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Protestant Episcopal Calendar, 1942, with Altar Colors
White From the First Service (First Vespers) of Red-From First Vespers of Pentecost to the Christmas Day to the Octave of Epiphany, inclusive First Vespers of Trinity Sunday (which includes (except on the Feasts of Martyrs); on Maundy | Ember Days); Holy Innocents (if on a Sunday), Thursday (for the celebration); from the First and Feasts of all Martyrs. Service of Easter Day to the Vigil of Pentecost Violet--From Septuagesima to Maundy Thursday (except on Feasts of Martyrs and Rogation Days): (Easter Eve); Advent Sunday to Christmas Eve, on Trinity Sunday, Conversion of St. Paul, Purin - Vigils, Ember Days (except in Whitsun Week); cation, Annunciation, St. John Baptist, St. and Rogation Days; Holy Innocents (unless SunMichael, St. Luke, All Saints, Saints not Martyrs, day). and Patron Saints (Transfiguration and Dedication Black-Good Friday and at funerals. of Church).
Green-All other days.
1943 Golden Number.
6 Sunday Letter..
с Sundays after Epiphany.
Jan. 24 Feb. 13 Feb. 5 Jan. 21 Feb. 9) Feb. 1 Feb. 21 Ash Wednesday. Feb. 10 Mar. 2 Feb. 22 Feb. 7
26 Feb. 18 Mar. 10 First Sunday in Lent.
Feb. 141 Mar, 6 Feb. 26 Feb. 11 Mar. 2 Feb. 22 Mar 14 Passion Day..
Mar. 14 April 3 Mar. 26 Mar. 10 Mar. 30 Mar. 22 April 11 Palm Sunday.
Mar. 21 April 10 April 2 Mar. 17 April 6 Mar. 29 April 18 Good Friday.
Mar. 26 April 15 April 7 Mar. 22 April 11 April 3 April 23 Easter Day
Mar. 28 April 17 April 9 Mar. 24 April 13 April 5 April 25 Rogation Sunday
May 2 May 22 May 14 April 28 May 18 May 10 May 30 Ascension Day.
6) May 26 May 18 May 2 May 22 May 14 June 3 Whiteunday
May 16 June 5 May 28 May 12 June 1 May 24 June 13 Trinity Sunday
May 23 June 12 June 4 May 19 June 8 May 31 June 20 Sundays after Trinity
22 First Sunday in Advent.. Nov. 28 Nov. 27| Dec. 3
1 Nov. 30 Nov. 29 Nov. 28
Greek Church Calendar, 1942
Holy Days Jan. 1 Circumcision
Aug. 30 St. Alexander Nevsky* Jan. 6 Theophany (Epiphany) May 24 Pentecost
Sept. 8 Nativity of Theotokos Feb. 2 Hypapante (Purincation) May 25 Holy Ghost
Sept. 14 Exaltation of Cross Feb. 18 Great Lent Begins June 24 St. John Baptist
Oct. 1 Patronage of Theotokos Mar. 25 Annunciation
June 29 Peter and Paul (Chief Nov. 15 First day of Fast of Mar. 29 Palm Sunday
Nov. 21 Entranee of Theotokos April 5 Holy Pasch (Easter) Aug. 6 Transfiguration
Dec. 9 Concept of Theotokos April 23 St. George
Aug. 15 Repose of Theotokos Dec, 25 Nativity (Christmas) * Peculiar to Russia. The dates above are accord- Gregorian calendar, add 10 days for the years 1582 ing to the Gregorian calendar, which was adopted to 1700; 11 days from 1700 to 1800; 12 days from by the Greek Church in 1923: September 30 Old 1800 to 1900; 13 days since 1900. Style for that year is followed by October 14 New In 1942 the Greek Orthodox Church will observe Style. To change from the Julian calendar to the all Holy Days on the dates given above,
Ash Wednesday and Easter Sunday
Source: Observatory and Ecclesiastical Computations
Ash Easter Year Wed. Suoday Year Wed. Sunday Year Wed. Sunday Year Wed. Sunday 1801.. Feb. 18 April 5 1851. Mar. 5 April 20 1901.
Feb. 20 April 7 1951... Feb. 7 Mar. 25 1802 Mar. 3 April 18 1852. Feb. 25 April 11 1902 Feb. 12 Mar. 30. 1952. Feb. 27 April 13 1803 Feb. 23 April 10 1853. Feb. 9 Mar. 27 1903 Feb. 25 April 12 1953 Feb. 18 April. 5 1804 Feb. 15 April 1 1854 Mar. 1 April 16 1904.
Feb. 17 April 3 1954. Mar. 3 April 18 1805 Feb. 27 April 14 1855 Feb. 21 April 8 1905. Mar. 8 April 23 1955. Feb. 23 April 10 1806 Feb. 19 April 6 1856 .Feb.
6 Mar. 23 1906 Feb. 28 April 15 1956. Feb. 15 April 1 1807 Feb. 11 Mar. 29 1857 Feb. 25 April 12 1907 Feb. 13 Mar. 31/1957. Mar. 6 April 21 1808 Mar. 2 April 17 1858. Feb. 17 April 4 1908. Mur.
4 April 191958. Feb. 19 April 6 1809 Feb. 15 April 2 1859 Mar. 9 April 24 1909. Feb. 24 April 11/1959. Feb. 11 Mar. 29 1810 Mar. 7 April 22 1860 Feb. 22 April 8 1910
9 Mar. 271 1960.
2 April 17 1811 Feb. 27 April 14 1861 Feb. 13 Mar 3111911 Mar. 1 April 161961. Feb. 15 April 2 1812 Feb. 12 Mar. 29 1862. Mar. 5 April 20 1912, Feb. 21 April 7|1962. Mar. 7 April 22 1813 Mar. 3 April 18 1863 Feb. 18 April 51913 Feb. 5 Mar. 231963.. Feb. 27 April 14 1814
Feb. 23 April 10 1864 Feb. 10 Mar. 27|1914. Feb. 25 April 12|1964. Feb. 12 Mar. 29 1815 Feb. 8 Mar. 26. 1865.
Feb. 17 April 4 1965. Mar. 3 April 18 1816 Feb. 28 April 14 1866 Feb. 14 April 11916. Mar.
8 April 23|1966. Feb. 23 April 10 1817
leb. 19 April 6 1867 Mar. 6 April 211917, Feb. 21 April 8 1967. Feb. 8 Mar. 26 1818 Feb.
4 Mar. 22 1868 Feb. 26 April 12 1918 Feb. 13 Mar. 31/1968. Feb. 28 April 14 1819 Feb. 24 April 11 1869 Feb. 10 Mar. 28 1919 Mar.
5 April 201969. Feb. 19 April 6 1820 Feb. 16 April 2 1870. Mar. 2 April 17||1920
Feb. 18 April 4||1970. Feb. 11 Mar. 29 1821 Mar.
7 April 22 1871. Feb. 22 April 9 1921. Feb. 9 Mar. 27|1971.. Feb. 24 April 11 1822 Feb. 20 April 7 1872. Feb. 14 Mar. 31 1922. Mar. 1 April 16 1972. Feb. 16 April 2 1823 Feb. 12 Mar. 30 1873
Feb. 26 April 13 1923 Feb. 14 April 11973. Mar. 7 April 22 1824, Mar.
3 April 18 1874. Feb. 18 April 5 1924. Mar. 5 April 201974. Feb. 27 April 14 1825 Feb. 16 April 3 1875... Feb. 10 Mar. 28 1925. Feb. 25 April 12|1975. Feb. 12 Mar. 30 1826 Feb. 8 Mar. 26. 1876.
1 April 16 1926..
Feb. 17 April 4|1976. Mar. 3 April 18 1827 Feb. 28 April
Feb. 14 April 11927 Mar. 2 April 17|1977. Feb. 23 April 10 1828. Feb. 20 April 6 1878.
8 Mar. 26 1829 Mar. 4 April 19 1879 Feb. 26 April 13 1929 Feb. 13 Mar. 31/1979. Feb. 28 April 15 1830 Feb. 24 April 11 1880. Feb. 11 Mar. 28 1930 Mar. 5 April 201980. Feb. 20 April 6 1831, Feb. 16 April 3 1881... Mar. 2 April 171931 Feb. 18 April 51981. Mar. 4 April 19 1832
Mar. 7 April 22 1882 Feb. 22 April 9 1932 Feb. 10 Mar. 27|1982. Feb. 24 April 11 1833 Feb. 20 April 7 1883.
Feb. 7 Mar. 25 1933 Mar. 1 April 16 1983. Feb. 16 April 3 1834. Feb, 12 Mar. 30 1884.. Feb. 27 April 13 1934. Feb. 14 April 1|1984. Mar. 7 April 22 1835 Mar.
4 April 19 1885.. Feb. 18 April 5 1935. Mar. 6 April 21/1985. Feb. 20 April 7 1836. Feb. 17 April 3 1886... Mar. 10 April 25 1936. Feb. 26 April 12|1986. Feb. 12 Mar. 30
Feb. 8 Mar. 26 1887... Feb. 23 April 10 1937. Feb. 10 Mar 28 1987.. Mar. 4 April 19 1838 Feb. 28 April 15 1888.. Feb. 15 April 11938. Mar.
2 April 17 1988. Feb. 17 April 3 1839 Feb. 18 Mar. 31 1889. Mar. 6 April 211939 Feb. 22 April 9/1989. leb. 8 Mar. 26 1840. Mar. 4 April 19 1890.. Feb. 19 April 61940. Feb. 7 Mar. 24 1990.. Feb. 28 April 15 1841. Feb. 24 April 11 1891... Feb. 11 Mar. 29 1941. Feb. 26 April 13 1991. Feb. 13 Mar. 31 1842
18 April 5 1992.. Mar. 4 April 19 1843 Mar. 1 April 16, 1893... Feb. 15 April 2 1943. Mar. 10 April 25 1993. Feb. 24 April 1 1844. Feb. 21 April 7 1894... Feb. 7 Mar. 25 1944.. Feb. 23 April 9/1994.. Feb. 16 April 3 1845 Feb. 5 Mar. 23 1895. Feb. 27 April 14 1945 Feb. 14 April 11995. Mar. 1 April 16 1846. Feb. 25 April 12 1896.. Feb. 19 April 5 1946. Mar.
6 April 21 1996. Feb. 21 April 7 1847 Feb. 17 April 4 1897 Mar. 3 April 18 1947 Feb. 19 April 6|1997. Feb. 12 Mar, 30 1848 Mar. 8 April 23 1898... Feb. 23 April 10 1948 Feb. 11 Mar. 28 1998. Feb. 25 April 12 1849. Feb. 21 April 8 1899. Feb. 15 April 21949 Mar. 2 April 17 1999. Feb. 17 April 4 1850. Feb. 13 Mar. 31 1900 .Feb. 28 April 15 1950, Feb. 22 April
91 2000 Mar. 8 April 23 In A. D. 325 the Council of the Christian days previous to Easter Sunday. not counting Churches at Nicea in Asia Minor (present-day Sundays. Nice or Isnik, in Asiatic Turkey) drew up the Lent originally was a period of but 40 hours. Nicene Creed, and also decided that Easter shall be Later it comprised 30 days of fasting, omitting all on the first Sunday following the Paschal Full the Sundays and also all the Saturdays except one. Moon which happens upon or next after the 21st Pope Gregory added Ash Wednesday to the fast, of March The principal reason was that the together with the remainder of that week, pilgrims needed moonlight to travel on their way The last seven days of Lent constitute Holy Week, to the great yearly Easter festivities. The date of beginning with Palm Sunday. Passion Week preEaster thus may vary between March 22 and April cedes Holy Week. The last Thursday--Maundy 25, over a period of 35 days.
Thursday-commemorates the Institution of the Because of this wide fluctuation the British Eucharist. Parliament in 1928 passed a permissive statute with The following day. Good Friday, commemorates the purpose of bringing Easter within the "orderly the day of the crucifixion. Mohammedans celebrate scope of a solar measurement of time," determining Friday as the day of Adam's creation. Among Gerprovisionally that it should be “the first Sunday mans Friday was sacred to the goddess-mother, after the second Saturday in April." This reduces wife of Odin. the range of variation less than a week. But the Easter is the chief festival of the Christian year, change was to awalt international consent and that commemorating the resurrection of Christ. It oca has so far not been obtained.
curs about the same time as the ancient heathen II Paschal Full Moon falls on a Sunday, then Roman celebration of the Vernal Equinox, the Easter Day is the next Sunday. The Paschal Full arrival of Spring. In the second century. A.D., Moon is the Fourteenth Day of a Lunar month Easter Day was, among Christians in Asia Minor reckoned according to an ancient ecclesiastical the 14th of Nisan, the seventh month of the Jewish computation and not the real or astronomical full calendar. The Christians in Europe observed the moon.
nearest Sunday. Lent, the great period of fasting in the Christian The Jewish calendar is based on days reckoned Church, begins on Ash Wednesday, which comes 40 from evening to evening.
The Golden Number, used in the table below, is greater by unity than the remainder obtained upon dividing the given year by 19; for example: 10 is the Golden Number for the year 1928; from the table, the date of Paschal Full Moon is April 5, and this being Thursday, Easter Sunday is on April 8, 1928.
DATE OF PASCHAL FULL MOON, 1900-2199
Mar. 30 April 3
Holidays of the World
Source: Official Records and World Almanac Questionnaire Christmas and New Year's are observed the , of the Virgin. Consecration of the lighted candles world over.
to be used in the church during the year. Also In Episcopal countries, such as England, the only known as "Groundhog Day" in the United States. church days which are regular legal holidays, aside Feb. 14. OLD CANDLEMAS: St. Valentine's Day. from Christmas, are Good Friday, Easter Monday, March 25. LADY DAY: Annunciation of the and Whit-Monday.
Virgin. In Roman Catholic countries, the church days April 6 is old Lady Day. other than Christmas which are usually legal holi- June 24. MIDSUMMER DAY: Feast of the Nativity days are Epiphany, Ascension, Assumption. All of John the Baptist. Saints', and Immaculate Conception. Throughout July 7 is old Midsummer Day. the Latin-American countries it is usual to observe July 15. ST. SWITHIN'S DAY. There was an old Good Friday and Corpus Christi.
superstition that if rain fell on this day it would In Lutheran countries Epiphany, Annunciation, continue forty days. Good Friday, Easter Monday, Ascension Day, Whit- Aug. 1. LAMMAS DAY. Originally in England Monday. Ash Wednesday, and Corpus Christi are the festival of the wheat harvest. In the church holidays.
the festival of St. Peter's miraculous deliverance OLD ENGLISH HOLIDAYS
from prison. Old Lammas Day is August 13. Jan. 6. TWELFTH DAY, or Twelfth-tide, some- Sept. 29. MICHAELMAS: Feast of St. Michael times called Old Christmas Daythe same as the Archangel. Old Michaelmas is Oct. 11. Epiphany, (Feast of the Three Kings). It is cele- Nov. 1. ALL-HALLOMAS: All-hallows, or AU brated in Spain as Christmas and in Italy as Saints' Day. The previous evening is All-hallowEpiphany (Befana Day). The previous evening is e'en. Twelfth Night. Since 1900 the Russian Orthodox Nov. 2. ALL SOULS' DAY. Day of prayer for the Church has observed Jan. 7 as Christmas, in as much souls of the dead. as 13 days instead of 12 now mark the difference Nov. 11. MARTIN MAS: Feast of St. Martin, Old between the old and the new or Gregorian calendar. Martinmas is Nov. 23.
Feb. 2. CANDLEMAS: Festival of the Purification Dec. 28. CHILDERMAS: Holy Innocents' Day.
Legal or Public Holidays in the United States in 1942
Source: World Almanac Questionnaire There are no "National" holidays in the United States. Each State has jurisdiction over the holidays to be observed. These are designated either by legislative enactment or executive proclamation. The only National holiday ever proclaimed by Congress was when they ordered (April 30, 1869) that the one hundredth anniversary of the Constitution be observed as a National holiday. The President and Congress designate for the District of Columbia and the Government employees throughout the Nation, but not for the States with the one exception referred to. The law signed by President Roosevelt (May 12, 1938) made November 11 a legal holiday in the District of Columbia, the Congress and the President having exclusive jurisdiction over the District.
The legal holidays in New York State are--New Years (Jan. 1); Lincoln's Birthday (Feb. 12); Washington's Birthday (Feb. 22); Memorial Day (May 30); Independence Day (July 4); Labor Day (1st Monday in Sept.); Columbus Day (Oct. 12); Election Day (1st Tuesday after ist Monday in November); Armistice Day (Nov. 11); Thanksgiving Day; Christmas Day (Dec. 25).
THE CHIEF LEGAL OR PUBLIC HOLIDAYS IN 1942 ARE: Jan. 1-New Years Day. In all the States District Oct. 12–Columbus Day. In Alabama, Arizona,
of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone, Hawaii, Philip- Arkansas (by some banks), California, Colorado pine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands.
(by some banks part of day), Connecticut, DelaJan. 20—Inauguration Day. Began in 1937. To be ware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana,
observed every fourth year from that date by Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massathe 20th Amendment to the Constitution. In the chusetts, Michigan (banks remain open), MisDistrict of Columbia only.
souri (possibly; banks close 12 noon), Montana, Feb. 12-Lincoln's Birthday. In California, Colo
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey. rado, Connecticut Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, (banks not closed), Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Missouri (banking transactions not affected). Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia (banks Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey. New remain open). Washington, Ohio, West Virginia, York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin, Wyoming. Puerto Rico, It is also South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Fraternal Day (In Alabama), Discovery Day Washington, West Virginia (by some banks),
(North Dakota) and Landing Day (Wisconsin). Wisconsin, Wyoming. Alaska (not observed by
Nov. 3—General Election Day (Ist Tuesday aiter Fe ral employees), Hawaii, Puerto Rico (by
the Ist Monday in November). In Arizona, Calibanks), Virgin Islands,
fornia, Colorado. Delaware, Florida, Idaho, IlliFeb. 22-Washington's Birthday. In all the States,
nois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone
Missouri Montana Nevada, New Hampshire, (not by banks), Hawaii, Philippine Islands,
New Jersey. New York, North Carolina, North
Dakota, Ohio (a half day), Oklahoma, Oregon, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. April 3-Good Friday. In Arizona (in 5 Coun
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina,
South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washties), Connecticut Delaware, Florida, Indiana,
ington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey.
Nov. 11-Armistice Day. In all the States. District North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina (in
of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone (not by banks), Charleston County). Tennessee, Canal Zone,
Hawaii, Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Hawail, Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands (Called "Victory Day" in Colorado, Islands In Connecticut Good Friday is usually
Tennessee, Texas and Hawalt.) proclaimed by the Governor as a day of fasting
Nov. 26– Thanksgiving Day (last Thursday in and prayer.
November) Every State, Territory and PosMay 30-Decoration or Memorial Day. In all the
session. Abraham Lincoln issued (1864) the first States, District of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone
Presidential Proclamation fixing Thanksgiving (not by banks), Hawaii, Philippine Islands,
Day as a holiday on the fourth or last Thursday Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, with the following
in November. In 1939, 1940 and 1941 observance exceptions--Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mis
was divided when President Roosevelt proclaimed sissippi, North Carolina (applies to State and
that the preceding Thursday be observed. The National banks only), South Carolina (Con
President proclaims only for the District of federate Memorial Day in Virginia.)
Columbia and Federal employees. States observe July 4Independence Day. In all the States. Dis
the day set by the Governors. President Roosevelt trict of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone, Hawaii,
announced (1941) that the traditional date would Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. be observed again in 1942 and thereafter. Sept. 7-Labor Day. In all the States, District of Dec. 25--Christmas Day. In all the States, District
Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone (not by banks). of Columbia, Territories and possessions, PhilipHawali, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands.
LEGAL AND PUBLIC HOLIDAYS (Continued)
OTHER LEGAL OR PUBLIC HOLIDAYS IN 1942 Jan 6-Three King's Day (Epiphany). In Puerto Mississippi, South Carolina, *Tennessee, Texas,
Rico, Virgin Islands (half holiday in St. Thomas Virginia. and St. John).
June 11-Kamehameha Day. In Hawaii. Jan. 8-Battle of New Orleans. In Louisiana. June 14-Flag Day, In Missouri (bank transacJan, 11-De Hostos' Birthday. In Puerto Rico.
tions not affected), Pennsylvania. Jan. 19--Lee's Birthday. In Alabama, Arkansas June 15-Pioneer Day. In Idaho.
(some banks), Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, June 17-Bunker Hill Day. In Massachusetts (in
some banks). Jan. 21-Foundation Day. In the Canal Zone.
June 22-Bolivarian Day. In the Canal Zone. Feb. 14-Admission Day. In Arizona.
June 24-San Juan Day. In Puerto Rico (bank Feb. 15--Constitution Day. In the Canal Zone.
holiday). Feb. 17—Shrove Tuesday. Observed as Madri Gras July 13--Gen. Bedford Forrest's Birthday. In
in Alabama, Florida (in cities and towns where Tennessee. carnival is celebrated), Louisiana (Parishes of
July 14-Bastile Day. In the Canal Zone. Jefferson, Orleans, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St.
July 17-Munoz Rivera's Birthday. In Puerto Rico. John the Baptist. East Baton Rouge), CanalZone.
July 24—Pioneer Day. In Utah. It is also Simon March 1-State Day. In Nebraska.
Bolivar Day in the Canal Zone. March 2-Texas Independence Day. In that State.
July 25-Occupation Day In Puerto Rico. It is March 15—Andrew Jackson's Birthday. In Ten
also Supplication Day in the Virgin Islands nessee.
(except at St. Croix). March 22-Emancipation Day. In Puerto Rico.
July 27-Barbosa's Birthday. In Puerto Rico. March 25-Maryland Day. In that State.
Aug. 1-Colorado Day. In that State. March 30--Seward's Day. In Alaska (Not observed
Aug. 13-Occupation Day. In the Philippine Isby Federal employees.)
lands. March 31--Transfer Day. In the Virgin Islands. Aug. 16–Bennington Battle Day. In Vermont. Avril 1-State Election. In Michigan.
Aug. 19-National Aviation Day. April 2-Holy Thursday. Philippine Islands, Vir- Aug. 30-Birthday of Huey P. Long. In Louisiana. gin Islands (except at St. Croix).
Sept. 9-Admission Day, in California. April 4-Holy Saturday. In the Canal Zone.
Sept. 12-Defenders' Day. In Maryland. April 6-Easter Monday. In North Carolina, Virgin Sept. 19%Regatta Day. In Hawaii. Islands.
Oct. 6-Missouri Day. In that State (banking April 12-Date of Passage of Halifax Independence transactions not affected). Resolution. In North Carolina.
Oct. 12-Fraternal Day (in Alabama); Discovery April 13–Thomas Jefferson's Birthday, In Ala- Day (in North Dakota); Landing Day (in Wisbama, Missouri (bank transactions not affected), consin). Oklahoma (banks not closed). Virginia.
Oct. 18—Alaska Day. In Alaska. (Not observed by April 16-De Diego's Birthday. In Puerto Rico. Federal employees.) April 19-Patriots' Day. In Maine, Massachusetts.
25-Thanksgiving Day (Hurricane). The April 21--San Jacinto Day. In Texas.
Virgin Islands (except in St. Croix). April 22-Arbor Day. In Nebraska.
Oct. 31-Nevada (Admission) Day. In that State. April 23—Fast Day. In New Hampshire. (Usually Nov. 1-All Saints' Day. In Louisiana. It is the 4th Thursday in April but not always. The Liberty Day in the Virgin Islands (St. Croix
date is determined by the Governor and Council). only).
Spain. In the Canal Zone. May 4-Rhode Island Independence Day. In that Nov. 15--Proclamation of the Commonwealth. In State.
the Philippine Islands. (This date may be May 10-Confederate Memorial Day. In North observed as a holiday). Carolina, South Carolina.
Nov. 19-Discovery Day. In Puerto Rico. May 20-Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. Nov. 23-Repudiation Day. In Maryland (bank in North Carolina.
half-holiday in Frederick County). May 25-Whit Monday. In the Virgin Islands. Nov. 28-Independence from Spain. In the Canal June 3-Birthday of Jefferson Davis or (*) Me. Zone.
morial Day. În Alabama, Arkansas (by some Nov. 30-Bonifacio Day. In the Philippine Islands. banks), Florida, Georgia, "Kentucky, Louisiana, Dec. 30-Rizal Day. In the Philippine Islands.
DAYS USUALLY OBSERVED IN SOME MANNER In New York State the General Construction Law Pan American Day is observed April 14, because makes Saturday, noon to midnight, a legal holi- on that date in 1890 the First International Conday. This is the case in almost all of the States. ference of American States, meeting in Washing
Susan B. Anthony Day, Feb. 15, is observed in ton, adopted a resolution that resulted in the honor of the birthday of the pioneer crusader for creation of the organization known today as the equal rights for women. On that day in 1938 the Pan American Union. The day is intended espeNational Park Service furnished a Sequoia (Big cially to appeal to schools. Tree) seedling for the grounds around the head- Mother's Day is the second Sunday in May: quarters of the National Woman's Party, the Alva
Father's Day, third Sunday in June: Child Health Belmont House, on B St., N. E., Washington, D. C. Day, May 1 (by annual Presidential ProclamaSt. Patrick's Day, March 17, is widely observed.
tion); National Maritime Day, May 1: American Gen. Washington, when encamped at Cambridge, Indian Day (fourth Friday in September); ConMass., in 1776, on the night of March 16, issued stitution Day, September 17 (date fixed). a special order authorizing as parole for the next
Forefathers' Day, Dec. 21 (landing on Plymouth day "Boston," and as countersign "St. Patrick."
Rock in 1620) is celebrated by dinners of New naming General John Sullivan as “Brigadier Gen- England societies everywhere and "Down East,"
the Day" Army Day, April 6, is observed in New York, and
National Maritime Day was first proclaimed in some other states, by a display of flags and by
1935, in commemoration of the departure of the military parades. Navy Day, October 27, sponsored annually by the
Savannah from Savannah, Ga., on May 22, 1819, on Navy League of the United States October is also
the first successful transatlantic voyage under the month in which the American Navy was steam propulsion. May 22 is an observance, not a founded (1775) by the Continental Congress. holiday.
PUBLIC STATUTORY HOLIDAYS IN CANADA, 1942 New Year's, Jan. 1; Good Friday, April 3; Easter Monday, April 6; Victoria Day, May 24; King's Birthday (*); Dominion Day, July 1; Labor Day, Sept. 7; Thanksgiving Day (); Remembrance Day. Nov. 11; Christmas, Dec. 25.
(*) The birthday of the reigning Sovereign, or the day fixed by proclamation for its celebration (usually June 9); (*) any day appointed by proclamation for a public holiday or for a general iast or general thanksgiving. (When New Year's, Christmas. Victoria Day, Dominion Day and Sovereign's Birthday fall on Sunday, the following day is observed as the holiday).
Source: United States Naval Observatory Time is the measurement of the earth's rotation or sidereal time is due to nutation. Its greatest on its axis. This rotation causes the stars to ap- value is only a little over a second, and its greatest pear to cross the sky from east to west, in the daily change is a little more than a hundredth of same manner as the Sun.
a second. Even if the Earth did not rotate at all on its own On account of the fact that this difference is so axis, the Sun would rise and set once during the small, sidereal time has generally been used by year because of the Earth's journey, around it.
astronomers. In recent years a few observatories, The stars are not within the Earth's orbit. They including the Naval Observatory, have begun to are so far distant that their apparent positions are
employ mean equinoctial time in computing the only very slightly affected by the Earth's orbital
rates of precision clocks. motion.
The Calendar Year begins at the stroke of 12 on The positions of the stars are commonly reckoned
the night of Dec. 31. The solar day and the calen
dar month also begin at midnight. The interval from a point in the sky known as the vernal
during which the Earth makes one absolute revoluequinox. That point moves very slowly among the stars.
tion round the Sun is called a Sidereal Year, and The period of the Earth's rotation measured with
consists of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.6
seconds. respect to the Vernal Equinox is called a sidereal
The Tropical Year, on which the return of the day. or apparent equinoctial day.
seasons depends, is the interval between two conThe period measured with respect to the Sun is secutive returns of the Sun to the Vernal Equinox, called an apparent solar day.
If this were a fixed point, the Sidereal and Tropical The apparent solar and sidereal days are of Years would be identical; but in consequence of the Variable length.
action of the Sun and Moon upon the equatorial The longest apparent solar day occurs about protuberance of the Earth's mass and, in a much Dec. 23, and it exceeds the average day in length less degree, the disturbing influence of the planets by approximately 30 seconds. In order to over- upon the Earth's orbit, the Equinox has a slow, recome this objection, mean time has been devised. trograde mean motion of 50" 26 annually, so that
Mean solar time, which is universally used in or- the Sun returns to the Equinox sooner every year dinary life, is sometimes ahead of and sometimes than it otherwise would by 20 minutes 23.6 seconds. behind apparent solar time, but on the average it The Tropical Year, therefore, consists of 365 is the same.
days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds. The The difference between these two kinds of time Tropical Year is not of uniform length: it is now is called the equation of time. Its maximum value slowly decreasing at the rate of .530 second per is & little over 16 minutes. The difference be- century, but this variation will not always contween mean equinoctial and apparent equinoctial | tinue.
TIME, WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH'S ROTATION.
Source: Smithsonian Physical Tables, Eighth Revised Edition The fluctuations in the earth's rate of rotation The greatest apparent change is the loss or gain indicated by astronomical evidence are of a quite of one sec. in a whole year (1 part
in 30.000.000). greater order of magnitude. Moreover, the changes
Tidal friction should make the earth rotate more vary in sign, whereas frictional effects should not. slowly and the moon recede from the earth. The
rate of dissipation of energy by friction is about The observations come from deviations of the
1.4 x 10'19 erg sec. sun and moon from their gravitational orbits, the The earth's rotation from this cause should have transits of Mercury, the eclipses of Jupiter's satel- slowed by 4 hours during geologic time. lites. Changes in the speed of rotation of the The moon should continue to recede until its earth rotation seem the only explanation.
period of revolution and that of the earth's rotaThis may be due to shifts of matter within or on tion are equal to 47 of our present days. the earth. The following figure by Brown indicates The moon should then gradually approach the that in 1928 the earth was about 25 sec. ahead of earth, ultimately coming within Roche's limit its average rotational motion during the last three
(about twice the earth's radius), breaking up. centuries.
possibly, into a ring like Saturn's.
Standard Time Source: U. S. Bureau of Standards; Interstate Commerce Commission "The rotation of the earth about its axis once in The following places on the boundary between 24 hours," says the U. S. Bureau of Standards, the Eastern and the Central Time Zones use "gives a time change of 1 hour for every 15° of Eastern Standard Time: longitude. That is, 1f observations were made on Dungannon, Va.; Bristol, Tenn.; Asheville, N. C.; the transit of the sun across the meridian at points
Franklin, N. C.; Apalachicola, Fla.
Georgia has adopted Eastern Standard Time for separated by 15° of longitude, it would be found
that state. that the time of transit at two such points would
Chicago is on Central Standard Time with the differ by 1 hour. If the separation of the points of
usual Daylight Saving in the Summer. observation were decreased, the difference in time
following municipalities located on the would be decreased in the same proportion.
boundary between the Central and the Mountain **Since the distance around the earth is less at Time Zones use Central Standard Time: points not on the Equator than at the Equator the
Murdo Mackenzie, S. Dak.; Phillipsburg. Kans.; distance on the earth's surface corresponding to a Stockton, Kans. Plainville, Kans.; Ellis, Kans. time difference is also less in the same proportion. All other places on this boundary use Mountain For example, at the Equator 15° corresponds to Standard Time. about 1,040 miles, while at the latitude of New
All municipalities on the boundary between the York 15° corresponds to only about 784 miles. Or, Mountain and the Pacific Time Zones use Mountain at the Equator, a difference of about 17 miles Standard Time except Huntington, Ore., which makes a time difference of 1 minute, while in the uses Pacific Standard Time. latitude of New York a difference of only 13 miles Standard time is used also in the territories outmakes a difference of 1 minute in true local time." side of the continental United States. The places
Although the United States has used standard and the time used (slower or faster than Greentime since 1883, no legislative action for the coun. wich) are given below: try as a whole is recorded until March 19, 1918, Official Alaska time is 10 hours slower: Guam when Congress directed the Interstate Commerce 10 hours faster; Hawaii, 1012 hours slower; Panama Commission to establish limits for the various time Canal Zone. 5 hours slower; Philippines. 8 hours zones in this country.
faster; Puerto Rico, 4 hours slower; Samoa. 11 The United States is divided into four standard
hours slower; Virgin Islands, 4 hours slower. time zones, each approximately 15° of longitude Alaska time, by act of Congress in 1918 was fixed in width. All places in each zone use, instead of
as that of the 150° meridian west, 10 hours slower their own local time, the time counted from the than Greenwich. Actually, however, four times transit of the mean sun" across the meridian are used in the territory 120°W, 135°W, 150 W, which passes through the approximate center of 165°W, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, and 11 hours that zone.
slow, respectively. These time zones are designated as Eastern, Standard time signals are transmitted from the Central, Mountain, and Pacific, and the time in U. S. Naval Observatory through NSS (Annapolis) these zones is reckoned from the 75th, 90th, 105th, and over wires to various points using this service. and 120th meridians west of Greenwich, respective- The NAA (Arlington) station has been abolished ly. The time in the various zones is slower than and the transmission of time signals has been Greenwich time by 5, 6, 7, and 8 hours, respectively. transferred to NSS (Annapolis).