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British Malaya

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS The Straits Settlements is a Crown Colony of has been developed and maintained as a free port. which Singapore, an island 27 miles long by 14 Singapore has a polyglot population of approxiwide, area, 225 square miles, is the capital and mately 600,000, of which 80 per cent is Chinese. chief port. Singapore just misses being the The port is served by 80 steamship lines and ansouthernmost point of Asia by a half-mile water nually is the host to 30.000 ships. The city has channel. The Johore Causeway joins it with the magnificent banks, modern office buildings and mainland and affords through train service be

stately Government palaces. tween Bangkok and Singapore. It is at the fun

The monetary unit is the Straits dollar with an nel point of the Strait of Malacca, which extends

average value of $.47. The budget (1941) estibetween the Malay Peninsula and the island of

mates revenues of £5,400,977 and expenditures of

£6.684,081. Sumatra, the great water highway between India and China. The area is 1,356 square miles; the

Three-fourths of the tin and three-fifths of the population (1940) is estimated at 1,406,120.

rubber used in the United States come from British Singapore is known as the "Gibraltar of the

Malaya. One of the richest tin deposits is in the East' and provides a haven for half of the

Kinta valley in the state of Perak. The Malay British Navy, thus guaranteeing the "life line of

States are the greatest source of tin in the world. the empire"-the trade route from the British

The British introduced rubber trees into British Isles through the Mediterranean to India. Aus. Malaya about fifty years ago from seed smuggled tralia and New Zealand.

out of Brazil and today rubber trees practically The new naval base and its neighboring airport

cover the Malay States. lie along the Strait of Johore, east of the cause

The four Federated Malay States are situated way. An elaborate system of coastal defense

on the Malay Peninsula and each is governed by works, which has its headquarters at Changi, a

a native ruler, subject to instructions of the Britrocky headland at the eastern entrance to the ish High Commissioner of the Straits Settlements. Strait of Johore, protects the base from attack

The Federated States are: Perak, area, 7,980 by air or sea. Batteries of 16 and 18 inch guns

square miles; Selangor, 3,160_square miles; Negri are mounted there and on neighboring islands. Sembilan, 2,580 square miles; Pahang. 13,820 square These guns are said to be capable of engaging miles; total, 27,540 square miles; population (estitargets 20 to 30 miles away.

mated (1940), 2,169,313. Singapore has a permanent garrison of_units

Rubber and tin are the chief products, others from the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force. being coconuts, rice, tapioca, sugar, pepper, camThe peace time garrison numbers 7.000, but this phor and nepah and oil palm. has been expanded during the war in the plan to

The Unfederated Malay States are Johore, Kemake Singapore one of the strongest citadels in the dah, Perlis. Kalantan and Trengganu. Their area world. It was announced (1941) that the base was aggregates 22,276 square miles, and population capable of sheltering, repairing and outfitting the

(estimated 1939) of 1.918,831. Johore is a protecwarships of all of "Britain's allies and potential torate of Great Britain

(since 1885), the others allies."

were transferred from Siam to Great Britain by One of the features of the base is a graving treaty (1909). Each state is under a native sultan dock 1,000 ft. long. 130 ft. wide at the entrance with a British adviser. Rubber is the chief product. Rates and with a depth of 35 ft. at low water. Rice and copra also are exported. Excelled in size only by the King George V

British North Borneo has 29,500 square miles graving dock in Southampton, England, it can area, with 270,223 population (census, 1931). accommodate for repairs the largest warships ever chiefly Mohammedans on the seacoast, and aborigbuilt. There is also a huge floating drydock capable inal tribes inland. of taking ships up to 50.000 tons, which was Exports are mainly timber, sago, rice, gum, and towed out from England (1928).

the tropical products. The base has a tidal basin with 5,000 ft. of The British governor of North Borneo, Brunei wharf walls with depths of 30 to 40 ft. alongside and Sarawak is the High Commissioner of British at low water, providing berthing space for many Malaya. warships. There are ammunition and store de- Brunei has been since 1888 a protected sultanate pots, railroad sidings and huge reservoirs with on the north side of the Island of Borneo, between å capacity of 1,000,000 tons of fuel oil.

Sarawak and British North Borneo. Its area is The base has its own electric power plant, hos- about 2,226 square miles, and population (census of pital and medical facilities for its large perma- 1931), 30,135, of which 60 were Europeans. A Britnent population.

ish Resident is in control. A hundred years ago the island, owned by the Sarawak, the land of the white Rajah, is along Sultan of Johore on the mainland, was a deserted the northwest coast of Borneo, between the mounjungle save for a little fishing village. Sir Stamford tains and the China Sea. Its coast line is 400 miles Raffles (1819) obtained it for the East India Com- long and its area 50.000 square miles. Its populapany for a small fee and in two years the little tion is estimated at 490,585. The capital is trading center he established had a population of Kuching. The chief exports are sago, pepper, gold, 10,000. Singapore, 50 miles north of the equator, plantation rubber, petroleum.

Other British Asiatic Possessions Aden, a peninsula on the Arabian coast, is at the the colony is 391 square miles. The population (essouthern end of the Red Sea, and has 75 square timated (1938) is 1,050,256, non-Chinese numbering miles of area, in Aden proper, and 112,000 square 23,096. Chinese refugees (not counted) number miles including protectorate areas. It is a Crown approximately 750.000. Colony. The population, including Perim (5 square

The Council voted conscription (1939) under miles), an island in the Red Sea, in 1931, was

which all non-Chinese male British subjects be48,338, mostly Mohammedans. It is the principal tween the ages of 18 and 55 are subject to comcommercial center for the Arabian peninsula.

pulsory military service. Manufacturing is chiefly of cigarettes and salt.

Hong Kong is a British station of strategic value, Aden is a free port, an important coaling sta

commercially as well as naval. tion, and has an excellent harbor.

It is the gateway between the east and the west, Socrotra is an island off the African coast under

and one of the greatest trans-shipment ports in the

world British protection, attached to Aden. Area in all is 1,400 square miles, and population 12,000, mostly

The Hong Kong dollar varies with the price of engaged in livestock husbandry.

silver with an average value fo $.25. Ceylon, a Crown Colony since 1802, is an island

Cyprus is an island, third largest in the Medias large as the State of West Virginia. It lies off terranean Sea, 40 miles south of Asia Minor and 60 the southern tip of India, in the Indian Ocean, miles west of Syria, and 240 miles north of Egypt. with 25.332 square miles of area and a population Its area is 3,572 sq. m., and population (estimated, (1931) of 5,312,548.

1938) of 376,529. It has been administered by Tea and rubber are the chief products.

England since 1878, under an agreement with TurThe Maldive Islands, with an area of 115 square key; It was annexed (Nov. 5, 1914). miles, are 400 miles southwest from Ceylon, with The natives, dissatisfied with their status as a 79,000 population (1931 census), almost all Mo- Crown Colony, asked permission (1931) to join hammedans. Coconuts, millet, fruit and nuts are Greece: This was refused. There was a rising the products.

against the Government (Oct. 1931) which was British Hong Kong is a Crown Colony (acquired put down by troops from Egypt. The legislative in 1841) and lies at the mouth of the Canton River council was suspended and legislative powers con60 miles from Canton. The island is 11 miles long. ferred on the Governor-in-Council. The Governor with an area of 32 square miles; including the new is William Denis Battershill (appointed Feb. 21 territory, Kowloon, on the mainland, the area of 1939).

202 For'gn Cntries--Un. of So. Africa; Brit. E. Africa; Brit. So. Africa

Four-fifths of the inhabitants are Greek Chris- vetches, oats, olives, and cotton as chief products. tians, and nearly all the remainder are Turkish Thirty per cent of the land is cultivated. Mohammedans. More than half are illiterate. Nicosia is the capital. The chief ports are LimasTurkish customs, laws and weights and measures sol, Larnaca and Famagusta. are in use; Cyprus has known more alien govern- The Budget (1941) estimates revenues of £1,082,ments even than Palestine.

713. Cyprus has contributed annually (since 1928) The island is agricultural, with wheat. barley.' £10,000 to Imperial defense.

Union of South Africa Capital, Pretoria-Area, 472,550 square miles- Population (est. 1939), 10,160,000 The Union of South Africa, a Dominion within was 1934, 440,313; 1935, 676,722; 1936, 623,923; 1937, the British Commonwealth of Nations, was ormed 1,030,434; 1938, 1,238,608. (1910) and includes the former Colonies of the

The defense system of the Union of South Cape of Good Hope, Natal, the Transvaal and the

Africa makes every European citizen between 17

and 60 years of age, eligible for military duty in Orange Free State. The former German territory

time of war. Those between 17 and 25 are obliof South West Africa is administered by the Union

gated to undergo training in the Coast Garrison under Mandate from the League of Nations,

Force, the Active Citizen Force, the Royal Naval The legislative power of the Union is vested in Volunteer Force, or a Rifle Association, over a the Parliament of the Union, consisting of the period of four years. The Rifle Association proKing, the Senate and the House of Assembly.

vides for training in the handling of a rifle for There is an elected Provincial Council in each of those between 21 and 25 years. The Permanent the four Provinces. The Governor-General is Sir Force had (1939) 287 officers and 4,997 men, inPatrick Duncan (appointed 1936). The Prime Min- cluding 1,568 of the Air Force. The rifle associaister 's Gen. Jan Christian Smuts (appointed 1939). tions had a strength (1939) of 124, 131. The High Commissioner in the Union for His The Transvaal and Natal have land suitable for Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and growing cotton. Corn is an important crop, and His Majesty's High Commissioner for Basutoland, its export due to great variations in production is the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland is handled on a quoia system. Wheat and fruit are Sir William Henry Clark (appointed 1935).

also grown. The population (1937) and area in square miles There are five universities--Cape Town, Stellenof the four provinces comprising the Union of posch, South Africa, Witwatersrand and Pretoria, South Africa follow: Area

and five constituent colleges, with an average enProvince Pop. Sq. Mi.

rollment in all of nearly 8,000 students.

Capital Transvaal 3,535,100 110,450 Pretoria

The monetary unit is the South Africa pound C. of Good Hope 3,635 100 277,169 Cape Town

with an average value of $4.03. The budget (1939Orange Fr. State 790,800 49.647 Bloemfontein

1940) estimated revenues of £44,110,000, and exNatal

penditures of £44,442,000. 2,018,000 35,284 Pietermaritzburg The capital of the Union is Pretoria although the

South-West Africa, formerly German territory

(annexed 1884), occupies the Atlantic Coast from Union's Legislature meets in Cape Town. South Africa is the richest gold and diamond the armed forces of the Union in the World War

the Orange River to Angola. It was conquered by country in the world. Nearly 35% of the world's (July 9, 1915). It is now administered by the supply of gold originates there, the gold industry

Union under a Mandate from the League of Naproviding work for 361,459 persons, or 81.89% of tions (dated Dec. 17, 1920) ihe employed population.

It covers an area of 317,725 square miles and the Coal, copper and tin are also important. Other

native population (1936) is 314,194, with 30,677 minerals are iron, lead, lime, manganese, platinum. Europeans. salt, talc, chrome, mica, graphite, beryl.

It is a very healthful climate, dry and temperProduction of gold, by fine ounces, for five years. ate with variety as the country rises to mountainwas 1934, 12,144.100: 1935, 12,603.000; 1936, 11,378.- ous elevations inland. It is ideal as a stock000; 1937, 14,002,000; 1938, 12, 161,392.

raising country. Minerals represent 20% to 30% Production of diamonds, by carats, for five years, of the exports.

British East Africa Kenya, crown colony and protectorate, extends (1938). from the Indian Ocean northeast to Italian Somal- Its area is 93,381 square miles, including 13.680 iland. north to Ethiopia, west to Uganda, and square miles of water. The population is estimated south to Tanganyika; its boundaries are the Umba, at 3,790,689. largely native. The country is well Juba and Uganda Rivers. Its area is 224,960 square advanced in civilization. Government revenues miles, and population (estimated 1939) of 3,500,352, (1939) were £1,717,927: expenditures £2,259,576. largely native.

Tanganyika was formerly German East Africa, In the northeast, stretching across the Equator, and was taken by the British (1918), the Urundi there is a tract of 200,000 square miles lying at an and Ruanda districts going to Belgium, and the elevation of more than 4,000 ft., with a climate like "Kionga Triangle" to Mozambique (Portuguese that of California, vast rolling plains, crossed by East Africa). It reaches from the coast to Lake rivers, dotted with lakes, where cotton and rubber Tanganyika and from Lake Nyasa to Victoria can be grown, and two crops a year of food staples. Nyanza. It is administered under a mandate from Experts report that enough cotton can be grown the League of Nations, by a Governor, Sir M. A. there to make the British textile industry inde- Young (appointed 1937), with headquarters in pendent of American supply. It is unexploited, Dar-es-Salaam, an attractive German-built city occupled only by roving natives and thronged with of 30,000, from which & railroad runs to Lake wild game. White men can live there in health Tanganyika. as nowhere else in Central Africa.

The area is 360,000 square miles, and population The Europeans of Kenya passed laws reserving (estimated 1939) 5,270,484. the highlands for white settlement, restricting the The western part of Tanganyika is a paradise natives to the lowlands and less healthful regions. for big game. There are many huge extinct craters,

Nairobi, a famous center for big game hunting. about 125 in number, west of the gorilla country, is the capital. Government revenue (1939) was Kilimanjaro; that of Ngoro Ngoro is surrounded £3.811,778, expenditures £3,808,079. Sir Henry by escarpments 2,000 ft. high, is 35 miles wide Monck-Mason Moore (appointed Oct. 26, 1939) is and crowded with game. the Governor

Government revenue (1940) was estimated at The Uganda Protectorate lies to the west of £2.126,789; expenditures £2,472,753. Kenya with the Anglo-Egyptian Soudan on the The principal products are sisal, cotton, coffee, north. Belgian Congo on the west, and Tanganyika ground nuts, hides and skin, beeswax and ivory. on the south. Its territory includes part of the Nyasaland Protectorate (until 1907 British CenVictoria Nyanza, Lake Kiogu and Lake Salisbury. tral Africa) is situated on the southern and also the Nile from Victoria Nyanza to the Soudan. western shores of Lake Nyasa and extends as far Uganda has an estimated elephant population of as the Zambesi river. Its area is 37,374 square miles 20,000, or one elephant to every 175 inhabitants. with a population (1939) of 1,679,977. Tea and The game warden reported 1,500 elephants killed' tobacco are cultivated.

British South Africa Southern Rhodesia lies in the central part of timated (June 30, 1940) at 1,435,560 and includes South Africa, extending from the Transvaal 62,330 Europeans The country is rich in gold reels Province northward to the Zambesi River, with and other minerals, but has proved to be an ideal Portuguese East Africa on the east and Portuguese agricultural country, especially adapted to EuroWest Africa and Bechuanaland on the west. It has pean settlers. Salisbury is the capital. an area of 150,333 square miles. Population is es- The Victoria Falls in Southern Rhodesia on the

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Zambesi River are the greatest natural spectacle in population (1936) of 660,650, lies in South Africa South Africa. They are a mile wide and from 250 northeast from the Cape of Good Hope Province to nearly 350 ft. high.

on an elevated plateau. Stock raising is most imThe two Rhodesias, Southern and Northern, portant. Products are wool, wheat, cereals. The were under the administration of the British South territory is governed by a Resident Commissioner Africa Company from 1898 until they became under the High Commissioner for South Africa. Crown colonies (1923) and (1924) respectively. It is a reservation set apart for the natives of

Corn, cotton, tobacco are grown. The output of South Africa. White people are not permitted to gold. coal, chrome and asbestos is considerable. own land. The budget (1939-1940) estimated Government revenues (1940-1941) are estimated at revenues of £420,963 and expenditures of €396,371, £4,900,000; expenditures £7,587,658.

Bechuanaland, area, 275,000 squares miles, land Northern Rhodesia, was taken over by the population (census, 1936), 265,756, is in the middle British government from the British South Africa of Southern Africa, between South-West Africa Company (1924) and established as & Crown and the Union of South Africa and Rhodesia. It is Colony. The capital is Lusaka,

undeveloped, but cattle growing and agriculture Its area is 290,320 square miles extending north have gained momentum, and the livestock already from the Zambesi river to the Belgian Congo and totals more than 600.000 head. The budget (1939Tanganyika Territory. The country is mostly high 1940) estimated revenues of £284,537 and expendiplateau covered with thin forest and suitable for tures of £271,549. farming and grazing. The population was esti- Swaziland, with 6.705 square miles, and a popmated (1936) at 1,376,325, of whom 9.900 were ulation (census, 1936) of 156,715, lies at the Europeans. The budget (1940) estimated revenues southeast side of the Transvaal, in South Africa of £1,864,686 and expenditures of £1,608,203. and produces chiefly tobacco, corn, vegetables,

The country is rich in minerals, particularly sweet potatoes, and livestock. Some gold is yielded copper, zinc, cobalt, gold, vanadium and man- The country is undeveloped. The budget (1938ganese.

1939) estimated revenues of £114.873 and expendiBasutoland, with 11,716 square miles, and tures of £160,786.

British West Africa Nigeria lies in Western Africa, between Cameroon 180 miles, between French Guinea and Liberia. In and Dahomey (French) on the Gulf of Guinea. its capital, Freetown, it has the greatest seaport in The hinterland stretches back 600 miles to French West Africa, with an excellent harbor and a naval West Africa. The tin, lead and iron ore industries coaling station. The colony has been in British are old and valuable. Railroad development has possession since 1767. The hinterland forms the been rapid because of the mines. The chief ex- British protectorate of Sierra Leone, which extends ports are, besides tin, palm oil,

palm kernels, cotton inland about 180 miles. The area of the colony lint, cocoa, hides and skins. Revenues (1939-1940) and protectorate is 27,925 square miles; the popuwere £6,113.126; expenditures £6,498,566.

lation (1931) is 1,768, 480. Sir Douglas Jardine Nigeria has an area of 372,559 square miles and (appointed May 21, 1937) is the Governor. & population (1939) of 20,641,814. The Governor is The principal products are ginger, palm kernels, Sir Bernard H. Bourdillon (appointed June 21. gold and diamonds. 1935).

Revenue (1940) was estimated at £783,342; exBritish Camerons, 34,081 square miles and 868.- penditures £833.564. 637 population, lies between British Nigeria and The Gold Coast lies along the Gulf of Guinea for the French Congo in Western Africa. It is part of 334 miles. Its area is 78,802 square miles; the the former German colony Kamerun, the eastern population (census, 1937) is 3,700,267. The and larger part of which went to France after the French Ivory Coast is on the west and on the east World War. It is a region of fertile soils, and prog- is Togoland, formerly a German colony, and now ress is rapid toward building up valuable agricul- divided by mandate of the League of Nations betural production--cloves, vanilla, ginger, pepper tween Great Britain and France. The French and palm oil. Ivory is an important product.

portion, about 21,100 square miles, is attached for The seat of Government is Bueca and the ad- adrninistrative purposes to Dahomey in the east, ministrator is the Governor of Nigeria.

and the British, 13,041 square miles to the Gold Gambia is a British Protectorate in western Coast, Accra is the capital. Africa consisting of the island of St. Mary at the Under its administration also falls Ashanti, due mouth of the Gambia River which flows through north of the Gold Coast, and the Northern Territhe French colony, Senegal. The British protec- tories, due north of Ashanti. These countries have torate consists of a six-mile wide strip of territory enormous wealth in their forests, and the cultivaon each side of the river, and extends northeast for tion of cacao and rubber is being fostered. The 200 miles from the coast. The river is navigable chief exports are cacao, gold and diamonds. for ocean-going steamers for a considerable dis- Government revenues (1939-1940) were £4,596,tance at all seasons. The colony and protectorate 086; expenditures £4.853.054. have a total area of 4,068 square miles and a popu- There is a railway from Seccondee to Kumasi lation (1931) of 199,520. Bathurst, on St. Mary's and a line from Accra to Kumasi. Island, is the capital. The Governor is Sir Wilfred Togoland, area 13.041 square miles, population T. Southorn (appointed, 1936). Revenues (1939) (1940) 391,473. is under British Mandate adminiswere £151,744; expenditures £205,889.

tered by the Gold Coast, which it adjoins to the Sierra Leone lies on the west coast of Africa for east.

Minor African Possessions Zanzibar is an island of 640 square miles, 23 Chief exports are sugar, copra, poonac. aloe miles off the eastern coast of Africa, having 137.741 fiber and rum. Trade is principally withi Great population (census, 1931). Lord Salisbury (1890) Britain, Canada, India, Hong Kong, Union of traded Heligoland in the North Sea with Germany South Africa. France, Madagascar and Reunion for it.

Islands. Government revenue (1939-1940) was estiIt is governed by a Sultan, Seyyid Khalifa Ibn mated at 17,330,250 rupees, expenditures 17,324,306. Harub, but is administered by a British resident, The rupee has an average value of $.36. John Hathorn Hall (appointed 1937). The Island Seychelles and tributary dependencies include of Pemba, 30 miles to the northeast, area 380 101 islands of 156 square miles, and a population square miles, is included in the Government. The (estimated, 1940) of 32,015, lying in the Indian population of the Protectorate (census, 1931) is Ocean near Mauritius. The capital is Victoria, a 235,428. The people are mostly Mohammedans. port with a coaling station. Oocoanuts are the

The chief industry is the production of cloves. chief product, followed by cinnamon, patchouli, the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba yielding the mangrove bark, the yolk of birds' eggs, and phosbulk of the world's supply. It is estimated that phate. Government revenue (1939) was 833,018 there are on both Islands 48,000 acres, with 4,750,- rupees, expenditures 905,901. The rupee has an 000 trees devoted to that product, the average out- average value of $.36. put of the last 20 seasons being 17,940,000 pounds, Somaliland, a protectorate, with 68,000 square and 5,200,000 pounds of clove stems. Cocoanuts and miles, and 344,700 population, mostly Mohammecopra are important exports. Pottery, coir aber, dans, is in Northwest Africa, on the Gulf of rope, soap, oil, jewelry and mats are the principal Aden, with Ethiopia to the south and west and manufactures, Government revenue (1939) was Italian Somaliland on the east. The chief town £499,397; expenditures £452,216.

is Berbera, population 30,000, and the products Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean, 500 skins, resin, gum, cattle and sheep. miles east from Madagascar, has 720 square miles, St. Helena, the island made famous by the exile and population (estimated 1940) of 419,059. Port of the Emperor Napoleon, is 1,200 miles off the Louis, population 50,308, is the capital and chier west coast of Africa, has 47 square miles and popusquare miles and a population, census of 1931. lation (estimated, 1939) of 4.622. Fruits, nuts, seaport. Its dependencies have an area of 89 timber, flax, lace making (flax the chief) are the 9,659.

industries. It is an important naval coaling sta

tion, and, although volcanic and small, has great for boats to reach because of its rugged shores, strategic value.

forms one of the loneliest places on the globe. Ascension, an island of volcanic origin, 34 square About 165 persons, descendants of shipwrecked miles in area, 700 miles northwest of St. Helena, sailors, and soldiers from St. Helena, get a rude is noted for its sea turtles. Population (1940) was livelihood there. The island

produces apples and 154.

peaches. Sheep, geese and bullocks are reared and Tristan da Cunha, a group of islands of vol- there are plenty of fish, but potatoes are the chief canic origin, 12 square miles in area, half way diet. Efforts to get them to leave have been between the Cape and South America, difficult fruitless.

Australia Capital, Canberra-Area, 2,974,581 square miles-Population (1940) 7,016,449 Australia. itself a continent, is situated between 1936). The Prime Minister is John Curtin (Labor 10° 41' and 39° 8', or including Tasmania 43° 39' Party). south latitude and 113° 9' to 153° 39' east longitude

Seats held in the lower House by the various in the Pacific Ocean, with the Indian Ocean on the

parties (1941): United Australia, 24; Country, 14;

Federal Labor, 36, giving the Coalition Governwest, and the Southern Ocean on the south.

ment a majority of two. In the Senate the line-up The states and territories of the Common

is Coalition 19, Labor 17. wealth with their population (1939) and area are Primarily an agricultural country, Australia is -New South Wales 2,770,348 (309,432 square the greatest wool-producing country in the world. miles); (Victoria, 1,887,278 (87,844 sq. m.); Queens- Important crops are wheat, oats, barley, corn, land, 1,015,927 (670,500 sq. m.); South Australia, hay, potatoes, sugar cane, sugar beets, grapes and 597.045 (380,070 sq. m.); West Australia, 465,916 fruits.

The country yields gold, silver, lead, copper, (975,920 sq. m.): Tasmania, 241,576 (26,215 sq

tin and coal. m.); Northern Territory, 6,973 (523,620 sq. m.); Australian Capital Territory, 12,263 (940 sq. m.).

The average annual value of Australia's chief Altogether the Commonwealth is nearly as large as

exports is--wool, £42,737,096; wheat, £13,275,184;

gold, £17,953,292; meats, £11,779,563; butter, 612,Continental United States.

891.837; hides and skins, £4,103,855. The state capitals and their population are Sydney, New South Wales, 1,305,040; Melbourne,

Education is free and compulsory. There are Victoria, 1,046,750; Brisbane, Queensland, 326,000;

six universities--one in each of the State capitals.

Church of England claims 44.4% of the populaAdelaide, South Australia, 322,990; Perth, Western

tion, the remainder being distributed as follows Australia, 224,800; Hobart, Tasmania, 65,450. In eastern Australia mountains rise to about

-Roman Catholic, 22.3%; Presbyterian, 12.3%:

and Methodist, 11.8%. 7,000 ft. altitude. The central portion extends

Military training for all males between the ages westward in rolling plains until higher elevations are reached along the west coast.

of 18 and 26 years was compulsory (1911 to 1929)

The Murray but from Nov. 1, 1929, enlistment on a voluntary River, rising on the slopes of the mountains, is

basis was adopted. Compulsory training, hownavigable inland for 2,000 miles. The climate is

ever, was again introduced (Jan., 1940). Since the temperate in the south, and tropical in the north.

outbreak of the war the strength of the Defence Australia is the habitat of strange flora and

Forces has been greatly increased. fauna. The koala, or living Teddy Bear, may Australian Air Force has been greatly enlarged to

The Royal be seen in parks near the cities and in the bush.

complete a Home Defence organization of 19 He is a soft bundle of fur about 20 to 25 pounds squadrons and to cope with Australia's share of in weight when fully grown. He never drinks, ob

the Empire Air scheme. taining enough moisture from the young euca

An emergency powers bill (1940) gives the Govlyptus leaves on which he lives.

ernment the right to mobilize all national reThe platypus, a combination of fish, bird and

sources with the exception of conscription for animal which is equally at home in the water overseas service. Australia is engaged in a deor on land, is one of only two creatures known fense program costing £453,000,000 over a period of to science which lay eggs and nourish their three years. Defense expenditures (1940-1941) are young with milk. The other is the Australian estimated at £160,000,000, £90,200,000 more than echidna or ant-eating porcupine.

(1939-1940). There are many other strange creatures the The strength of the military forces (Jan. 1, wombat, which burrows deeply; the Tasmanian 1939) was 42,895, including Permanent Forces, devil and wolf: the dingo and the spotted native organized for peace time duties, to prepare for cat; the mole that is blind, deaf and dumb; bark- defense and to form the basis for the technical ing and cycling lizards and house-building ro- services. dents. Birds of brilliant plumage are numerous. Australia also maintains a Navy, two 10,000-ton Parrots, red green and yellow, fly in flocks. cruisers, three of 7,000 tons, one of 5,100 tons with

In the far north, wild buffalo roam over an several minor craft (Jan. 1, 1940). The active serarea as large as the British Isles where but few vice personnel (1939) was 5,170 but this has been white men live; and wild ducks and geese swarm vastly increased since the start of the war. Adover lagoons and lakes in flocks of almost un- ditional destroyers and mine sweepers are being believable size.

constructed in the naval expansion program. In the north, too, are to be seen the best

The monetary unit is the Australian pound with speciments of the aboriginal tribes.

They are an average value of $3.21. The budget (1940-1941) the most primitive of all peoples, entirely no- estimated revenues at £150,000,000 and expenditures madic, making fire with sticks, throwing boom- £276,000,000. of the expenditures £143,000,000 was erangs, and killing kangaroos and other game for war costs at home and £43,000,000 for war with spears. Except in the far region of the costs overseas. *Never Never" land, the aborigines are quite Pension acts provide for payments of old age and harmless.

invalid pensions, including the blind, the unemAustralia has been settled for 150 years. The ployed, victims of tuberculosis and in some cases Commonwealth was proclaimed (Jan. 1, 1901). to dependents of former soldiers. A Maternity Act It enjoys Dominion status and is governed on the provides for the payment of pensions for every Federal plan with a Parliament consisting of a livable child born in Australia. Senate and a House of Representatives.

The Australian Government Trade CommisThe British Governor General is Lord Gowrie sioner in the United States is L. R. MacGregor, (born July 6, 1872), who took office (Jan. 23, C. B. E., 630 Fifth Ave., New York City.

AUSTRALIAN TERRITORIES Papua, or British New Guinea, is the south- placed by the League of Nations after the war eastern part of the Island of New Guinea north under mandate to Australia. It includes the Bis. from Australia. Its area is estimated at 90.540 marek Archipelago. 19,200 square miles, and the

former German Solomon Islands, 4.100 square square miles with an estimated native population

miles. The total area of the mandated territory of 337,000. The European population (June 30, 1940) was

is about 93,000 square miles, with a native popu

lation estimated roughly at 666,000. The white 1.822. Queensland annexed the territory in 1883. population was 4,606 (June 30, 1939). but control was taken over by the Federal Govern

Norfolk Island was taken over by the Government of Australia in 1906.

ment of the Commonwealth of Australia (1913). It The Commonwealth Government pays an an- has an area of 8,528 acres and a population of 983. nual subsidy-£42,500 (1939-1940). Revenues (1939. The soil is very fertile and is suitable for the 1940) were £177,918; expenditures £178,234. The cultivation of citrus fruits, bananas and coffee. chief exports are copra, gold, rubber and desiccated Nauru Island, formerly German, was mandated cocoanut.

by the League of Nations to the British Empire. Territory of New Guinea, formerly German New Its area is about eight square miles; its populaGuinea, the northeast quarter of the island, was tion is 3,400. It has valuable phosphate deposits.

New Zealand Capial, Wellington-Area, 103,934 square miles- Population (April, 1940) 1,640,901 The main islands of New Zealand, a self-govern- Representatives. The Governor-General is Sir ing British Dominion of the South Pacific Ocean. Cyril L. N. Newall (appointed 1941). Membership lle between the parallels of 34o and 48° and the of the Legislative Council is achieved by nominameridians of 166• and 179o east longitude, about tion for a 7-year term, and of the House of Rep1,200 miles to the eastward of Australia. Includ

resentatives by election on a universal franchise

for a 3-year term. The Prime Minister is Peter ing the remote islands in the north and the Ross

Fraser. Dependency in the far south, the reach of New

The political complexion of the House of RepZealand is from the tropics to Antarctica. New Zealand comprises North Island. 44,281 | 51; National, 25; Independents, 4.

resentatives (elected Oct. 15, 1938) follows-Labor. square miles: South Island, 58,092 square miles;

New Zealand' is primarily a farming country. Stewart Island, 670 square miles; Chatham Islands,

For decades the sheep held supremacy in value 372 square miles. Both the North and South Islands slightly exceed 500 miles in length. Cook strait,

of exports (wool, meat, tallow, pelts, etc.) by a separating the two islands, is only 16 miles in

large margin, but during recent years dairy prod

ucts, butter and cheese have taken first place on width at its narrowest part. Additional Islands within the geographical

occasions. Two-thirds of the surface of the country

is suitable for farming. boundaries of New Zealand are Campbell Island. Solander Island, the Three Kings, Auckland. An

Compulsory military service at home and abroad

applies to all males more than 16 years old with tipodes, Bounty, and Snares Islands (a total area of 307 square miles). Islands annexed to New

conscription for foreign service which is restricted Zealand are the Cook Islands, Kermadec Islands.

to the 21-41 age group. The man power is enrolled

in the general reserve. The air force continued Niue Island, and certain other small islands in

on the voluntary basis. the Pacific (a total area of 212 square miles), so

The available water power is estimated at a that the actual New Zealand aggregate is 103,934

total of 4,870,000 h.p., of which 4,100,000 is in square miles.

South Island, and mostly located near the deep The territory of Western Samoa, including water sounds of the west coast, with many sites chiefly the large islands of Savai'i (703 square miles) and Upolu (430 square miles) is admin

especially suitable for industries. About 460,340 istered by New Zealand under mandate of the The capital outlay of electric power industry (1939)

h.p. (hydroelectric power only) is in use (1939). League of Nations. New Zealand is also asso

is £33,073,000. ciated with Great Britain and Australia in the mandate for the administration of the very valu- owned and 198 miles of privately owned railways.

There were (1940) 3.320 miles of governmentable phosphate island of Nauru. The control of Tokelau or Union Islands, formerly part of the hours, 1.326,234 miles and carried 51.802 passengers,

Commercial air services flew (1939-1940) 10,541 Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, was transferred to New Zealand (1926).

223,018 pounds of freight and 234,989 pounds of

mail New Zealand was discovered in 1642 by Abel Janszoon Tasman, a Dutch navigator, and its extending the former pension law, became effec

A general social insurance law, modifying and coasts were explored by Capt. James Cook (1769

tive (April, 1939). The act provided for superannua70). British sovereignty was proclaimed (1840) with organized settlement commencing in the

tion and old age and invalidity benefits, widows' same

and orphans' benefits, family allowances, sickness year. Representative institutions

were

and accident benefits, unemployment benefits, and granted (1853) and (1907) the Colony became a Dominion. The capital is Wellington.

a national health service. All persons 16 years of The Maoris (the native race) are Polynesians of

age and more are required to be registered and to high intelligence, their forebears having migrated

pay the registration fee and a charge on salaries,

wages and other income. The Government and from the Eastern Pacific several centuries ago.

New Zealand Corporations also contribute to the They numbered 90,980 (March 31, 1940). New Zealand has a remarkable diversity of general operating fund. A national free medicine

plan went into effect landscape plains, downs and broad valleys, extensive tracts of hills and mountains, numer

Universal pension May, 1941).

(effective April 1, 1940) ous rivers and many lakes. The Sutherland

provide for an annual pension of $50 to all 65tallest and most beautiful in the world. The Zealand before March 15, 1938, and those who Waterfalls, with a drop of 1,900 ft., is one of the year-olds, irrespective of means, rising $10 every

year until it reaches $390. All resident in New climate ranges from the sub-tropical in the north complete 20 years of residence thereafter are to the mildly temperate in the south. The country has the second lowest death rate, and the low

eligible. est infant mortality rate, in the world.

The monetary unit is the New Zealand pound The central plateau of the North Island possess

with an average value of $3.25. Government thermal attractions renowned for their scenic and

revenues (1940-1941) were £40, 400,000, and exhealing properties, while the surrounding streams

penditures £38,700,000. and lakes provide trout fishing of world fame. Off

Western Samoa was German Samoa, which the northern peninsula rod and reel sea fishing has

included Savail and Upolu, the two largest of the resulted in several world records.

Samoan Islands in the Western Pacific, and was The South Island of New Zealand presents

occupied by the British (Aug. 29, 1914). This scenery of a totally different nature from that of

territory was assigned as a mandate from the the North. The great range of the Southern Alps

League of Nations to New Zealand (1920). (highest point, Mt. Cook, 12,349 ft.) stretches from

Savail is 48 miles by 25 miles and has an area end to end of the Island and forms the eastern of about 703 square miles. Upolu has an area of side; on the western side the towering mountain

about 430 square miles. Both are mountainous, slopes crowd in upon the coastline, their glaciers

fertile and well watered The population (1940) and snow-fields being easily accessible from the

of the two aggregated 61.429. The chief exports densely forested foothills.

are copra, bananas and cocoa. New Zealand enjoys Dominion status within the The Union or Tokelau Islands, formerly part British Empire and is governed by a Governor-Gen- of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. were eral, representing the King of Great Britain and transferred to the jurisdiction of New Zealand the British Dominions, and a General Assembly (1926). The area of the three clusters of islets is consisting of a Legislative Council and a House of four square miles, and population (1939), 1,191.

British Oceania FIJ Islands are from 200 to 250 in number, with The budget (1939) estimated revenues at £930.866 an area of 7,083 square miles, and a population and expenditures £1.095,928.. (1940) of 215.030 (4,259 Europeans). They are In Fiji, according to Dr. Dorothy M. Spencer of situated in the South Pacific Ocean, due east of the University of Pennsylvania, the human head northern Australia.

is held to be sacred and it is an insult to reach The larger islands are mountainous, reaching al- above the head of another person, titudes of 4,000 ft., with one peak of 5.000. The Tonga Islands, or Friendly Islands, form a prosouthern islands contain dense forests with many tectorate, with an area of 256 square miles, and a valuable woods. The inlands are very fertile and population (1939) of 34,130. The native Queen well watered. The climate is for the tropics com- is Salote Tubou, who succeeded her father George paratively cool; the temperature seldom rising II (April 12, 1938). Government revenue (1938above 90®, or falling below 60°, and the rainfall is 1939) was £60,441, expenditures £69.612. abundant.

The British Solomon Islands, a protectorate, The islands form a British Crown Colony. The number 15 large islands and four groups of small capital is Suva.

islands, with a total area of about 375,000 sq. m., Bananas, coconuts, maize, sugar cane, rice and and a population (1931) of 93.415, of which 497 are tobacco are the principal products.

Europeans, Exports are chiefly copra and Ivory

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