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1920 1921 1922 1923. 1924. 1925 1926.


Canadian Foreign Free Total Produce Produce Total Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 446.073,668 1,336,921,021 1,268,014,533 30,147,672 1,298,162,205 546,863,395 252.615,088 799,478,483 777,149,296 13,994,461 791,143,757 513,330,771 249,078,538 762,409,309 880,408,645 13,815,268 894,223,913 594,098,589 308,931,926 903,030,515 1,002,401,467 13,584,849 1,015,986,316

528,912,308 279,232,265 808,144,573 1,029,699,449
561,061,127 329,132,221





1931. 1932

1933. 1934.





1939 1940.

890,193,348 1,239,554,207 642,448,478 365.893,433 1,008,341,911 1,261,241,525 696,253,024 390,864,906 1,087,117,930 1,210,596,998 788.271,150 434,046.766 1,222,317,916 1,339,409,562 849,114,653 449,878,039 1,298,992,692 1,152,416,330 647,230,123 361,249,346 1,008,479,479 863,683,761 416,179,513 211,918,873 628,098,386 587,653,440 288,425,260 164,188,997 452,614,257 489,883,112] 235,195,782 166,018,529 401,214,311 529,449,529 295,566,101 217,903,396 513,469,497 649,314,236 306,913,652 243,400,899 550,314,551 724,977,459 350,903,936 284,286,908 635,190,844 937,824,933 436,327,558 372.568,767 808,896,325 997,366,918 379,095,355 298,355,999 677,451,354 837,583,917 427,470,633 323,584,901) 751,055,534 924,926,104 582,937,741 499,012,978 1,081,950,719 1,178,954,420

The quantity and value of gold produced in Canada (1940) were the largest ever recorded in the history of the Canadian mining industry. The amount from all primary sources, totaling 5,322,857 fine ounces value at $204,925,995, compared with

5,094,379 valued at $184,115,951 (1939). Virtually all Canada's newly mined bullion is sold to the Dominion Government through the Royal Canadian Mint in Ottawa or the Assay Office in Van


12,553,718 1,042,253,167 12,111,941 1,251,666,148 15,357,292 1,276,598,817 20,445,231 1,231,042,229 24,378,794 1,363,788,456 25,926,117 1,178,342,447 19,463,987 883,147,748 11,907,020 599,560,460 8,030,485 497,913,597 6,034,260 535,483,789 6,991,992 656,306,228 12,958,420 737,935,879 12,684,319, 950,509,252 14,754,862 1,012,121,780 11,100,216 848,684,133 10,995,609 935,921,713 14,263,172 1,193,217,592

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742,020 846,066 886,094

1,062,645 1,224,616 1,235,714
550,069 685,839 651,228
226,155 218,462 240,940

At the outbreak of the war (Sept., 1939) Canada was a relatively weak military power, but since has expanded and modernized her armed forces. Since the beginning of the war Canada has diverted more and more of her resources, both human and material, into her war effort. The 1941-1942 direct war expenditures are estimated at $1,500,000,000.

Approximately 300,000 Canadians were serving (July 1, 1941) in the active armed services at home and abroad. They have enlisted on a voluntary basis for the duration and will go wherever called.

Fruits & vegetables.
Maple products.

The Royal Canadian Navy went into action when Canada declared war. At the outbreak of the war the strength of the Navy was approximately 3,600 men with 13 ships of all kinds. The mobilized strength has since passed 20,000 and it musters more than 200 vessels, including three destroyers, three armed merchant cruisers, corvettes, mine sweepers and smaller craft. The strength of the Navy by March, 1942, is expected to reach 27,000 men and more than 400 ships.

The personnel of the rapidly growing Royal Canadian Air Force was approximately 55,000 (July 1, 1941).


covered by John Cabot (June 24, 1497) (Cape Bonavista) (August, 1583), formally occupied by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and by the Treaty of Utrecht, 1713, acknowledged to be British. A Governor was appointed (1728).

Capital, St. John's-Area, 42,734 square miles-Population (est. 1939) 294,800 Newfoundland, at the eastern end of British America, in the Atlantic Ocean, is an island the size of Virginia or a little larger than Cuba. It is separated from Canada by the Straits of Belle Isle, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Cabot Strait. Newfoundland is the oldest English Colony. Dis

Although Newfoundland had enjoyed the status

212 Foreign Countries-Newfoundland; B. W. I. and Other Brit. Pos.

of a Dominion since the World War, a Royal Com-, sists of the following-Governor and Commandermission of Inquiry, headed by Lord Amulree, ap-in-Chief, Vice-Admiral Sir Humphrey Thomas pointed (Feb. 22, 1933) to investigate the desperate Walwyn; Commissioners (Newfoundland) J. Alex financial state into which it had fallen, recom- Winter, Lewis Edward Emerson, Sir John Charles mended that the Dominion rights be relinquished Puddester (United Kingdom), John Henry Gorvin, until it again became self-supporting. The action Sir Wilfrid Woods and I. Wild. was precipitated by Newfoundland's inability to meet the service charges on its debt of about $90,000,000. The Royal Commission's recommendations were approved, by the Newfoundland Parliament (Dec. 2, 1933).

The British House of Commons later put into effect the financial provision of the Commission's report and agreed to meet Newfoundland's budget deficits. Holders of Newfoundland bonds (other than about £3,500,000 of pre-war loans) were offered the right to exchange for new 3% 10-30 year Sterling stock guaranteed, both as to principal and interest, by the United Kingdom.

The Parliament was suspended during the emergency and full legislative and executive power was vested in the Governor, acting on the advice of a Commission of six, three appointed by the United Kingdom and three by Newfoundland. This Royal Commission, which took office (Feb. 16, 1934) con

The principal industries are fishing, lumber, minerals and manufactures. Huge deposits of iron ore have been found on Bell Island in Conception Bay. Copper, pyrites, coal, gold, silver, and lead are other minerals.

Government receipts (1940-1941) were estimated at $13,525,616; expenditures, $15,449,965.

Sites on Newfoundland were leased to the United States (1940) for use as defense bases.

Labrador the most easterly part of the American continent, comprising 110,000 square miles and a population of 4,716, is under the jurisdiction of Newfoundland. It has 850 miles of coast line and 800 of its inhabitants are Eskimos. The rest are fishermen of British descent. The interior is heavily timbered and reputed to be rich in minerals. but is largely unexplored. The United States established (1941) a protective outpost in Labrador.

British West Indies and other possessions


Jamaica is situated in the Caribbean Sea, 90 miles south of Cuba, and is the largest and most valuable of the Britsh West Indies. It has an area of 4,450 square miles and population (estimated, 1940) 1,173,645, (about 20,000 whites). Attached to Jamaica for administrative purposes are the Turks and Caicos Islands (population 5.300; area, 226 square miles), and Cayman Island (population, 6,182; area, 104 square miles). The capital of Jamaica is Kingston. The British Governor is Sir Arthur Frederick Richards (appointed June 14, 1938).

The climate has attractions for winter tourists. It is estimated 65 to 75 per cent of the tourists are

American. The island figures largely in the history of the Buccaneers of the West Indies before and during the time of Sir Henry Morgan, once its Governor. The old haunt of the pirate, Port Royal, at the entrance of the harbor, was destroyed and sunk (1692) under the sea by an earthquake.

The principal products are sugar-cane, logwood, coffee, bananas, rum, coconuts, ginger, Cocoa, pimento, oranges and cigars. Trade is chiefly with the United States and Great Britain.

A site on Portland Bight was leased (1940) to the United States for a naval base.

Governmental receipts (1939-1940) are estimated at £2.737,940; expenditures £2,851,942.


Bermuda is a group of 360 small islands of coral formation, about 20 inhabited, in the Atlantic Ocean, 677 miles southeast of New York and 580 miles east of North Carolina. It was settled (1609) by a party of colonists under Sir George Somers, who were headed for Virginia, but were wrecked on the islands. The area is 19 square miles; the population (estimated, 1939) is 31,661. Hamilton is the capital.

The Governor is Viscount Knollys (appointed Aug. 27, 1941) to succeed Lieut. Gen. Sir Denis Kirwan Bernard, resigned.

Conscription for home defense with men between the ages of 18 and 36 was ordered (June, 1940). Bermuda is a colony with representative govern

ment; its parliament dates from Aug. 1, 1620. The assembly of 36 members is elected, there being about 2,691 electors (freeholders).

The budget (1940) estimated revenues at £256,426 and expenditures £373,687

The island, a perennial garden, with a dozen winter hotels and famous beaches, is a favorite winter resort for Americans and (1940) had 25,521 tourist visitors, about 30 per cent of the pre-war average. Effective (July 8, 1940) passports were required for entry into Bermuda. From tourists Bermuda derives much of its revenue. There are no taxes on real estate, incomes or inheritances. The currency, weights and measures are British. Sites on the island were granted to the United States (1940) for use as a naval base.


Barbados is the most eastern of the Windward Islands, in the West Indies. lying out in the Atlantic at 13° north latitude. Its area is 166 square miles; the population (estimated, 1940) is 195,548. Bridgetown is the capital.

Of the total 106,470 acres, 66,000 are tilled, producing chiefly sugar, cotton, and tamarinds. Molasses and rum are manufactured. Imports are heaviest from the United States, and exports heaviest to Canada. Governmental receipts (19391940) are estimated at £526,543; expenditures £535,182.

Trinidad, with an area of 1,862 square miles and a population (1940) of 473,455, is the most southerly of the West Indies. It lies off the north coast of South America. Attached to it for administrative purposes is the island of Tobago, the population and area of which are 25,358 and 116 square miles respectively. The capital is Port au Spain. Trade is heaviest, both import and export, with the United States. Of 1,192,844 acres on the island of Trinidad, 348,850 are cultivated. Products are mostly asphalt, oil, with derivatives therefrom. The great asphalt lake, 114 acres in extent, on the island is immensely valuable and seems inexhaustible.

Sites on the island were leased to the United States (1940) for a naval base.

The Governor is Major Sir Hubert Winthrop Young (appointed 1938).

The Bahama Islands number 20, part of them uninhabited, and are in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of America. Nassau, on the Island of New Providence, near the Florida coast, is an attractive winter resort for Americans. The area is 4,404 square miles) the population (estimated 1939) is 68,903. Nassau is the capital.

A site on the island of Mayaguana was leased (1940) to the United States for use as a naval base. Sponges and sisal are the chief sources of revenue. Fruit growing is being developed. Trade with the United States is three times as heavy as with any other country. The budget (1939) estimated revenues at £404,192 and expenditures £441,557.

The Governor General is the Duke of Windsor. The Windward Islands lie at the eastern side of the Caribbean Sea, west from Martinique. They are Grenada and the Grenadines, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Each has its own local Government. The total area is 821 square miles (Grenada, 133; St. Vincent, 150; St. Lucia, 233; Dominica, 305). The population is 259,742 (Grenada) (1921) 90,085; St. Vincent (1931) 47,961; St. Lucia (1939) 69,737; Dominica (1939) 51,959. St. George's on Grenada Island is the capital.

The chief products are arrowroot, cotton, copra, sugar, molasses, rum, cocoa, peanuts, cassava, limes, fruit, vegetables and spices. The cotton grown on Sea Island is considered the best in the world. St. Vincent is famous for its arrowroot.

Dominica was transferred (Jan. 1, 1940) from the Leeward to the Windward Islands and since has been governed as a separate colony.

A site at Gros Islet Bay was leased (1940) to the United States for a naval base.

The Leeward Islands, of the West Indies, situated southeast of Puerto Rico, are part of the Lesser Antilles. They comprise the islands of Antigua, Barbuda, Redonda. St. Christopher, Nevis, Anguilla, Dominica, Montserrat, Sombrero, and the British Virgin Islands. The area is 727 square miles; population (estimated 1940) is 93,130.

The principal products are sugar and molasses

(Antigua and St. Kitts), cotton (Montserrat. St. Kitts, Nevis and Virgin Islands), limes and fruits, tomatoes and onions (Montserrat), cocoanuts (Nevis), tobacco and cigars (Virgin Islands), and salt (Anguilla and St. Kitts).

A site near Partain Harbor, Antigua, was leased to the United States (1940) for use as a naval base. British Honduras is situated in Central America, on the Caribbean Sea, south of Yucatan, and produces chiefly tropical fruits, mahogany. logwood,

chicle, and cedar, much of which comes to the United States.

Its area is 8,598 square miles, and population, (estimated, 1940) is 58,759. Belize, population 16,687, is the capital.

A site on the Demarara River, 25 miles from the sea, was leased to the United States (1940) for a defense base. Government receipts (1939) were $1,967,662; expenditures $1,967,842.



Capital, Kabul-Area, estimated, 250,000 square miles-Population, estimated, 10,000,000 madder, Afghanistan occupies a mountainous country in oil plant, and the asafoetida plant Asia between 61° and 75° east longitude and 29° abound. Wool and skins are the main articles of and 38° 20′ north latitude. Its extreme breadth export, together with fruits, nuts and ghi. The northeast to southwest is about 700 miles, and from imports are textiles, metals and hardware, leather The chief trade is with the Herat frontier on the west to the Khyber Pass goods, tea and sugar. India, Russia and Iran. Copper, lead and iron on the east it is 600 miles. It is bounded on the are found in the country. north by the Turkoman S.S.R. of the U.S.S.R., on the east by British India, on the south by Baluchistan (British India), and on the west by Iran. The elevation is generally over 4,000 ft. There are three great river basins, the Oxus and the Kabul in the northeast, and the Helmund, which runs southwest through the middle of the country.

Towering above Kabul are the Hindo-Kush Mountains, 15,000 and 16,000 ft. high and reaching 25.425 ft. 100 or 200 miles to the east. Trade to India flows through the famous Khyber Pass from Kabul to Peshawur.

Afghanistan has been called "the land of rocks and stones and sanguinary feuds." Its people are nearly all Mohammedans. The Durani have been the dominant race for 200 years, the Tajiks, aborigines, being cultivators and traders. Along the frontier are warlike and independent tribes of Pathans. The languages spoken are Pushtu and Persian. The predominant religion is Islam.

It is almost exclusively an agricultural country. with two harvests a year. The fat-tailed sheep is native to the country, furnishing the Afghans their chief meat diet while the fat of its immense tail is a substitute for butter. The apple, pear, almond, peach, quince, apricot, plum, cherry, pomegranate, grape, fig, and mulberry are profuse. The castor

There are no railroads in the country. Merchandise is transported on camel or pony back along the seven important trade routes. The chief trade route is through Khyber pass. There is a university in Kabul (established 1932).

The government is monarchial and the laws and customs those of Islam. Legislative power is vested in a Parliament consisting of the King; a Senate of 45 members appointed for life by the King; and a National Assembly of 109 elected members. The reigning King is Mohammed Zahir Shah (born 1914). He married (Nov. 7. 1931) his cousin, Umairah, daughter of Sirdar Ahmed Shah Khan; and ascended the throne (Nov. 8, 1933) on the assassination of his father, Mohammed Nadir Shah. King Nadir proclaimed a new constitution (1932) under which slavery and forced labor are forbidden; primary education is compulsory and a Council of State is created. All Afghan men over 20 may vote.

Military service is compulsory between the ages of 18 to 40. The peacetime strength of the army is 60,000.

The monetary unit is the silver "afghani," worth between nine and ten cents in American money. The yearly revenue approximates $20.000,000.



Capital, Tirana-Area, 10,629 square miles-Population (1930 Census), 1,003,124 Albania is mountainous country bounded by Yugo-Slavia on the north and east, Greece on the east and south and the Adriatic Sea on the west. It is an exclusively agriculture and a cattle and sheep raising state. There are important forest resources and some mineral wealth, both undeveloped, because of lack of transport facilities. Chief products of the country are tobacco, timber, wool, hides, furs, cheese, and dairy products, fish, olive oil, corn, cattle and bitumen. The principal peacetime imports are cotton and cotton textiles sugar, coffee, benzine and petroleum.

Moslem, who had been President (since Sept. 29, 1925) King of the Albanians under the title of Zog. He married (April 27, 1938) Countess Geraldine Apponyi, of Hungary, a Roman Catholic, for whom he built a Catholic chapel in the royal palace.

There are (1938) 1,383 miles of motor highways. There are four seaports, Durazzo being fully equipped. Work was started (1940) on the first railroad in the country between Durazzo and Elbasan.

There is no state religion and there are few schools. Primary education is nominally compulsory and free under the constitution.

Racially the Albanians are mainly Ghegs in the north and Tosks in the south, the Mason and Dixon Line of Albania's division being the Shkumbini River. Tosk men wear gold-embroidered jackets and wide sashes over plaited kneelength white skirts almost as full as a ballet dancer's.

Albania, after centuries of Turkish domination and of contention between the Balkan neighbors and Italy, declared its independence (Nov. 28, 1912). It fell into a state of anarchy during the World War, but (June 3, 1917) Gen. Ferrero. then in charge of the Italian forces there, proclaimed Albania an independent country and a provisional government was set up. Albania had its independence assured under a treaty with Italy (Aug. 2, 1920).

The country was proclaimed (Dec., 1924) a republic, which continued until 1928 when a constituent assembly called amended the constitution to change the government into a monarchy and (Sept. 1, 1928) proclaimed Col. Ahmed Zogu, a

Under the Constitution Albania is a democratic, parliamentary independent monarchy with a single

elected chamber.

A new civil code replacing the ancient TurkoArabic civil code, was adopted (April 2, 1929). Under it heads of families were ordered to adopt surnames. The Albanian Parliament passed a law (March, 1937) forbidding the wearing of veils by Moslem women.

A treaty (of Tirana) between Italy and Albania, a compact of mutual support and cooperation, was signed (Nov. 27, 1926). It disturbed Europe and especially Yugoslavia. A diplomatic break between the two Balkan countries (June, 1927) was referred to and settled by the League of Nations. defensive 20-year alliance with Italy was signed (Nov. 22, 1927).


Italy seized Albania (April 7, 1939) and the King and Queen fled. The Albanian National Assembly offered the crown to King Victor Emmanuel of Italy (April 12) and he accepted it. The same day the Chamber of Corporations and the Senate in Rome approved the union of Italy and Albania. There is a constitutional monarchy, the throne being hereditary under King Victor Emmanuel's dynasty. Legislative, executive and judicial powers reside nominally with the King. There is a legislative Council subject to orders of the King and nothing can go before the Council without the sanction of the King. Francesco Jacomoni, Italian minister to Albania at the time of the absorption, was appointed by the King Lieutenant General of Albania, a post amounting virtually to that of Viceroy. Albanian military forces were incorporated into the Italian Army.

Under a special agreement with the Italian Government, Albanian authorities took over the

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Area, estimated, 1,000,000 square miles-Population, estimated, 10,000,000 The Arabians occupy a peninsula in the southwest corner of Asia which is bounded on the north by Iraq and Transjordania and enclosed on the other three sides by the sea-the Red Sea on the

west, the Arabian Sea on the south and the Persian

Gulf and Gulf of Oman on the east. Nearly onehalf of Arabia is desert. Rainfall is negligible except in Yemen and Oman, but there are numerous

oases or oases-groups scattered throughout the land. The political, economic and social life of Arabia varies from the unplanned roving of Nomadic Beduins to a simple civic life in towns in the highly developed civilization of Mecca, Medina and interior like Anaiza or Buraida and the more Jedda. The patriarchal, tribal organization of the Beduin is gradually giving way to the communal organization of states and principalities.


The kingdom of Saudi-Arabia comprises the sul-claimed himself King of the Hejaz (1916) jointanate of Nejd and the kingdom of Hejaz and its dependence. The total area is 350,000 square miles; the population is 5,250,000.

The Hejaz lies on the southwestern part of Arabia from the Egyptian line to Asir along the Red Sea. Its area is about 150,000 square miles; its population (estimated), 1,500,000. The Nejd now includes about 170,000 square miles of the interior and an estimated population of 3,000,000, almost entirely nomad. The dependencies include El Hasa, Katif, Jabal, Shammar, El Jauf and the greater part of Asir.

The king of Saudi-Arabia is Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdul-Rahman al Faisal al Saud (born in 1880). There are two capitals-Mecca (population, 80,000) and Riyadh (population, 30,000).

No Christians are permitted to stay in Mecca and foreign diplomats credited to Saudi-Arabia live in the port city of Jedda.

The importance of the Hejaz is due to its possession of the holy cities of Islam-Medina, where the Mosque of the Prophet enshrines the tomb of Mahomet, who died in the city (June 7, 632) and Mecca, his birthplace, containing a great mosque sheltering the sacred shrine, the Kaaba, in which is the black stone given by Gabriel to Abraham. As many as 150,000 of the faithful make the pilgrimage annually. Medina (population, 20,000) is 820 miles from Damascus, and is the terminus of the Hejaz railroad. Mecca, the capital, is 200 miles farther south, and is 55 miles from Jeddah (population, 30,000), the chief port on the Red Sea.

ing the Allies in the war. The Hejaz was represented at the Peace Conference by Emir Feisal, son of Husein, who became King of the Iraq. The King's second son, Emir Abdula, became ruler of the Transjordania when the Arab state was set up within the Palestine Mandate.

King Husein had himself proclaimed Caliph of Islam (March, 1924). This did not suit Abdul Aziz es-Saud Ibn Saud, Sultan of Nejd, able and war-like leader of the Wahabis, extreme Moslem zealots, who had been extending his rule by force of arms over the Arabian desert. He marched against the Hejaz (1925.) Husein abdicated, his son King Ali was driven out and Mecca was captured. Abdul Aziz was proclaimed King of the Hejaz and Sultan of Nejd (Jan. 11, 1926).

Asir, a principality on the Red Sea (area about 30,000 sq. m., population. about 750,000) had accepted the suzerainty of Ibn Saud (1926) and was formally taken over (1933) after an abortive uprising. The Imam of Yemen lying to the South moved troops into Asir and called down on himself the wrath of Ibn Saud who sent his son Emir Feisal with an army of 45,000 men equipped with tanks and modern weapons. After a month's war the Imam Yahya accepted peace conditions (May 13, 1934) and handed over authority to the Emir Feisal while maintaining a nominal independence for the Yemen.

Saudi-Arabia's defense force consists of a regular army of about 1,000.

The products are dates, wheat, barley, fruit, hides, wool, and Arab clocks, besides camels, horses, donkeys and sheep. The value of imports is from $13,000,000 to $5,000,000 yearly. Some hides, wool and gum are exported. The export of Arab horses to Bombay and camels to Egypt and Syria-once a prolific source of income-is now greatly reduced because of the growing increase of motor transport.

Motor transportation made its appearance (1926) and has been largely developed since. The King has a royal transport of 250 motor vehicles, of which 30 are high priced passenger cars especially equipped for desert travel, and the remainder buses. etc., for transports of pilgrims on the 45-mile highway from Jedda to Mecca. Motor buses for pilgrims run from Nejef on the Euphrates (reached by rail from Bagdad) to Medina, a desert journeying of about 600 miles.

The English gold sovereign is the basis of cur

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The petroleum resources of the country are bedeveloped by the Standard Oil Company of California, which has a concession covering the entire kingdom.

Ibn Saud has seventeen surviving sons, the second. Emir Feisal, being Viceroy of Mecca.

The religious law of Island is the common law of the land.

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The Sultanate of Oman occupies the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula with a coast line about 1,000 miles long, extending from El Katar on the Persian Gulf to Ras Sajir on the Arabian Sea. It has an estimated area of 82,000 square miles and a population estimated at 500,000, chiefly Arabs. The nomadic tribes of the interior after seven years of rebellion have completely thrown off the control of the Sultan and by an agreement, (Oct., 1920) have entire home rule and freedom of trade. The Sultan has for years been subsidized by the Government of India, which mainBAHREIN The Bahrein Islands lie off the Arabian Coast in the Persian Gulf and have an area of 250 square miles and a Mohammedan population of 120,000. Pearl fishing is the chief industry, the average value being taken each exceeding $5,000,000. Pe

tains there a political agent. The capital is Muscat (population, 4,500). The best camels in Arabia are bred in the interior of Oman. The chief exports are dates. Mountain ranges parallel Oman's north coast, some of them 10,000 ft. high and snow-capped.

Food supplies and textiles are imported. Trade is mostly with India. The Maria Theresa dollar and Indian rupee are mediums of exchange.

The Sultan of Oman is Saiyid Said ibn Taimur, (born Aug. 13, 1910). He succeeded his father. Seyyid Taimur ibn Feisal ibn Turki (1932). ISLANDS

troleum production is important. Bahrein is an independent Arab State under British protection. The capital and commercial center is Manama (population 25,000). The ruler is H. H. Shaikh Sir Hamad ibn Isa al Khalifa, K.C.I.E., C.S.I.



chiefly from Spain and Italy.

Capital, Buenos Aires-Area, 1,078,278 square miles-Population (1940), 13,318,320. Argentina extends from Bolivia 2,300 miles to The population is largely European in origin, Cape Horn and from the ridge of the Andes to the South Atlantic, occupying the greater part of southern South America. Its greatest breadth is about 930 miles. It is bounded by Bolivia on the north, Paraguay on the northeast, Brazil, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean on the east and Chile on the west.

East of the Andes are great plains, heavily wooded and called the Gran Chaco in the north, and vast treeless pampas, given over to wheat and cattle raising, stretching south down to the plains of Patagonia.

The climate in the center and most thickly settled part is temperate, with slight variations. The northern tip of the republic is within the tropics and therefore hot, and the southern extremity is very cold. Rainfall is heaviest in the northeast and slightest in central west and south. Wheat, corn, flax and oats are the principal crops. The sugar, wine, cotton and fruit industries are making great progress. Alfalfa is cultivated in huge quantities. Sheep, cattle, horses, goats and pigs form the chief wealth on the ranches. Packing houses have been established on a large scale and meat refrigeration has become the country's chief industry. Flour milling ranks second. The largest refrigerating plant in the world is in Buenos Aires. It has a daily capacity of 5,000 cattle and 10,000 sheep. Argentina supplies more than half the hides imported into the United States.

The mountains of Argentina contain deposits of silver, copper and gold. Petroleum is exploited by the government and by private companies; the wells in the Comodoro Rivadavia region stand first among the country's producers.

Textiles, oils and chemicals, iron, agricultural implements and machinery, glassware and crockery, and foodstuffs are the principal imports. Agricultural products comprise from 50 to 65% of the total exports, and include livestock products, such as meat and living animals, wool, skins, hides, grain, linseed, flour, etc.

Argentina's foreign trade (1940) produced an unfavorable balance of 70,824.000 pesos. Exports during the year were 9,447,000 tons valued at 1,427,933,000 pesos, while imports were 8,096,000 tons with a value of 1.498,757.000 pesos.

Buenos Aires. the capital, with a population of 2,470,000, is the largest city of Latin America and the second largest Latin city in the world. It lies on the banks of the Rio de la Plata, which is here 28 miles wide, 170 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. It is a city of broad, straight streets. There are about 100 parks. Street-car companies operate about 500 miles of rails. Besides these, there are three subway lines with a fare equal to five cents in American money. In January, February and March the heat in Buenos Aires is oppressive. The winter months-the ideal time for tourists-are June, July and August.

Discovered (1516) by a party of Spanish explorers headed by Juan Diaz de Solis, Argentina remained under Spanish domination until May 25, 1810, when the provinces, in a successful revolt, established an independent republic. The years thereafter until 1852 were years of disturbance and civil war. The Constitution adopted (1853) and under which, somewhat amended, the republic is governed today, is modeled closely after that of the United States. There are 14 provinces, with a high measure of home rule, electing their own Governors and Legislatures, and ten territories administered by Governors appointed by the President, also a Federal District, Buenos Aires, area (72 square miles), whose Mayor is appointed by the President and who is assisted by a deliberative council elected by the tax-paying inhabitants.

The President of the republic, who must be a Roman Catholic and Argentine by birth, is elected by an Electoral College for a six-year term and is ineligible for re-election. Congress consists of a Senate of 30 members, chosen by a special body of electors for nine years, one-third retiring each three years; and a House of Deputies, numbering 158, elected by direct vote for four years, one-half retiring every two years. Dr. Roberto M. Ortiz was elected President of Argentina (Sept., 1937) and assumed office (Feb. 20, 1938).

Dr. Ortiz relinquished office (July 3, 1940) for an indefinite period because of ill health and was succeeded by Dr. Ramon S. Castillo as Acting President.

The Roman Catholic religion is supported by the state, but all creeds are tolerated. Primary education is free, secular, and compulsory, but the percentage of illiteracy is still high in some rural districts. There are national universities in Cordoba (founded in 1613) Buenos Aires, La Plata. Tucuman, Rosario and Mendoza. The language is Spanish.

Service in the Army is compulsory from 20 years to 45. The men belong to the First Line Army for the first ten years, then pass to the National Guard for ten years and close their service with five years in the Territorial Guard, mobilized only in case of war. There is a trained reserve of 300,000 of whom 215,000 are members of the National Guard and 70,000 the Territorial Guard. The territorial reserve is 100,000 men.

Argentine has a Navy of two battleships, three cruisers, four coast defense ships, 16 destroyers, three submarines, 14 patrol ships and minor craft. The personnel of the Navy is approximately 11,000 men, including 5,000 conscripts who must do two years service.

The monetary unit is the peso; see Index, FOREIGN EXCHANGE.

The governmental budget (1941) estimated receipts of 786,733,600 paper pesos; expenditures 1,060,976,200. The paper pesos has a nominal value of $.23.


(ROYAUME DE BELGIQUE-KONINKRIJK BELGIE) Capital, Brussels-Area, 11,775 square miles-Population (est. 1939) 8,386,553 Belgium is bounded on the north by the Netherlands and the North Sea: on the east by Germany and Luxemburg, on the south by France, and on the west by France and the North Sea. It has a frontier of 831 miles and a seaboard of 62 miles.

The Scheldt and the Meuse are the principal rivers. Below Antwerp the Scheldt flows to the North Sea through the Netherlands and the Belgian Government has spent 350,000,000 francs dredging the channel as far as Flushing and improving the

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