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New York City (The Battery) Tide Tables for 1942—Continued

Source: U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; Eastern Standard Time, Meridian 75* W.

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1.3 0.8 1.1 0.6 0.9

ft. 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.2 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.6

0.3

Th

0.5 0.1 0.2

h.m. 1 052 Th 1 03

2 1 44 F 1 54

3 2 41 SA 2 50

4 3 45 Su 3 51

5 4 41 M 4 50

6 5 33 Tu 5 41

7 6 14 W 6 23

8 6 52 Th 7 00

9 7 28 F 7 37 10 8 03 Sa 8 13 11 8 39 Su

8 54 12 9 23 M 9 41 13 10 13 Tu 10 38 14 11 11 W 11 42 15 тъ 12 13 16 0 49 F 1 16 17 1 56 Sa

2 22 18 3 03 Su 3 30 19 4 11 M

4 35 20 5 12 Tu

5 34 21 6 04 W 6 25 22 6 51 Th 7 11 23 7 33 F 7 54 24 8 12 Sa 8 34 25 8 50 Su 9 14 26 9 27 M 9 56 27 10 04 Tu 10 41 28 10 44 W 11 30 29 11 26 Th 30 0 19 F 12 11 31 1 08 Sa

1 00

ft.h.m. 3.7 6 43 4.2 7 48 3.6 7 56 4.1 8 55 3.5 9 06 4.0 9 52 3.6 10 03 4.1 10 40 3.8 10 55 4.3 1 24 4.111 38 4.5 4.5 0 07 4.7 12 23 4.8 0 48 4.8 1 06 5.1 1 29 4.9 1 50 5.3 2 08 4.9 2 32 5.4 2 47 4.8) 3 15 5.4 3 26 4.7 3 58 5.3 4 05 4.5 4 44 5.2 4 47 4.31 5 37

5 41 5.0 6 41 4.1 6 57 4.8 7 56 4.1 8 20 4.7 9 07 4.2 9 31 4.7 10 05 4.3 10 30 4.7 11 00 4.6 11 25 4.8 11 47

0.2 0.3 0.0

0.1
-0.2
-0.2
-0.3
-0.3
-0.4
-0.4
-0.3
-0.4
-0.2
-0.2

0.0
0.0
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.3
0.7
0.2

N.m. 1 2 00 Su 1 50

2 2 56 M 2 48

3 3 53 Tu 3 51

4 47 w 4 50

5 5 33 Th 5 43

6 6 16 F 6 26

7 6 56 Sa 7 09

8 7 36 Su 7 52

9 8 19 M 8 39 10 9 05 Tu

9 30 11 9 58 W 10 32 12 11 00 Th 11 41 13 F 12 03 14 0 45 Sa 1 05 15 1 47 Su 2 06 16 2 49 M 3 10 17 3 51 Tu 4 12 18

4 50 W

5 11 19 5 43 Th 6 03 20 6 29 F 6 49 21 7 11 Sa 7 33 22 7 50 Su 8 13 23 8 26 M 8 51 24

9 00 Tu 9 30 25 9 32 W 10 14 26 10 06 Th 11 00 27 10 43 F 11 48 28 11 25 Sa 29 033 Su 12 10 30 1 17 M 1 00

s1.h.m. 3.41 8 19 3.9 9 10 3.5 9 24 3.910 00 3.7 10 18 4.0 10 45 4.0 11 06 4.1 11 28 4.411 52 4.3 4.8 0 10 4.5 12 38 5.2 O 52 4.71 1 24 5.4 1 36 4.7 2 11 5.6 2 20 4.6) 2 57 5.5 3 04 4.5 3 44 5.4 3 50 4.3 4 33 5.2 4 39 4.2 5 26

5 36 4.9 6 26 4.1 6 46 4.7 7 34 4.11 8 03 4.51 8 41 4.2 9 13 4.41 9 41 4.3 10 13 4.3 10 34 4.5 11 06 4.3 11 22 4.711 56 4.3 4.91 O 07 4.3 12 44 5.0 0 51 4.3 1 29 5.01 1 34 4.1 2 12 4.9) 2 15 4.0 2 54 4.81 2 55 3.8 3 34 4.6 3 32 3.6) 4 13 4.41 4 07 3.5 4 52 4.2 4 40 3.4 5 31 4.0 5 10

6 16 3.3 5 46 3.9 7 12 3.4 7 05 3.8 8 16

-0.2 - 0.2 -0.4 - 0.4 -0.6 - 0.7 -0.6 -0.8 -0.6 -0.8 -0.5 - 0.7 -0.3 -0.5

0.0 -0.3

0.3 -0.1

0.4 - 0.1

0.3 -0.2

h.m. 1 2 05 Tu 1 50

2 2 58 W 2 48 3 3 54

3 54 4 4 49 F 4 58

5 5 42 Sa 5 55

6 6 29 Su 6 46

7 7 16 M 7 36

8 8 03 Tu 8 27

9 8 52 W 9 22 10

9 48 Th 10 24 11

10 48 F

11 38 12 11 48 Sa 13 0 29 Su 12 48 14 1 27 M 1 46 15 2 24 Tu 2 43 16 3 22 W 3 43 17 4 21 Th 4 43 18 5 16 F 5 38 19 6 05 Sa 6 29 20 6 49 Su 7 12 21 7 28 M 7 52 22 8 04 Tu 8 31 23 8 39 W 9 10 24 9 11

9 51 25 9 41 F 10 31 26 10 12 Sa 11 12 27 10 49 Su 11 54 28 11 31 M 29 0 31 Tu 12 17 30 1 14 W 1 07

2 04 Th

2 02

11.h.m. fi. 3.5 8 35 1.0 3.7 9 12 0.4 3.6 9 38 0.7 3.7 10 02 0.2 3.9 10 31 0.4 3.810 48 - 0.1 4.3 11 20 0.0 3.9 11 33 -0.4 4.7 4.1 12 10 -0.3 5.1 0 20 -0.6 4.3 1 00 - 0.7 5.4 1 08 -0.8 4.4 1 50 - 0.9 5.5 1 58 - 0.9 4.5 2 40 - 1.1 5.5 2 47 -0.9 4.4) 3 29 - 1.2 5.4 3 37 -0.8 4.3 4 18

- 1.1 5.1 4 28 -0.7 4.2) 5 10 - 1.0 4.9 5 24 -0.4

6 05 - 0.7 4.2 6 26 -0.1 4.6 7 06 - 0.5 4.2 7 38 0.1 4.3 8 11 - 0.3 4.1 8 47 0.2 4.0 9 12 -0.3 4.1 9 49 0.1 3.8 10 06 -0.3 4.2 10 44 0.0 3.7 10 54 - 0.3 4.311 34 -- 0.2 3.7 11 41 -0.3 4.5 3.712 21 -0.3 4.6 0 26 -0.3 3.7 1 07 -0.4 4.6 1 10 -0.3 3.7 1 51 -0.4 4.61 53 -0.3 3.7 2 33 - 0.5 4.5 2 33 -0.2 3.6 3 13 -0.5 4.4 3 12 -0.1 3.5| 3 51 - 0.4 4.3) 3 47 0.0 3.4 4 28 -0.3 4.1 4 20 0.2 3.4) 5 03 -0.2 4.01 4 48 0.3 3.4 5 36 0.0 3.8 5 18

0.4 6 10 0.1 3.45 58 0.6 3.7 6 59 0.2 3.6 7 24 0.6 3.6 8 11 0.2 3.71 8 53 0.5 3.6 9 14 0.1

0.2

0.5

-0.3

0.0 - 0.4 -0.2

0.0 0.3 -0.2

0.0 -0.3

4.9

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4.9 12 16 5.1 0 33 4.9 1 04 5.31 1 18 4.8) 1 49 5.3 2 01 4.7 2 33 5.2 2 41 4.4 3 15 5.01 3 21 4.21 3 55 4.71 3 58 3,91 4 36 4.5 4 33 3.71 5 17 4.31 5 08

6 02 3.5 5 44 4.1 7 01 3.4 6 53 4.0 8 08

-0.2
-0.4
-0.3
-0.5
-0.4

-0.4
-0.4
-0.3
- 0.3
-0.1
-- 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.2 0.9

-0.41 -0.3 -0.4 -0.4 -0.4 -0.4 -0.3 -0.4 -0.2 -0.3

0.0 -0.2

0.3 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.5 10 0.5

31

Time meridian 75° W. Heavy-faced type indicates p, m. tides. Oh is midnight. 12h is noon. Heights are reckoned from the datum of soundings on charts of the locality which is mean low water.

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Time of Tides at Points on the Atlantic Coast

Source: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. To be added to or subtracted from Time of Tides tables at New York City, as shown on pages 178, 179. H. M. H. M.

H. M. Albany, NY add 9 05 Key West, Fla. add 1 35 Portland, Me

2 35 Annapolis, Md. .add 9 15 League Island, På. add

5 45

Portsmouth, N, H. add 2 55 Atlantic City, NJ...sub.

1 05
Marblehead, Mass.... add 2 40 Poughkeepsie, N. Y. add

4 35 Baltimore, Md. add 11 00 Nahant, Mass

.. add 2 45 Providence, R. I.

sub. 0 55 Bar Harbor, Me.

.add 2 20
Nantucket, Mass.....ada 3 35 Richmond, V&

add 9 15 Beaufort, 3. c. 0 35 Newark, N. J.

.. add

050 Rockaway Inlet, N. Ysub 6 40 Block Is. r., R. I..sub. 1 00 New Bedford, Mass..sub. 0 55 Rockland, Me.

add

2 20 Boston, Mass. .add 2 45 Newbury port, Mass... add 3 25 Rock port. Mass. .add 2 35 Bridgeport, Conn.... add 2 55 New Haven, Conn.... add 2 50 Salem, Mass.

.add 2 40 Bristol, R. I. .sub. 0 55 New London, Conn... add 1 05 Sandy Hook, N. J....sub. 0 35 Cape May, N. J. sub. 045 Newport, R.I.

.sub 1 05 Savannah, Ga.

add © 20 Charleston, S.C.....sub. 0 30 Norfolk, Va.

0 55 Southport, NC .sub. 0 30 Eastport, Me. .add 2 25 Norwich, Conn..

add 1 50 Viney'd Hav'n, Mass. add 2 55 Gloucester, Mass. .add 2 40 Old Pt. Comfort, Va.. add 0 25 Washington, D. C.... add 12 25 Hell Gate Light, N. Y.add 2 00 Philadelphia, Pa. add 6 15 Watch Hill, R. I.

.add 0 20 Isle of Shoals, N. H... add 2 40 Plymouth, Mass add 2 45 West Point, N. Y

.. add 3 25 Jacksonville, Fla.

1 25 Point Lookout, Md. .add 5 00 Wilmington, N. C.... add 2 15

AVERAGE RISE AND FALL OF TIDE
Places
Feet Inch

Places
Feet Inch

Places

Feet Inch Balboa, Papama. 12 7 Mobile, Ala.

6 San Diego, Cal. Baltimore, Md... 1 1 New London, Conn.

6 Sandy Hook, N. J.. Boston, Mass.. 9 5 New Orleans, La.. See

Note San Francisco, Cal, Charleston, S. C. 5 1 Newport, R. I. 6 Savannah, Ga.

5 Colon, Panama.. 0

New York, N. Y.

6 Seattle, Wash, Eastport, Me.... 18 Old Pt. Comfort, Va.

6 Tampa, Fla. Galveston, Tex. Philadelphia, Pa..

Washington, D. C..

11 Key West, Fla.. 1

Portland, Me.. At New Orleans, the periodic rise and fall of the tide varies with the stage of the Mississippi River, being about one foot at low river stage and zero at high river stage.

Weather Bureau Signals

Source: Weather Bureau, United States Department of Agriculture Small Craft Warning--A red pennant indicates diy, or a white lantern below a red lantern disthat moderately strong winds that will interfere played by night, indicates the approach of a storm with the safe operation of small craft are expected. of marked violence with winds beginning from the No night display of small craft warnings is made. southwest.

Northeast Storm Warning-A red pennant above Northwest Storm Warning-A white pennant a square red flag with black centre displayed by above & square red flag with black centre displayed day, or two red lanterns, one above the other, dis- by day, or a white lantern above a red lantern played by night, indicates the approach of a storm displayed by night, indicates the approach of a of marked violence with winds beginning from the storm of marked violence with winds beginning northeast.

from the northwest. Southeast Storm Warning-A red pennant below Hurricane, or Whole Gale Warning--Two square a square red flag with black centre displayed by flags, red with black centres, one above the other, day. or one red lantern displayed by night, in- displayed by day, or two red lanterns, with a white dicates the approach of a storm of marked violence lantern between, displayed by night, indicate the with winds beginning from the southeast.

approach of a tropical hurricane, or of one of the Southwest Storm Warning-A white pennant be- extremely severe and dangerous storms which oclow & square red flag with black centre displayed by casionally occur.

RULES FOR FORETELLING THE WEATHER

(Adapted for use with aneroid barometers)
Barometer
Wind from

Weather Indicated
High and steady

SW to NW Fair and little temperature change for one or two days. High and rising rapidly SW to NW

Fair followed by warmer and rain within two days. Very high, falling slowly SW to NW Fair and slowly rising temperature for two days. High and falling slowly S to SE

Rain within 24 hours. High and falling rapidly S to SE

Increasing wind with rain in 12 to 24 hours High and falling slowly SE to NE

Rain in 12 to 18 hours. High and falling rapidly SE to NE

Increasing wind with rain in 12 hours. High and falling slowly E to NE

Summer-light winds, fair. Winter-rain in 24 hours. High and falling rapidly E to NE

Summer-rain in 12 to 24 hours,

Winter-rain or snow and increasing winds. Low and falling slowly SE to NE

Rain will continue one or two days. Low and falling rapidly SE to NE

Rain and high wind; clearing and cooler in 36 hours. Low and rising slowly S to SW

Clearing soon and fair several days. Low and falling rapidly S to E

Severe storm soon, clearing and cooler in 24 hours. Low and falling rapidly E to N

Northwest gales with heavy rain or snow, followed in winter

by cold wave. Low and rising rapidly Going to W Clearing and colder.

Thermometers—Comparative Scales

72

Fahr

Fahr.
Reau.

Fahr.
Centi. en-
Reau- Centi. en-

Reau- Centimur, grade, heit

mur,
grade, heit

mur. 80° 100 212 Water Boils

grade. heit
80
100 212

80
1000

212
at Seg-
76 95 203 Level.

29.3
36.7 98 Blood Heat

0

0 32 Water
90 194
28 35 95

0.9 - 1.1 30 Freezes 68 85 185 25.8 32.2 90

4

5 23 63.1 78.9 174

24
30
86

5.3 6.7 20 60 75 167 Alcohol Boils 21.3 26.7 80

8 - 10 14 56 70 158 20 25 77

9.81 12.2 10 52 65 149 16 20 68

12 15

5 48 60 140

12.4 15.3 60 Temperate 14.2 -17.8 0 Zero Fahr 131 10.2 12.8 55

16 20

4 42 2 52.81 127 Tallow Melts 8 10

50

20 25 13 40 50 122

6.8 7.2 45

24 30 22 36 45 113

4
5 41

28 35 31 33.8 42.2 108

1.3 1.7 35

32 40 40 32 40 104

To reduce Fahrenheit to Centigrade subtract 32 to Fahrenheit multiply by 9/5 and add 32 degrees; degrees and multiply by 5/9; to reduce Centigrade to reduce Reaumur to Centigrade multiply by 6/4.

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The Atmosphere

Source: United States Weather Bureau, Washington The atmosphere is composed of a mixture of gases are easily compressed, and therefore the layers near and surrounds or envelops the whole earth. It is sea level have the greatest density because they are sometimes likened to a great sea of gases, at the

compressed by the weight of all that lies above. bottorn of which we live.

With increase of distance above sea level this The principal con

weight is decreased steadily by the amount of air stituents are oxygen and nitrogen, in about the

that is left below, and thus the pressure and density proportion of 21 per cent of the former and 78 per

gradually diminish to nothingness. cent of the latter by volume, the remaining 1 per So much of the atmosphere is compressed into cent being made up of five other gases. Water

the lower layers that one-half of it lies below an vapor, which is really water in a gaseous form, is elevation of 392 miles, although traces of some of always present in the lower atmosphere, but in a its gases have been revealed at an altitude of variable quantity. It occupies space independently nearly 200 miles. Only one sixty-fourth of the of the other gases, and may comprise up to 3 per atmosphere lies above an altitude of 21 miles. so cent of the total weight of a given volume of air. we may realize that this gaseous envelope is rela

The tendency for these gases to escape into space tively very thin as compared with the diameter is overcome by the earth's attraction, and they rest of the earth. upon its surface with about the same weight as a The air holds in suspension many substances, layer of water 34 feet in depth. In other words such as bacteria and dust particles. We may they press downward, and obeying the law of sometimes think that it would be a great advantage gases they also press in every other direction at to have all such foreign matter eliminated. but if sea level with a force of nearly 15 pounds per so it is because we do not realize the results. square inch of surface.

Only a small portion of the bacteria are of the We can not see the gases, and since they per- disease-breeding types, while many of the remeate all our tissues we do not feel their pressure mainder are of real benefit to mankind. Bacteria except when they are in motion as wind. It used are the chief factors in manufacturing all of the to be supposed that the atmosphere had no weight. products of fermentation, and also they are the and hence the saying "light as air."

active agents that disintegrate the organic matters Since the density of air at sea level is only about in the soil and prepare them for plant food. one eight-hundredth part that of water, it follows Some of the dust particles in the air are very that the atmosphere would be eight hundred times important as they form nuclei on which water 34 feet, or about 5 miles in depth if it were of the vapor condenses when air is cooled sufficiently, and same density at all altitudes, which it is not. Gases without which there could be no clouds or rain.

The Poles of the Earth Source: Dep't of Research in Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington The geographic (rotation) poles, or points where with any great degree of accuracy. the Earth's axis of rotation cuts the surface, are The center of the area designated as the north not absolutely fixed in the body of the Earth. The magnetic pole is in about latitude 70.5 N and pole of rotation describes an irregular curve about longitude 96 W. its mean position.

The position of the south magnetic pole has been Two periods have been detected in this motion: tentatively accepted as in latitude 73.4 S and (1) an annual period due to seasonal changes in longitude 154 E. barometric pressure, load of ice and snow on the The direction of the horizontal component of surface and to other phenomena of seasonal char- the magnetic field at any point is known as magacter; (2) a period of about fourteen months due netic north at that point, and the angle by which to the shape and constitution of the Earth.

it deviates east or west of true north is known as In addition there are small but as yet unpre- the magnetic declination, or in the mariner's dictable irregularitles. The whole motion is SO terminology the variation of the compass. small that the actual pole at any time remains A compass without error points in the direction within a circle of thirty or forty feet in radius of magnetic north. (In general this is not the centered at the mean position of the pole.

direction of the magnetic north pole). If one The pole of rotation for the time being is of follows the direction indicated by the north end of course the pole having a latitude of goo and an the compass, he will travel along a rather irreguindeterminate longitude.

lar curve which eventually reaches the north The north magnetic pole of the Earth is that magnetic pole (though not usually by a greatregion where the magnetic force is vertically circle route). However, the action of the comdownward and the south magnetic pole that region pass should not be thought of as due to any where the magnetic force is vertically upward. A influence of the distant pole, but simply as an incompass placed at the magnetic poles experi- dication of the distribution of the Earth's magences no directive force.

netism at the place of observation. There are slow changes with time in the dis- There is always some part of the Earth where tribution of the Earth's magnetic field. These the variation of the compass is zero, that is, the changes were at one time attributed in part to a northward compass-direction coincides with the periodic movement of the magnetic poles around true northward direction. the geographic poles, but later evidence refutes About 1800. the line of no variation crossed the this theory and points, rather, to a slow migra- United States, passing between Washington and tion of "disturbance" foci over the Earth. There Baltimore. It now crosses the United States from appears to be small irregular migration of the Michigan to Florida. In Europe the line of no magnetic poles, but there are not sufficient ob- variation passed through London in 1655, through servations available as yet to define the motion Paris in 1670, and now passes near Bucharest.

The Aurora Source: Dep't of Research in Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington The Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis are two hundred miles above the Earth's surface. displays of light in the high levels of the Earth's Analysis of the light of aurorae has shown that it is atmosphere which at times become very bright and produced by electrical discharges in oxygen and colorful. They are most frequently seen in two nitrogen. broad belts which lie approximately along the The various shapes and directions usually asboundaries of the polar regions.

sumed by the aurorae and their positions with The Aurora Borealis or northern lights show respect to the Earth's magnetic field show that greatest intensity and frequency along a path which this magnetic field and its variations are concrosses North America from Alaska in a south- trolling factors in the formation of displays. easterly direction to Hudson Bay and Labrador. The association of aurorae with solar and terresThis line of maximum intensity crosses Northern trial magnetic-electric phenomena indicates that Norway and skirts the Arctic coast of Siberia. the sun is the source of energy that produces the

The Australis or southern-light zone is situated aurorae. The electrical condition of the upper over the Antarctic continent and the little-known atmosphere is largely determined by the incident Antarctic seas.

ultra-violet light and streams of charged corpuscles Intense and widely spread auroral displays are from the sun and by high-speed charged corpuscles associated with high sunspot-activity and world- from outer space, known as cosmic rays. wide magnetic-electric storms. At such times The exact mechanism by which one or more of auroral displays are seen as far south as the West these forms of energy produce the aurorae is not Indies in the Northern Hemisphere, and as far known. New researches under way upon auroral north as Australia and New Zealand in the South- and geomagnetic data, also using radio waves to ern Hemisphere.

analyze the different regions of the Earth's uppe The region in which auroral displays occur has atmosphere, will facilitate an understanding of this been found to be approximately between fifty and mechanism.

Mean Temperatures, Highs, Lows, Rainfall

Source: United States Weather Bureau
Mean
Mean

Mean

Mean
Temper. Rec. Rec-
Ann'i

Temper.
ature.

Rec

Rec. Ann'i ord

Pre : States

ord

ature
Stations
States

Pre-
Stations

ord

ord High-Low- cip'n

High-Low- cip'n Jan. July est. est. (ins.)

Jan. July est. est. (ins.)
Ala
Mobile.

52
81
103 - 1 61.6|Neb.

Omaha

22

114

-32 27.8 Ariz. Phoenix. 51 90 119 16 7.81|Nev Winnemucca.

29

108 -- 36 8.5 Ark. Little Rock. 41 81 110 -12 48.41N.C Charlotte. 41 78 103 - 5' 46.0 Calli.. San Francisco 50 58 101 27] 22.0N. D. Bismarck. 8 70 114 45 16.3 Colo. Denver 30 72 105 -29 14.0N. H.. Concord

22

102 -35 37.5 Conn.. New Haven.. 28 72 101 -1545.5|N. J... JAtlantic City 32

104 - 9| 40.6 D. of C. Washington..

34
77 106 -15 42.2|N. M.. Santa Fe.. 29

97 13 14.3
Fla Key West 70 84 100 41 38.1|N. Y.. N. Y. City 31 74 102 -14 43.0
Ga..
Atlants.

78 103 · 81 48.3|Ohlo. Cincinnati, 30 75 108 --17 38.6 Idaho.. Boise. 30 73 121 -28 13.1|Okla.. Oklahoma. 36

113 -171 31.2 Chicago. 24 72 105 -231 32.9| Ore.. Portland

39

105 - 2 41.6 Ind. Indianapolis

76
106 -25 39.9 Pa., Philadelphia 33

106 -111 40.4 Iowa..

Dubuque. 19 74 110 -321 32.9R. I. Block Island. 31 68 92 -101 41.3
Wichita

31 79 114 -22] 30.1|||S. C. Charleston.. 50 81 104 7 45.2 Ky.. Louisville. 34 79 107 201 43.3|S. D. Pierre

16 75 115 -401 16.7 New Orleans. 54 82 102 7 57.5|Tenn. Nashville 39 79 106

-13 47.2 Me. Portland, 22 68 103 --21 41.9| Tex Galveston

54 83 101

81 44.8 Md...

Baltimore.. 34 77 107 -- 742.6|Utah. Salt Lake C.. 29 76 105 --201 16.1 Mass... Boston. 104 -18) 40.1Vt. Burlington 19 70

100 -291 31.6 Mich.. Detroit 24 72 105 -24 32.0Va. Norfolk.

41 79 105

21 44.1 Minn... Minn.-S. Paull 13 72 108 41 27.4|Wash...Seattle

40 63 98

31 34.0 Miss.... Vicksburg 48 81 104 -1 51.9||W. V&.. Parkersburg. 32 75 106 -27 39.4 Mo.. St. Louis.. 31 79 110 -22 37.4|Wis.. Milwaukec. 21 70 105 -25 30.1 Mont... Helena... 20 | 66 103 42 13.6||Wyo.... Cheyenne...

26 67 100 -38 15.0 The minus (---) sign indicates temperature below Gabriel mountains of California, 1.03 inches of zero. Fahrenheit thermometer registration.

rain--equivalent to 116 tons of water per acrenfell On April 5, 1926, at Opid's Camp, in the San in one minute.

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72

Monthly Mean Temperature and Precipitation

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Source: United States Weather Bureau
UNITED STATES CITIES (TEMP., FAHRENHEIT; PRECIPITATION, IN INCHES
Jan. Feb. Mar.

April

May June July | Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Stations.

T. P. T. P. T. P. T.P. T., P. T. P.T. P. T., P. T. T., P. T., P.T., P. Albany

23 2.4 24 2.5 33 2.61 472.5 69 2.9 68 3.4 73 3.4 71 3.7 63 3.1 52 2.7 39 2.8 28 2.6 Asheville.

35 3.1 38 3.2 45 4.0 54 3.0 633.469 3.9 724.3 70 4.2 65 3.0 55 2.8 45 2.2 38 3.2 Atlanta

43 5.0 45 4.8 52 5.3 613.6 70 3.5 76 3.7 78 4.677 4.4 72 3.0 03 2.6 52 3.0 45 4.7 Bismarck.

80.4 100.4 240.9 42 1.5 54 2.3 64 3.4 70 2.2 67 1.8 58 1.2 45 0.9 28 0.6 15 0.6 Boston.

28 3.6 29 3.4 363.61 46 3.3 573.2) 66 2.9 723.5 70 3.6 63 3.1 54 3.2 42 3.3 32 3.4 Buffalo,

25 3.3 24 3.0 312.6 43 2.6 55 3.1 64 2.8 70 3.0 693.1 62 2.9 52 3.3 39 3.0 30 3.4 Charleston. 50 3.0 52 3.0 57 3.0 642.5 73 3.0 794.6 816.9 81 6.5 77 4.5 68 3.3 58 2.1) 52 2.7 Chicago.

241.9 26 2.1 35 2.6472.8 58 3.5 67 3.3 72 3.3 72 3.2 65 3.1 54 2.5 40 2.4 29 2.0 Cincinnati. 30 3.5| 33 3.0 413.9 52 3.1 63 3.7 713.7 75 3.3 74 3.4 67 2.6 56 2.5 42 2.8 33 3.0 Cleveland.

26 2.5 27 2.5 35 2.71 462.41 58 3.1 67 3.1 713.4 70 2.8 64 3.3 54 2.8 41 2.6 31 2.4 Dallas..

45 2.4 50 2.3 57 2.9 65 4.3 73 4.5 80 3.9 84 2.9 84 2.81 77 2.7 67 2.7 56 2.5 48 2.4 Denver.

300.4 33 0.5 39 1.0 47 2.1 56 2,2 66 1.4 72 1.71 71 1.4 63 1.0 51 10 40 0.6 32 0.7 Detroit.

24 2.1 252.21 33 2.4 462.5 58 3.2 67 3.6 72 3.3 70 2.8 64 2.9 52 2.4 39 2.41 29 2.4 Galveston. 54 3.4 56 2.8 622.7 693.11 75 3.4 81 4.4 833.71 83 4. 80 5.6 731 4.4 63 3.31 56 3.8 Ilelena

2010.9 230.6 32 0.8 44 1.1 52 2.3 59 2.3 661.1 65 0.8 57 1.2 45 0.91 33 0.7) 240.8 Jacksonville. 55 2.8) 58 3.0 63 2.9 69 2.4 75 4.0 80 5.3 82 6.7 825.81 781 7.4 71 4.5 62 2.0 563.0 Juneau.

28 7.2 30 5.6 34 5.5 41 5.4 48 5.2 54 3.8 57 5.0 55 7.0 50 10.2 43 11.2 36 9.0 317.4 Kansas City 28 1.21 31 18 43 2.5 55 3.1 65 4.6 74 5.0 78 4.1 77 4.1 60 4.6 58 2.9 44 1.8/ 321.3 Los Angeles. 55 31 56 3.1 58 2.8 59 10 620.4 66 0.1 7000 710 69 0.265 0.7) 61 1.2 572.6 Memphis.

41 4.81 44 4.4 52 53 62 4.8 71 4.2 78 3.6 813.2 79 3.4 74 2.8 63 2.7 52 4.2 44 4.5 Miami.

66 2.5 671.8 70 2.2 73 3.1 76 6.2 80 6.9 815.4 81 6.2 80 8.3 77 8.4 72 2.0 68 1.7 Minneapolis 13 0.9 16 1.0 30 1.4 46 2.2 58 3.7 68 4,2 7237 70 3.1 61 3.1 49 2.1 32 1.3 20 1.0 Mobile.

52 4.4 55 5.3 60 6.0 66 4.6 74 4.3 80 5.4 81 6.9 8116.9 73 5.0 69 3.6 59 3.6 52 5.0 New Orleans. 54 4.3 57 4.2 63 4.71 69 5.2 75 4.6 81 5.9 82 6.4 82 5.8 79 5.0 71 3.3 62 3.1 56 4.8 New York

3137 31 3.8 38 3.6 49 3.2 61 3.2 693.3 744.2 73 4.3 67 3.4 56 3.5 44 3.0 35 3.6 Oklahoma City. 36 1.2 40 11 50 2.0 60 3.3 68 4.9 70 3.7 81 2.9 80 2.9 73 3.0 62 2.9 49 1.9 39 1.5 Philadelphia.. 33 3.3 34 33 413.4 52 3.0 63 3.3 713.2 76 4.2 75 4.6 68 3.1 58 2.8 46 2.7 36 3.4 Phoenix

51 0.8 55 0.8 610.7 67 0,4 75 0.1 840.1 90/1.1 88 1.0 83 0.8 71 0.5 60 0.7 52 1.0 Pittsburgh 31 3.0 32 2.6 40 3.0 51 2.9 62 3.2 71 3.8 75 4.0 73 3.2 66 2.61 56 2.5 43 23 342.9 St. Louis.

31 2.3 35 2.6 44 3.4 56 3.8 67 4.3 75 3.8 793.0 78 3.0 70 3.5 59 2.7 45 2.8 35 2.2 St. Paul..

13 0.9 16 0.9 29 14 462.4 59 3.3 674.1 72 3.6 69 3.0 61 3.1 49 2.2 32 1.3 191.1 Salt Lake City 291.3 34 1.5 42 20 50 2.0 57 1.91 67 0.81 76 0.5 740.8/ 64 1.052 1.41 41 1.4 32 1.4 San Antonio 52 1.5 55 1.6 63 1.8 69 3.2 75 3.2 81 2.5 84 2.2 84 2.4 79 3.0 70 2.2 60 1.9 54 1.6 San Francisco. 50 4.5 523.854 3.1 55 1.6 570.8 5810.2 580.0 590.0 61 0.4 601 1.1 56 2.4 51 4.0 Santa Fe.

29 0.7 33 0.8 40.0.81 47 1.0 56 1.3 65 1.1 69 2.4 67 2.3 61 1.4 50 1.2 391 0.71 310.7 Seattle.

40 4.9 413.9 45 3.0 492.4 54 1.9 59 1.3 6310.6 630.7 58 1.81 51 2.8 46 5.0 42 5.6 SIOUX City. 180.7 21 0.8 33 1.2 48 2.7 60 4.0 70 4.0743.5 72 3.1 63 3.0 51 18 35 1.0 23 0.9 Sitka...

32 7.8 34 6.8 37 5.9 415.6 47 4 11 523.3 55 1.3 567.1| 52 10.3 42 12 6 39 10.0 35 9.0 Spokane

28 2.2 31 1.8 401.2 481.1 56 1.4 63 1.3 690.7 68 0.6 59 0.9 48 1.2 38 2.1 30 2.2 Washington... 33 3.6 353.3 43/3.8 53 3.3 643.71 72 4.11 77/4,7/ 75 4.0 68 3.21 571 2.8 45 2.4 373.3

THE MEANING OF "1 INCH OF RAIN" An acre of ground contains 43,560 square feet. 8.345 pounds. Consequently a rainfall of 1 inch Consequently, & rainfall of 1 inch over 1 acre of over 1 acre of ground would mean 27,143 gallons of ground would mean a total of 6,272,640 cubic inches water. This is equivalent to 603 barrels of 45 of water. This is equivalent to 3.630 cubic feet. gallons each.

As a cubic foot of pure water weighs about 62.4 A rainfall of 1 inch on a roof of 3,000 square feet pounds, the exact amount varying with the density, would mean 432,000 cubic inches, or 250 cubic feet, it follows that the weight of a uniform coating of available for the cistern. This is equal to 1.870 1 inch of rain over 1 acre of surface would be U. S gallon, or 41.5 barrels of 45 gallons each. 226,512 pounds, or 11314 short tons.

Ten inches of snow equals in water content, on The weight of 1 U. S. gallon of pure water is the average, about one inch of rain.

Days' Lengths at N. Y. City-Sunrise to Sunset

-AM Non

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Source: United States Weather Bureau Days Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec,

H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H. M. H.M. H. M 1. 9.17 10. 6 11.17 12.42 13.58 14.56 15. 5 14.20 13. 6 11.45 10. 25

9.27 2.

9.18 10. 8 11.19 12.44 14. 1 14.57 15. 4 14.18 13. 3 11.43 10.23 9.25 3. 9.19 10.11 11.22 12.47 14 3 14.58 15. 4 14.16 13. 1 11.40 10. 20 9.24 4. 9. 20

10.13 11.25 12.50 14. 5 14.59 15. 2 14.14 12.58 11.38 10.18 9.23 5. 9.21

10.15 11.27 12.53 14. 8 15. 0 15. 1 14.12 12.57 11.35 10.15 9.22 9.22 10.17 11.30 12.55

14.10 15. 1 15. 1 14.10 12.54 11.32 10.13 9.21 7. 9.23

10.20 11.33 12.58 14.12 15. 1 15. 0 14. 8 12.51 11.30 10.11 9.20 8. 9.24 10.23 11.36 13. 0 14.14 15. 2 14.59

14. 5

12.49 11.27 10. 8 9.19 9.25 10.25 11.39 13. 3 14.16 15. 4 14.58 14. 4 12. 46 11. 24 10. 6 9.15 10. 9.26 10.27 11.41 13. 6 14. 18 15. 4 14.57 14. 2 12.43 11.22 10. 4 9.18 11 9.28 10.29 11.44 13. 8 14.20 15. 5 14.56 13.58 12.40 11.19 10. 2 9.17 12 9.29 10.33 11.47 13.11 14.23 15. 5 14.55 13.56 12.37 11.17 10. 0 9.16 13 9.30 10.35 11.49 13.13 14.25 15. 6 14.53 13.54 12.34 11.13 9.59 9.15 14 9.32 10.37 11.52 13.16 14.27 15. 6 14.52 13.51 12.31 11.10 9.56 9.15 15 9.33 10.40 11.54 13.18 14.29 15. 6 14.51 13.49 12.30 11. 8 9.54 9.15 16. 10.42 11.47 13.21 14.30 15. 7

14.49 13.47 12.27 11. 5 9.52 9.14 17 9.37 10.45 12.01 13. 25 14.32

15. 7 14.48 13.44 12.24 11. 3 9.50 9.13 18 9.38 10.48 12. 3 13.26

14.34

15. 7 14.46 13.42 12.22 11. 0 9.48 9.14 19 9,40 10.50 12. 6 13.28 14.36 15. 8 14.44 13.39 12.18 10.58

9.47

9.13 20 9.42 10.52 12. 9 13.32 14.38 15. 7 14.43 13.37 12.15 10.55 9.44 9.1 21 9.43 10.55 12.11 13.34 14.39 15. 7 14.41 13.34 12.14 10.53 9.42 9.13 22 9.46 10.58 12.14 13.37 14.41 15. 7 14.40 13.32 12.11 10.51 9.41 9.13 23 9.48 11. 1 12.17 13.39 14.43 15. 8 14.38 13.29 12. 8 10.47

9.39

9.13 24 9.49 11. 3 12.19 13.42 14.45 15. 7 14.36 13.27 12. 6 10.45 9.37 9.14 25 9.51 11. 6 12.22 13.44 14.46 15. 7 14.34 13.25 12. 3 10.42 9.35 9.13 26 9.54

11. 8 12.25 13.47 14.48 15. 7 14.32 13.22 12. 0 10.40 9.33 9.14 27 9.56 11.10 12.27 13.49 14.50 15. 6 14.31 13.19 11.57 10.38 9.32 9.14 28. 9.58 11.14 12.30 13.51 14.50 15. 6 14.29 13. 17

11.54 10.35 9.31

9.14 29 9.59 12 33 13 54 14.52 15. 6

14.27 13.15 11.51 10.32 9.29 9.15 30. 10. 1

12 35 13 56
14 53 15. 5 14.25 13.12 11.48 10.30 9.28

9.16 31 ... 10. 4

12.38
14.55
14.23 13. 9

10.27

9.16 The above table is one of averages and is approximately correct for an average year. There are slight variations from year to year, in extreme cases as much as 2 or 3 minutes a day. Table does not show length of day in seconds.

9.35

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Daily Normal High and Low Temperature at New York City

Source: United States Weather Bureau

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1. 2. 3..

GSS Max.

441 32

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 12. 13. 14 15. 16. 17 18. 19.

381 26 37 24 41 26 51 36 63 48 73 57 80 64 82 67 77 64 69 55 57

43 45 32 38 26 37 24 41 26 52 361 64 481 74 57 80 641 821 67 771 64 691 541 57 42 451 32 38 26 37 241 41 26 52 361 64

481 74 58 81 64 821 67 77 63 69 51 56 42 38 26 37 24 42 26 52 371 64 491 74 581 81 64 821 67 77 031 OS 54

41

31 38) 25 37 24 42 27 53 37 65

49 74 581 81 64 82 671 76

63 68 53

41

441 31 38 25 37 24 42 27 53 381 65 501 75 58 81 651 82 67 76 631 68 53 55 41

31 38 25 37 24 42 27 54 38 66 50 75 59 81 651 81 67 761 62 67 52 401 31 31 38 25 38 24 43 28 54 391 66 50 75 59 81 651 81 671 70 62 67 52 54 401 43 30 381 25 38 24 431 28 55 391 661 50 76 591 81 651 81 671 761 62 66 52 54 401 431 30 38 25 38 24 431 28 55 39 67 51 76 59 82 651 81 67 75 62 66 51 53 391 421 30 37 25 38 24 44 28 55 40 671 51 76 60 82 66 81 67 751 61 66 51 531 39 30 371 25 381 24 44 29 56 40 67 52 76 601 821 061 81 67 751 61 651 51 52 381 4: 30 37 25 38 24 44 29 56 41 68 52 77 601 82 661 81 67 741 61 65 50 52 38 42 29 37| 24 381 24 44 29 571 41 68 521 77 601 821 66 81 671 74 60 6.5 50 52 38 41 29 37 24 38 24 45 30 57 42 68 52 77 60 82 66 80 671 74 60 441 491 51 37 41 29 37 241 38 24 45 30 58 421 691 53 77 61 82 661 80 66 74 601 64 491 51 37| 41| 29 371 24 381 24 46 30 58 421 69 53 78 61 82) 66 80 661 741 601 63 49 501 37 41 28 37 24 39 241 46 30 581 431 691 53 781 61 82) 66 80 66 73 59 63 48 50 36

401 28 37 24 39 24 46 31 59 431 70 54 781 61 82 661 80 66 73 591 631 48 49 36

401 29 37 24 391 24 46 31 59 44 70 54 781 62 821 66 80 66 73 591 621 471 491 36 40 37) 24 39 25 47 32 60 44 701 54 781 62 82 67 Sol 66 72 58 62 47 49 35 401 29 37 24 39 25 471 32 60 44 701 54 79 62 82 671 79 66 721 581 61 47 48 35 401 28 37 24 40 251 48 32 60 45) 71 55 79 621 82 67 79 66 72 581 61 46 48 35 37 24 40 25 48 33 61 45 71 55 791 02 82 67 79 65 72 571 60 46 481 34

39 27 371 24 40 25 481 331 61 46 71 55 79 631 821 671 79 651 711 571 60 45 471 34 37 24 40 25 49 33 62 46 72) 56 79 631 821 67 79 65 71 57 60 45 471 34 391 27 37 24 40 26 491 34 62 46 72) 56 S01 63 2 671 781 65 71 561 59| 45 46 34 39 27 37 24 401 26 501 34 62 47 72] 50 SO 63 21 67 781 651 701 561 59 44 461 33

391 25 37 24 40 26 501 34 63 47 73 56 80 63 82 671 781 64 70 56 581 44 461 33 39 37 24

50 351 63 47 731 57 80 64 82 671 781 64 70 551 5S 43 451 331 31 26 37 24 51 35 731 57 82 67 78 64

55| 43

381 26

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401 27

25.

391 27

26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

Means

371 24 38 24 45 30 57 42 68

53 77 60 82

66 80

661 741 601 64 491 51 37 41 29

Extremes of Precipitation and Snowfall at New York (Inches)

Source: United States Weather Bureau
Precipitation
Snowfall

Precipitation

Snowfall
Montb Greatest

Greatesti
Month Greatest

Greatest
in 24 H. Day Yr. in 24 H. Day Yr.

in 24 H. Day Yr. in 24 H. Day

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