shanghal is 000 tons. Other minerals are iron ore, tin, anti

mony, wolfram, molybdenum, bismuth and salt. Minister of Publicity-Wang Shih-chieh.
Oll wells are worked in South Manchuria and Minister of Education Chen Li-Foo
Shensi. The oldest iron industry in the world is in Minister of Interior-Ho Chien.
Shansi.

Minister of Communications Chang Kia-ngau. Shanghai, China's commercial and industrial The Japanese have been extending their power capital, is situated on the left bank of the over China for the past 50 years, since the SinoWhangpoo River, 12 miles above its mouth at Woo- Japanese war of 1894. Korea was conquered sung. It is in the Yangtze delta. It occupies the (1910); Manchuria (1931-32). The border provmost strategic position economically of any city ince of Jehol was cut off as a buffer state (1933). in China. Through the port (before the last Sino- Kwantung army troops came through (1935) the Japanese war) passed 51% of the total import Great Wall north of Peiping from Jehol into the trade of the country and 35% of its export trade. province of Chahar which lies between Jehol and deep sea vessels can navigate to its docks.

Mongolia. The principal Chinese omncials in Pei. The Shanghai Municipal area (population, Cen- ping and Tientsin and in Hopei and Chahar proysus of 1935, 3,489,998), is made up of the Interna- inces were turned out and replaced by new men tional Settlement administered by the Shanghai acceptable to the Japanese leaders. In effect ChaMunicipal Council (population, 1,007,868); the har was made a demilitarized zone by June of French Concession, administered by a Council un- 1935. der the French Consul General (population, 496,- Japan set up (1937) a so-called independent gov. 536), and the Municipality of Greater Shanghai, aernment in Peiping, called "The Provisional Govpurely Chinese administrated municipality (popu- ernment of the Republic of China" and (1938) lation, 1,986,358). The International Settlement established a second regime The New Reformed stretches along the Whangpoo River between Government of the Republic of China" at NanChapei and the native city and contains the in- king. Japan announced (1938) that it would es. terests of 12 nations, the chief business buildings tablish two chartered companies to exploit China. and houses 30,000 foreign nationals. Before the These are the North China Exploitation Company outbreak of hostilities (Aug. 1937) the Japanese with a capital of 350,000,000 yen and the Central residents numbered 28,000 of whom 18,000 resided China Development Company with a capital of in Chapei, and Japanese property interests were 100.000.000 yen. estimated as worth $189,500,000 gold.

Fighting broke out between China and Japan Since the overthrow of the ancient Manchu (July 7, 1937) and since then large areas of the dynasty and the establish ent of the Chinese Re- provinces have been occupied by the Japanese inpublic (Oct. 10, 1911) China has been rent with vaders. The area of the free provinces is put at internecine warfare.

1,018,218 square miles. The Nanking government called a People's Na- The Japanese established (1940) at Nanking a tional Convention in Nanking (May 5, 1931). The so-called central government under Wang-Ching450 delegates adopted a Provisional Constitution, wei, dedicated to end the war and establish a new which rearranged the executive departments giv- economic relationship. ing the chairman of the State Council (then The monetary unit is the yuan. It was revalued Gen. Chiang Kai-shek) the power to appoint the (Aug. 1, 1940) at approximately 7 cents in Ameriheads of ministers. The Chinese government can money. The budget (1939) was estimated to was reorganized (Dec. 12, 1935).

balance at $2.850.000.000 The National Government as reorganized is com- Chief exports are animal products, oils, tallow, posed of five Yuan (Councils) under the National wax, seeds, raw cotton, raw silk, hides, skin, Government Council (State Council). The Councils leathertea, chemicals, metals, minerals, piece are the Executive, Legislative, Judicial, Examina- goods, paper, cereals, beans and peas. The imtion and Supervisory.

ports include cotton, wool, metals, fishery prod. The Executive Council is the highest executive

iicts, tobacco, chemicals, dyes. paints, coal, coke, body of the Government and organizes the minis

machinery and armaments. Trade is principally tries to which are entrusted the various executive

with the United States, Japan, Germany and duties. The Executive Council (Yuan) may be

Great Britain. Much commerce passes through compared to the Cabinet in the Governments of

Hong Kong the Western Countries with the chairman of the

Chinese Industrial Cooperatives have more than council holding a position similar to that of Prime

2.000 units with a capital investment of 30,000,000 Minister

yuan and are producing goods valued at more than The Legislative Council is the highest legislative

9,000,000 yuan monthly. body and decides on legislation, budgets, war.

Education in China is compulsory from six years peace, treaties and international problems. It has

of age to 12 with the administration in the hands of a President and a Vice President with between 49

provincial and district authorities. Enforcement and 99 members appointed by the National Govern

averages less than 50 per cent throughout the ment on the order of the President of the Legis

country under two systems of schools, the higher lative Council. The Judicial Council has charge of

lasting two years and the lower four years. There the administration of the law. The Examination

were (1937) 107 higher institutions of learning in Council determines the qualifications of applicants China Including 42 universities, 36 colleges and for public service and none can hold a Government

29 . position without passing an examination by the

Illiteracy is being reduced in not only the provExamination Council and having his qualifications

inces under the government of Chiang Kai-shek, determined. The Supervisory Council exercises the

but also in the eastern and southern coastal provpowers of impeachment and auditing.

inces occupied by the Japanese. The President of the National Government is

China has a national Army which gets its reLin Shen.

cruits through a system of compulsory citizenship The Cabinet of Ministers follows:

service for a period of three years. There is also President of the Executive Yuan-Gen, Chiang

the regular Army with voluntary and obligatory Kai-shek.

service for six years and with extended service up Minister of Finance-Dr. H. H. Kung.

to the age of 40 years. Recruits must be between Minister of Foreign Affairs-Quo-Tai-chi.

the ages of 20 and 25. The Chinese Navy, since Minister of War--Gen. Ho Ying-chin.

the war with Japan, is practically non-existent and Minister of Navy-Admiral Chen Shao-kuan. was undergoing a reorganization when hostilities Minister of Economics-Oong Wenhao.

opened

MONGOLIA Mongolia, although nominally of China, was , but in recent years motor truck and steamboat somewhat shaken loose from Chinese adherence lines have been established. during the world war. Outer Mongolia is a re- Tannu-Tuva, the northwest portion, about public, but it is recognized by Russia as under 64,000 sq. m. with a population of about 65.000 Chinese suzerainty. It is bounded on the north by also governs itself on a Soviet model as a U.S.S.R. Siberia, on the south by Sinkiang, on the south- protectorate. west by Turkestan, on the east by China Proper There is little agriculture, the great plains beand Manchuria. Its area is about 1.875,000 square tween the Tarbagatai and Kinghan Mountains bemiles; the population is about 850,000.

ing desert, with camels, horses and sheep as Inner Mongolia (1928) declared its allegiance to principal interests. The religion of the people is Nationalist China, but (April 23, 1934) set up an Buddhist Lamaism. autonomous government in Pailingmiao to handle Chief exports are livestock and animal products. local affairs. Outer Mongolia governs itself on the Foreign trade is backed by Soviet capital and the Soviet model.

chief trading unit is the Mongo Central CooperaThe chief means of transportation is by caravan tive Society.

SINKIANG (Chinese Turkestan) Sinkiang, known as the New Dominion, com- Mongolia on the north and Thibet on the south. prises Chinese Turkestan, Kulja and Kashgaria There are Turks, Mohammedans and Chinese resiand includes all Chinese dependencies between l dents there. Along the Kashgar and Yarkand

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