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nuts. Government revenues (1939-1940) was £58,- all goods sold by commercial establishments. 902; expenditures £73,554.

Pitcairn Island is situate in the Pacific, equiGilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. The group of distant from America and Australia. The Island islands in the Colony was proclaimed a Protector- was discovered (1767) by Carteret but was not inate (1892) and, at the request of the native Govern- habited until 23 years later when the mutineers of ments, was annexed (Nov. 10, 1915) as the Gilbert the Bounty landed there. Their existence became and Ellice Islands Colony. The Colony includes the known (1808) when ships visited the islands and Ellicé Islands, Fanning, Washington and Ocean gave assistance to the mutineers and their Otaheite Islands, Christmas Island (annexed by Great Bri- women. The population became too large for the tain, 1888, and included in the Colony, Nov. 1919), resources of the Island and the mutineers and their which is the largest atoll in the Pacific, the Phoe- women, 192 in all, moved (1856) to Norfolk Island. nix Group and the Gilbert Islands. The total area Forty returned later to Pitcairn and the populais 180 square miles and the population (1938) tion increas (1879) to 90. The area is two 32,838. Exports are chiefly of copra and phos- square miles and population (1936) 209. It is & phates. Government revenue (1937-1938) is British Colony by settlement and was brought £77,260; expenditures, £68,421.

(1898) within the jurisdiction of the High ComA sales tax of 5 per cent was imposed (1941) on missioner of the Western Pacific. British South American Possessions

GUIANA British Guiana is on the north shore of South / are extensive deposits of gold, diamonds, manAmerica, with Venezuela on the west, Dutch Guiana ganese, mica and bauxite. Timber is also an imon the east, and Brazil on the south. It is a Crown portant export, besides sugar, rice, rum, molasses, Colony administered by a governor and a small balata, charcoal and copra. elected legislative body. The area is 89,480 square The Falkland Islands lie 300 miles east of the miles; the population (estimated 1939) is 341,237. Strait of Magellan at the southern end of South Georgetown is the capital.

America. Their main value is in their strategic There are many beautiful waterfalls in British location, although there are large sheep farms and Guiana, including Kukenaam, which has been whaling interests. generally conceded to be the tallest in the world There are more than 100 islands in the group. with a drop of 2,000 it. Dr. Paul Arthur Zahl. The area is 4.618 square miles; the population research associate at Haskins Laboratory, Sche- (estimated 1939) is 3,203. Wool is the chief export. nectady, N. Y., reported (May 11, 1938) the Although Great Britain has held possession of discovery (May 8) of a waterfalls of 3,500 ft. in the Islands since 1834,

Argentina refuses to rethe Karanang River in the heart of Guiana's nounce her claim of ownership. richest diamond area, 80 miles northeast of Mt. South Georgia is a whaling station. Its area is Roraima. Another famous waterfalls-Kaiteur-is 1,000 square miles. The population (estimated noted for its scenic splendor.

1939) consists of 705. Whale produce is the Much of British Guiana is jungle land, but there principal export.

Canada

(DOMINION OF CANADA) Capital, Ottawa--Area, 3,694,863 square miles---Population (est. 1941), 11,422,000 The boundaries of Canada are: On the east, The House of Commons elected March 26, 1940, Baffin Bay. Labrador, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and stands: the Atlantic: on the south, the Atlantic, Maine. Liberals, 177; Conservatives, 40; Independent. New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, the St. Conservative, 1; Cooperative Commonwealth FedLawrence and the Great Lakes, Minnesota, North eration, 8; New Democracy, 10;

Unity, 1; Independ Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington and the Juan ent, 1; Lib.-Prog., 3; nd. -Lib., 3; vacant, 1. de Fuca Strait; and on the West, Alaska and the

The Communist party and the National Unity Pacific Ocean. Canada includes all the Arctic

(Fascist) party were outlawed with fourteen other Islands in an area beginning hali-way between organizaticns (June 5, 1940) under the Defense of

Canada regulations. Greenland and Baffin and extending westward to 141° longitude, which coincides approximately with

The Governor-General of Canada is the Earl the Alaskan border. Altogether, Canada has 24.500 June 21, 1940.

of Athlone (born April 14, 1874). He took office miles of coastline. The 4,000-mile boundary between Canada and the United States has been unfortified

The Dominion Cabinet (as of October, 1941) in for more than one hundred years.

order of precedence follows: The country has an extremely varied topography Prime Minister, President of the Privy Council. --mountains in the West, then foothills and

Secretary of State for External Affairs-W. L. prairies, the barrens north of Lake Superior, the

Mackenzie King.

Minister without Portfolio-Raoul Dandurand. open lands of Ontario, the rocky Laurentian district

Minister of Mines and Resources--Thomas Alexin Quebec, with the fertile Eastern Townships to the south of it, and then plains sloping down to sea

der Crerar. level in the East; the mountains of New England

Minister of Justice and Attorney General of extend north into Canada, where they attain to

Canada-Ernest Lapointe. practically the same height as in the United States.

Minister of Public Works and Transport-Pierre Lakes, large and small, abound in Canada. Some Joseph Arthur Cardin. of them exceed in size the famed Great Lakes on

Minister of National Defense James L. Ralston. the United States border.

Minister of Pensions and National Health-lan Great Bear Lake in the Canadian Northwest Alastair Mackenzie. Territory, is larger than Erie by 1.720 square miles Associate Minister of National Defense and Minister and larger than Ontario by 4,120 square miles.

of National Defense for Air-Charles Gavan Great Slave Lake is nearly the size of Great Bear,

Power. Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba is about 2,000 square

Minister of Finance-James Lorimer Ilsley. miles larger than Lake Ontario. Eleven Canadian Minister of Fisheries-- Joseph Enoil Michaud. lakes are above 1,100 square miles in extent. The

Minister of Munitions and Supply-Clarence Delakes wholly within Canada are of high importance catur Howe. to transportation and fisheries, climate and sport.

Minister of Agriculture-James Garfield Gardiner. The once common misconception that Canada is Minister of Labor-Norman A. McLarty. almost Arctic has been nearly dispelled. The cli- Minister of Trade and Commerce-James A. mate of the southern parts of Canada corresponds

MacKinnon. to that of the northern States. The mean annual Secretary of State-Pierre F. Casgrain. temperature is 49° at Victoria; 34° at Winnipeg: Minister of National Revenue-Colin W. G. Gibson. 44° at Toronto: 40° at Fredericton; and 44® Fah. Postmaster General --William Pate Mulock. renheit at Yarmouth. These figures show only slight Minister of National Defense for Naval Services-variations from West to East, but the extremes are Augus L. Macdonald. much greater in the prairie and eastern provinces Minister of National War Services-Joseph T. than in British Columbia,

Thorson. Like the United States, Canada is a federation The British High Commissioner to Canada is with provincial governments similar on the whole Malcom MacDonald. to the State governments of the United States, and Canada is largely agricultural, although manuwith Ottawa corresponding to Washington, D. O., facturing industries now dominate the economic as the chief legislative, executive and judicial seat life of the nation. The principal crops are wheat, of the country. The members of the Senate are oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, potatoes, roots, tonominated for ufe by summons of the Governor-bacco, and corn. Dairy and fruit products are General. The House of Commons is elected directly enormous. The wool yield is considerable. Fishing is by the people for terms of five years.

a huge commercial enterprise, and fresh and canned varieties are an important export. The chief kinds, Arctic Circle. of fish marketed are salmon. lobsters, cod, herring, Among Canada's greatest tourist attractions are halibut, white fish, sardines, haddock, pickerel. her national parks, consisting of approximately trout and pilchards. Furs are a prolific source 12,403 square miles of outstanding scenic beauty. of income and the fox, mink, muskrat, beaver, rac- They conserve wild life under natural conditions, coon, marten, and fisher are raised commercially preserve in its primitive state the grandeur of on large farms. Hydroelectric power is extensive,

scenic regions and commemorate persons and The country is rich in minerals, particularly events of especial importance in the nation's gold, although deposits of copper, 'lead, nickel, history. They may be divided into three groups: platinum, silver, zinc, coal, natural gas and petro- the scenic and recreational parks of the Rockies, leum are mined. Canada leads the world in Selkirks and prairies and Eastern Canada; the wild production of asbestos.

animal parks, and the national historic parks. The most important manufactures and their The first group includes Banff Jasper and gross value in 1939 were: vegetable products, $660,- Waterton Lakes Parks in Alberta; Kootenay. Yoho, 000,000; wood and paper, $580,000,000; iron and Glacier and Mount Revelstoke Parks in British its products, $553,000,000; animal products. $462.

Columbia, Prince Albert Park in Saskatchewan; 000,000; non-ferrous metal products, $416,000,000: and Riding Mountain Park in Manitoba. In Ontextiles and textile products, $393,000,000; non- tario there are three smaller recreational parks, metallic mineral products, $208,000,000; chemicals Point Pelee, Georgian Bay Islands and the St and allied products, $160,000,000.

Lawrence Islands Park. Recent additions to the The gross value of the chief exports (exclusive system of recreational parks are the Cape Breton of gold) in the calendar year 1940 follows-News- Highlands Park in Nova Scotia and a shore-line print paper. $151,000,000; wheat. $120,000,000; park area on the northern coast of Prince Edward planks and boards, $68,000,000; meats. $63.000.000; Island. nickel, $61,000,000; wood-pulp. $61,000,000; auto- The wild animal parks include Elk Island Park mobiles, $54,000,000; ,copper in forms, $40.000.000; in Alberta, noted for its large herd of buffalo, and aluminum in bars, $32,000,000; fish, $30,000,000. Nemiskam Park, also in Alberta, which is a sancCanada's export trade in 1940 was distributed

tuary for prong-horned antelope. Fort Anne mainly among the following countries-- United

Park in Nova Scotia and Fort Beausejour in New Kingdom, 42.96; United States, 37.9%; British

Brunswick are the outstanding historic parks. South Africa, 3.2%; Australia, 2.8%; Newfound

In Nova Scotia is the Evangeline country, the land, 1.1%; France. 1.0%. Imports are received

land of Acadian memories. Here are found the chiefly from the following-United States. 68.8%;

largest aggregation of apple orchards in the

British Dominions. Grand Pre, United Kingdom ,14.9%; British Straits Settle

made

classic

ground by Longfellow's "Evangeline, attracts ments, 2.5% Australia, 1.5%; British India, 1.5%; Columbia, 0.9%.

visitors from all over the world to see Evangeline

Park, established The St. Lawrence River is navigable to ocean

on the site of the original going vessels for 600 miles, as far as Montreal,

Acadian village, with its ancient well still intact,

its old wiliows still surviving. A replica of the which is by virtue of its Great Lakes connections and its proximity to London and Liverpool, one of original Acadian church houses relics of the first

settlers and in the gardens are flowers brought the greatest grain exporting harbors on the continent. The Port of Montreal has nine miles of

from the ancestral homes of the leaders of the

Acadian pioneers. deep-draft wharf, capable of accommodating 100 large ocean steamers.

Five distinct white races are represented in Nova

Scotia: English, Scottish, French-Canadian, Irish of the railways in Canada, the Canadian Pacific

and Hanoverian, all holding to many traits of their is the great privately owned corporation. The

forefathers. Canadian National Railway System operates prac

The Acadians, first white settlers,

from Normandy and Brittany, cling to their own tically all other important lines in the Dominion.

customs and traditions, thus making a contact with -Canada (Jan. 1, 1940) had 212,619 telephones in

the long ago. The Hanoverians settled largely in Government systems and 1,184,653 in private com

Lunenburg and today their descendants, skilled pan a total of 1,397,272 being 12.35 to every 100 sailors and fisherme possess 01 of the finest persons, and 3.31 of the world's telephones. In

fishing fleets in the world. The Highland Scots this respect it is exceeded only by the United

settled in Cape Breton Island, Pictou and AntiStates. The number of licensed radio receiving sets

gonish counties, and their descendants reserve the on March 31, 1940 was 1.345,157.

kilt and plaid for ceremonial occasions and cherish The monetary unit of Canada is the dollar. As the Gaelic language of their forebears. from Sept. 16, 1939, buying and selling rates for Ancient Quebec. only walled city in North the U. S. Dollar, as set by the Foreign Exchange

America, sitting in a gigantic amphitheater of Control Board, were $1.10-$1.11, respectively. hills, former capital of the Dominion, is one of

The Bank of Canada was incorporated as a cen- the oldest cities in America (founded in 1608), with tral bank by Act of Parliament (1934). It capital elongated, crooked streets, turreted battlements, stock then fixed at $500,000 was increased (June 18, casemented windows and other medieval aspects. 1936) to $10,000,000 of which $100,000 Class B Some points of interest to the tourist are: the shares were issued to the Dominion of Canada at

Fortifications. comprising the Citadel, on par. The rest (Class A shares of $50 each) were

promontory 350 it. high: the Enclosing Wall, two sold to the public and the maximum holding per- miles long; the three City Gates, part of the city'mitted to one person is 50 shares. Directors, officers old defense system; the Battlefields Park, site of or employees of the chartered banks may not hold the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759); shares of the Bank. Shares may be held only by Wolfe's Cove, with its goat-path up the cliff, scaled British subjects ordinarily resident in Canada, or by British soldiers for the Battle of the Plains; by corporations controlled by such persons. The Dufferin Terrace, world-famed boardwalk overBank became (Aug. 15, 1938) a wholly government- looking the St. Lawrence: Montmorency Park, loowned institution, the capital being reduced to cation of Canada's first House of Parliament; the $5.000.000.

Ramparts, with their ancient cannon; Avenue des The statement of Aug. 30, 1941 showed assets and Braves, Ste. Foy Park, where the last clash between liabilities of $722,981.799.

the British and the French occurred; Notre Dame Canada-with its great stretches of virgin des Victoires Church, built in 1688. timberland, its rolling hills and skyscraping Two miles outside of the village of Beaupre, on mountains, its many lakes and streams and rivers; Highway 15, stands the shrine of Ste. Anne de its odd villages, customs and picturesque peoples- Beaupre, founded (1650) by storm-wearied Breton has become the vacationland of thousands of sailors and today one of the most famous places American tourists. It is reached by many highways. in the world. It is the home of countless miracles

Ontario's attractions include its great variety of and is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims. developed summer resorts, its extensive fishing and A chapel erected by the sailors to Ste. Anne in hunting areas and its multitude of lakes and thanksgiving for their deliverance is still carefully rivers, Quebec's are its old-world atmosphere, its preserved. historical traditions and its diversified scenery. The census (1931) gave the religious population Nova Scotia and New Brunswick offer moose hunt- as follows: ing apd salmon fishing, sailing and surf bathing, Roman Catholics.

4,098,734 In the Bay of Chaleur, which New Brunswick United Church

2,017,375 shares with Quebec's famous Gaspe Peninsula, the Anglicans

1,635,615 tourist finds the warmest sea water north of Presbyterians

870,728 New York.

Baptists

443.341 Western Alberta and Eastern British Columbia Lutherans

394,194 have the Rockies, which means mountain climbing. Greek Catholics

186.654 canoe and pack trail trips and matchless scenery. Jews

155.614 The Yukon has the midnight sun and unexcelled Greek Orthodox

102,389 sport for the hunter of big game and game fish, Miscellaneous creeds

456, 100 The Northwest Territories have become popular Not given

16.042 among Americans, some of whom camp and canoe on the Mackenzie River, 300 miles beyond the Total

10.376,786

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*Includes pagans.

Canadian Statistics

Source: R. H. Coats, Dominion Statistician; revised figures are given for 1911 to agree with boundary

changes made in 1912.
LAND AND FRESH WATER AREA, AND POPULATION BY PROVINCES
Area in Square Miles

Population
Provinces, Territories Capitals

Land Water Total 1911

1921

1931

Prince Edward
Charlottetown 2.184

2,184 93.728 88,615 88.038 Nova Scotla.

Halifax

20.743 325 21,068 492,338 523.837 512,846 New Brunswick

Fredericton.. 27.473 512 27,985 351,889 387,876 408,219 Quebec.

Quebec

523,5341 71,000 594,534 2,005,776 2,360,665 2,874,255 Ontario

Toronto..

363,282 49,300 412,582 2,527,292 2,933,662 3.431,683 Manitoba.

Winnipeg. 219,723 26,789 246,512 461,394 610.118 700,139 Saskatchewan

Regina..

237,975) 13,7251 251,700 492, 432 757,510 921,785 Alberta.

Edmonton.. 248,800 6.485 255, 285 374.295 588,454 731,605 British Columbia

Victoria.

359,279 6.976 366,255 392,480 524,582 694.263 Yukon Territory

Dawson.
205,346 1,7301 207,076 8,512

4,157 4,230 Northwest Territories

1,258,217 51,465 1,309,682 6,507 7,988 9,723 Total....

13.466,556/228,307\3,694,863) 7,206,643|(a)8,787,949 10,376,786 (a) The Royal Canadian Navy in 1921 contained 485 included in the total, which has been revised in accordance with the Labrador a ward of the Privy Council, March 1, 1927.

of the population (1931) there were 5,374,541 , following main classes: German, 473,544; Scandimales and 5,002,245 females; population per square navian, 228,049; Ukrainian, 225,113; Hebrew. 156,mile, 3.0. Of the males, 3,179,444 were single, 726; Dutch, 148,962; Polish, 145,503; Italian, 98.173; 2,033,240 were married, 148.954 were widowed. Russian, 88, 148, Austrian, 48,639; Chinese, 46,519 4,049 were divorced, and 8,854 were not given. Of Finnish, 43,885, Hungarian, 40,582; Bulgarian and the females, 2,771,968 were single, 1,937.950 were Roumanian, 32,216; Belgian, 27,585; Japanese, 23.married, 288,641 were widowed, 3,392 were di- 342. vorced, and 294 were not given.

Owing to the Labrador Boundary Award. the of the total population (1931) of 10,376,786, area of Canada was reduced (1927) by 112,400 5.381,071 were of British, and 2,927,990 of French square miles-106,970 square miles of land and origin. There remain 2,067,725, comprehending the 5,430 square miles of water.

CANADIAN IMMIGRATION
From From From

From From From
Year United United Other Total

Year United United Other Total (Fiscal) Kingdm States Count.

(Fiscal) Kingdm States Count. 1910. 59,790 91.048 45,206 196,044 1926

37.030 18,778 40,256 96,064 1911. 123,013 104,884 66,620 294,517|| 1927

49,784 21,025 73,180 143,989 1912 138.121 114,326 82,406 334,853 | 1928.

50.872 25,007 75,721 151,600 1913 150,542 119,418 112.881 382,841 || 1929.

58,880 30,560 78,283 167,723 1914. 142,622 89,892 134,726 367,240|| 1930.

64,082 30,727 68,479 163, 288 1915. 43,276 41.768 41,734 126,778 || 1931.

27.584 24,280 36.359 88,223 1916 8,664 25,853 2,936 37,453|| 1932.

7.088 14,297 4,367 25,752 1917 8.282 51,143 5,703 65,128 | 1933.

3.097 13,196 3, 489 19,782 1918 3,178 58,185 4,582 65,915|| 1934.

2,260 7.740

3,903 13,903 1919. 9.914 31.955 7,073 48,942 | 1935.

2,198 5.9601 3,978 12,136 1920. 59,603 40.728 8.077 108,408 || 1936

2,049 5,121 3,933 11,103 1921. 74,262 38,310 26,156 138,728 | 1937.

2,264 5,113 4,616 12,023 1922 39,020 21,670 21.634 82,324 || 1938

2,972 5,643 7.030 15.645 1923. 34,508) 16,566 16,372 67,446 || 1939

3,373 5.663 1,092 17,128 1924 72,919 17,211 55,120 145,250 1940.

3,566 5,748 6,891 16.205 1925 53,178 15,818 42.366 111.36 1941.

3,104 7,443 949 11,496 The Canadian fiscal year since 1907 ends with March 31.

CHIEF SOURCES OF REVENUE-CONSOLIDATED FUND ONLY
War Tax Revenue

Public

Int. Year

Works

Do

Rec'd Ending Income Sales, Other

Post and minion from Total Mar. 31 Tar etc.

Taxes Customs Excise Office Canals Lands Invest. Rec'pts $1.000 $1.000 $1,000 $1.000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1.000 $1,000 $1,000 1923... 59,712 106,483 15,441 118,056 35,762 29,017 1.229 2,348 16,465 394,615 1924

54.204 120,676 7,156 121,501 38,182 28,865 1,400 2,282 11,916 396,838 1925.. 56,248 85,811 5,105 108,147 38,603 28,783 1,391 2,390 11,332 346,834 1926. 55,572 98,097 3,627 127,355 42,924 30,335 1,416 2,804 8,535 380,746 1927.. 47,386 105,613 3,168 141,969 48,513 29,069 1,502 3,327 8,559 398,696 1928, 56,571 90,223 3,525 156,986 57,401 31,563 1,809 3,689 10,938 422,718 1929.. 59,422 83,007 2.600 187,206 63,685 30.612 1,690 4,070 12,228 455,464 1930. 69,021 63,409 1.656 179, 430 65,036 33,345 1.505 4,139 13,518 441,412 1931.. 71,048 34,735 1,538 131,209 57,747 30,212 1,444 1,655 10,421 349,587 1932. 61,254 59,606 1,405 104,133 48,655 32,235 1.338 485 9,330 329,709 1933. 62,067 82,192 2,154 70.073 37,834 30.928 1.119 459 11,221 306,637 1934. 61.399 106,576 2,077 66,305 35,494 30.893 1.232 419 11.148 324.062 1935 66,808 112,192 5,692 76,562 43,190 31.248 1,092 516 10.963 358.475 1936. 82,710 112.733 3,455 74,005 44,410 32,508 1.141 458 10.614 372.222 1937 102.365 152,473 1.984 83,771 45,957 34,275 1,278 478 11.231 445,029 1938. 120,366 180.819 1.974 93,456 52,037 35.546 2.184 540 13.120 510,298 1939 142,026 161,711 1.905 78.751 51,314 35,288 1.020

680 13.163 498,017 1940. 134,449 166,028 1,875 104.301 61,032 36,729 1,068 676 13,393 541.616 1941 248,143 284,167 25,865 130,757 88,608 40,383

14.911 859,755 Note The total includes other unenumerated items.

INSURANCE IN FORCE IN CANADA-DOMINION COMPANIES
Life-In Force at Ead of Year

Fire-At Risk at End of Year
Dollars
Dollars
Dollars

Dollars 1923 3,433,508,673 1932. 6,471,608,546|1923

7,224,475,267 1932

9,301,747.991 1924 3,763,996, 472 1933. 6,247.625,974|1924. 7.583, 297,899 1933

9,008, 262,736 1925 4,159,019,848 1934. 6,220,725,929|1925. 8,051,444,136 1934

8,804,840,676 1926. 4,610,196,334 1935. 6,259, 158,4041926 8.287,732.966 1935 8,782,698,099 1927. 5,044,408,834 1936. 6,403,037,477 1927

8,761,579,512 1936 9,248,273,260 1928. 5,607,645,623 1937

6,541.625.046 1928. 6,020,513,839 1937 9.773,324,476 1929 6,157,262,207 1938 6.630.183.594 1929 9,431,169.592 1938 9.953,905,417 1930.

6.492,283, 194,1939 6.776,262,5871930 9,672,996.973 1939 10,200,346,551 1931

16.622.267.793 1940. 8.975,318,346111931 19 544 641.293 1940 10,759,934,401 National defense tax ($27,672,000), shown under income tax; excess profits tax ($23.995,000), shown under "other taxes." "Net now shown separately in preliminary statement.

2

CANADIAN BANKING STATISTICS
Chartered Banks

P. O. and

Gov. Say. Paid Up

ings Bank Year (a)

Capital

Assets Liabilities(b) Deposits Depos. (c)
Dollars
Dollars
Dollars

Dollars Dollars 1927

121,666.774 3,029,680,616 3,010,312,384 2,415,132,260 31.922.045 1928.

122,839,879 3,323,163,195 3,301,669,529 2.610,594,865 31,103,776 1929,

137,269,085 3,528,468,027 3,503,408,865 2,696.747,857 28,375,770 1930.

144,560.874 3,237,073,853 3,214,730,383 2,516,611,587 26.086,036 1931

144,674.853 3,066,018,472 3,048,304,073 2,422.834,828 24,750,227 1932.

144,500,000 2.869,429.779 2.852,649.789 2.256,639,530 23.919,677 1933

144,500,000 2.831,393,641 2,819,684,260 2.236,841,539 23,920,915 1934.

144,916,667 2.837.919.961 2.826.241,267 2,274,607,936 23.158,919 1935.

145,500,000 2,956,577,704 2.946,200.352 2.426.760.923 22.547.006 1936.

145,500.000 3,144,506,755 3.134.122, 223 2,614,895.597 22.047.287 1937

145.500.000 3,317,087,132 3,304.971,653 2,775,530,413 21,879,593 1938

145,500,000 3,348.708,580 3,335,934,905 2.823,686,934 22,587,233 1939

145,500,000 3.591,564,586 3,577,601.099 3,060,839.111 23.045.576 1940.

145,500,000 3,707,316,459 3,690.354,825 3.179.523,062 23.100.118 1941

145,500,000(d) 4,067.926,723(d) 4,051,049,894(d): 3,524,193,735(d) 22,176,633 (a) Average of the 12 monthly statements for each year, (b) Includes liabilities to shareholders. (c) Figures are as Mar. 31. (d) Figures are as at June 30.

CHIEF CONSOLIDATED AND TOTAL EXPENDITURES

Pen-
Interest Old Age

sions,
Total,

Gov't Grand
Fiscal
on
Nat'1

Post Ordin'ry Capital Special Owned Total Year Public sions Defense Milit'ry Office Exp'ndi- Exp'nd. Exp'nd- Enter- Exp'ndDebt

& Civil

ture

iture iture prises iture

Pen

War,

$1,000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 1935 138,533 14,942 13,920 43,786 30.252 359,700 7,107 60,659 50,136 478.106 1936

134,549 16,764 16,593 43.337 31,437 372,539 6,544 102,047 50,940 532,585 1937

137, 410 21,149 21,678 43.356 31.906 387,112 3,491 78.003 44.218 532,005 1938

132,117 28,653 32,760 42.823 33,762 414,891 4,430 68.534 44,833 534,408 1939.

127.996 29.044 34.432 42,793 35,455 413,032 5.424 71.895 58,943 553,063 1940. 129.315 29,977 13,1891 42.869 36.726 398,323 7.030 207.404 42.079 680,794 1941

139,179 29,912 1941 42,196 38,700 390,621 3,358 794,914 18,182 1,249,601 Note--The National Defense expenditures include Militia, Naval Service, Air Force (covering also Civil Government air operations. Railway and Canals include Collection and Income. The total includes other unenumerated items.

1Since Sept. 1, 1939, nearly all National Defence expenditure, including administration, has been charged under the War appropriation classified as Special Expenditures.

ASSETS, NET DEBT, AND PER CAPITA TAXATION
Year

Per
Year

Per
Capita

Capita March 31 Assets Net Debt Taration March 31 Assets Net Debt Taxation Dollars Dollars Dollars

Dollars

Dollars Dollars 1934. 411,063,957 2.729.978,141 25.12 1938

438,570,044 3,101.667.570 40.03 1935 359.845,411 2,846,110,958 27.84 1939.

485,761,502 3,152,559,314

38.51 1936 425,843,510 3.006.100,517 28.77 1940.

687.976.735 3.271,259,647 40.95 1937

458,568.937 3.083.952.202 34.76 1941 11,362,707.671 3,648,691,449
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL FAILURES IN CANADA

Source: Dun and Bradstreet, incorporated
Manu- Wholesale Retail

Con- Commercial Total
facturing Trade
Trade struction Service

Totals
Year and
Province

Lia-
Lia-
Lia-
Lia-
Lia-

Lia-
No. bilities. No. bilities No.bilities No. bilities No. bilities No. bilities

Ending,

Not av.

[blocks in formation]

Figures of capital for the last 9 years include The single track mileage of the Canadian Pacific advances of Dominion Government to Canadian Railway (1939) was 17,169. The other principal National for operating expenses, interest charges railways are now, in pursuance of the government and stock acquired by Ďominion Government which policy of nationalization, included in the Canadian at time of acquiring had relatively little value. National Railway System, which has a trackage also cost of constructing Government lines.

(1939) of 21,903 miles.
U. S.-CANADA MERCHANDISE TRADE IN DOLLARS
Exports to U. S.

Imports
Calendar

from
year

Canadian
Foreign
Total

U.S. 1920.

555,337,289

26,071,180

581,408,469 921,235,401 1921,

323,101,184

11,871,437
334,972,621

555,091,001 1922

336,202,309

11,415,052
347,617,361

509,909,469 1923

409,517,195

10,811.013 420,328,208 610.354,278 1924.

384,611,743

10,012,304
394,624,047

524,473,366 1925..

441,002,198

9,854.766 450,856,964 578,575.073 1926

457,877.594

12,686,575 470,564,169 668,747,247 1927.

466,887,149

16,963,393
483,850,542

706,683,861 1928.

481,531,086

21.158,661 502,689,747 825,651,549 1929

492,685,606
22,652,175 515,337,781

893,585,482 1930.

373,424,236

16,487,858 389,912,094 653.676,496 1931

240,196,849

9,603,772 249.800,621 393,775,289 1932

158,705,050

6,316,726 165,021,776 263,549,346 1933

168,292,840

4,712,124 172,954,964 217,291,498 1934.

218,597,071

5,426,186 224,023,257 293,779,813 1935.

261,685,372

11,434,232 273,119,604 312,416,604 1936

333,916,949

10,869,594 344,786,543 369,141,513 1937

360,012,143

12,208,624

372,220,767 490,504,978 1938

270,461,189

8,296,737 278,757,926 424,730,567 1939.

380,392,047

9,361,551

389,753,598 496,898,466 1940

442,984,157

8,959,511

451,943.668 744,231,156

[graphic]

ESTIMATED CANADIAN BALANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS, 1939 AND 1940

(Millions of Canadian dollars)

1939

19403 Credits Debits Net

Credits Debits Net Canada and All Countries Current Account Merchandise trade-after adjustment

906

713 +193 1,212 Net exports of non-monetary gold.

1,046 + 166 184

+184 203 Tourist expenditures

+ 203 164 86 + 78 128

43 Interest and dividends.

+ 85

57 311 - 254 52 306 Freight and shipping

- 254 87 119 32

132 All other current transactions.

+ 6 36

68 - 32 113 TOTALS-Current Account,

143 - 30

1,434 1,297 + 137 1,846 1,670 Special Gold Transactions (1)

+176

248 248 Capital Movements.

495 651 - 156 283 475 Balancing Item (2)

- 192

+ 19 Canada and Empire Countries

+ 16 Current Account Merchandise trade-after adjustment.

436 177 + 259 708 261 Tourist expenditures,

+447 9 13

4
6

3 Interest and dividends.

+ 3 5 81

76

3 Freight and shippng

- 69
31
39

8
76

36 All other current transactions.

+ 40 6 14

8 TOTALS-Current Account

61 United Kingdom.

2 371 245 +126 670

323 Other Empire

+ 347 Countries 116 79 + 37 186

+ 76 All Empire Countries 487 324 +163 856 Capital Credits..

433 +423 97

+ 97 116 Sub-total.

+ 116

584 324 +260 972 Special Gold Transactions (1)

433 +539

248 Capital Debits

- 248

180 - 180 Balancing Item(2)

334 - 334

- 80 Canada and Non-Empire Countries

+ 43 Current Account Merchandise trade-after adjustment.

470 536 66 504 Net exports of non-monetary gold

785 -281 184

+184 203 Tourist expenditures

+203 155 73 + 82 122

40 Interest and dividends

52 230

+ 82

- 179 49 Freight and shipping

234 -185 80 - 24

62 All other current transactions

96
30
54

- 34 - 24

50 TOTALS-Current Account- United States

82 775 864

- 32

- 89 869
Other Foreign

1,138
Countries
172 109 +63

121

99 All Non-Empire

+ 22 Countries.

947 973 Capital Debits.

- 26 990 1,237 -247

534 --- 534 Sub-total.

947

-141 Special Gold Transactions (1)

1,507 - 560 990 1,378 -388

248 Capital Credits

+248 461

+461 167 Balancing Item(2)

+167 + 99

- 27 (1) This represents gold received from the United Kingdom in part settlement of her deficiency with Canada, and used in turn to settle part of Canada's deficiency with the United States.

(9) This balancing item reflects possible errors and the omission of certain factors which cannot be measured statistically, such as changes in the timing of payments for goods and services, and before the war the conversion of surplus sterling into other currencies.

(3) Preliminary statement.

[graphic]

Transcontinental air service was inaugurated in / ronto to Montreal. Twenty hours service is schedCanada (March 1, 1939) when Trans-Canada Air uled from coast to coast.

Trans-Canada Air Lines transported 53,180 perLines planes took off from Montreal and Van

sons (1940) as compared with 21,596 (1939). The couver on 3,500-mile flights. A preliminary "Jig- air-mail and express volume (1940) was twice that ger" service was made the same day from To- of the previous year.

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