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Protestant Episcopal Calendar, 1942, with Altar Colors

White From the First Service (First Vespers) of Christmas Day to the Octave of Epiphany, inclusive (except on the Feasts of Martyrs); on Maundy Thursday (for the celebration); from the First Service of Easter Day to the Vigil of Pentecost (except on Feasts of Martyrs and Rogation Days); on Trinity Sunday, Conversion of St. Paul, Purification, Annunciation, St. John Baptist, St. Michael, St. Luke, All Saints, Saints not Martyrs, and Patron Saints (Transfiguration and Dedication of Church).

Days, Etc.

Golden Number.

Sunday Letter

Sundays after Epiphany.


Ash Wednesday.

Red-From First Vespers of Pentecost to the First Vespers of Trinity Sunday (which includes Ember Days); Holy Innocents (if on a Sunday), and Feasts of all Martyrs.

Violet-From Septuagesima to Maundy Thursday (Easter Eve); Advent Sunday to Christmas Eve, Vigils, Ember Days (except in Whitsun Week); and Rogation Days; Holy Innocents (unless Sunday). Black-Good Friday and at funerals. Green-All other days.

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First Sunday in Lent.

Feb. 14 Mar.

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2 Feb. 22

Mar 14

Passion Day.......

Mar. 14 April

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Mar. 21 April

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Mar. 26 April

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Mar. 22


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April 23

Mar. 28 April

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Mar. 24

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April 25

May 2 May


May 14

April 28

May 18

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May 6 May

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May 2



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May 16 June

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May 23 June 12

June 4

May 19

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May 31

June 20



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Palm Sunday.

Good Friday.

Easter Day.

Rogation Sunday.

Ascension Day.

Trinity Sunday.

Sundays after Trinity.

First Sunday in Advent.

Nov. 28 Nov. 27 Dec. 3

Greek Church Calendar, 1942

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Ash Wednesday and Easter Sunday

Source: Observatory and Ecclesiastical Computations



1801. 1802.




Sunday Year
Feb. 18 April 5 1851.
Mar. 3 April 18 1852.
Feb. 23 April 10 1853.
Feb. 15 April 11854.
Feb. 27 April 14 1855.

Ash Easter
Wed. Sunday Year








Feb. 19 April 6 1856...Feb.
Feb. 11 Mar. 29 1857.
Mar. 2 April 17 1858
Feb. 15 April 2 1859..
Mar. 7 April 22 1860.
Feb. 27 April 14 1861.




5 April 20 1901. 25 April 11 1902. 9 Mar. 27 1903. 1 April 16 1904. 21 April 8 1905. 6 Mar. 23 1906 Feb. 25 April 12 1907 17 April 4 1908. Mar. 9 April 24 1909. 22 April 8 1910. 13 Mar. 31 1911


1813. 1814.





1819. 1820

1821 1822. 1823. 1824. 1825. 1826. 1827. 1828. 1829.

1830. 1831.

5 April 20 1912. 18 April 5 1913

Feb. 12 Mar. 29 1862...Mar. Mar. 3 April 18 1863.. Feb. Feb. 23 April 10 1864...Feb. 10 Mar. 27 1914. Feb. 8 Mar. 26 1865. Mar. 1 April 16 1915. Feb. 28 April 14 1866. Feb. 14 April 11916. Feb. 19 April 6 1867. Mar. 6 April 21 1917 Feb. 4 Mar. 22 1868 Feb. 26 April 12 1918. Feb. 24 April 11 1869. Feb. 10 Mar. 28 1919. Feb. 16 April 2 1870. Mar. 2 April 17 1920. Mar. 7 April 22 1871 Feb. 22 April 9 1921 Feb. 20 April 7 1872. Feb. 14 Mar. 31 1922. Feb. 12 Mar. 30 1873. Feb. 26 April 13 1923. Mar. 3 April 18 1874. Feb. 18 April 5 1924. Feb. 16 April 3 1875.. Feb. 10 Mar. 28 1925. Feb. 8 Mar. 26 1876. Mar. 1 April 16 1926. Feb. 28 April 15 1877. Feb. 14 April 11927 Feb. 20 April 6 1878. Mar. 6 April 21 1928. Mar. 4 April 19 1879.. Feb. 26 April 13 1929. Feb. 24 April 11 1880. Feb. 11 Mar. 28, 1930 Feb. 16 April 3 1881...Mar. 1832. Mar. 7 April 22 1882.. 1833. Feb. 20 April 7 1883.. 1834. Feb. 12 Mar. 30 1884. 1835. Mar. 4 April 19 1885. 1836. Feb. 17 April 3 1886. 1837 Feb. 8 Mar. 26 1887 1838. Feb. 28 April 15 1888. 1839. Feb. 18 Mar. 31 1889. 1840. Mar. 4 April 19 1890. 1841. Feb. 24 April 11 1891. 1842. Feb. 9 Mar. 27 1892. 1843. Mar. 1 April 16 1893. 1844. Feb. 21 April 7 1894. 1845. Feb. 5 Mar. 23 1895. 1846. Feb. 25 April 12 1896. 1847 Feb. 17 April 4 1897 1848. Mar. 8 April 23 1898. 1849. Feb. 21 April 8 1899.. 1850. Feb. 13 Mar. 31 1900

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Feb. 20 April 7 1951.
Feb. 12 Mar. 30 1952..
Feb. 25 April 12 1953.
Feb. 17 April 3 1954.
Mar. 8 April 23 1955.
Feb. 28 April 15 1956.
Feb. 13 Mar. 31 1957.
Mar. 4 April 19 1958.
Feb. 24 April 11 1959.
Feb. 9 Mar. 27 1960.
Mar. 1April 16 1961.
Feb. 21 April 7 1962...Mar.
Feb. 5 Mar. 23 1963..
Feb. 25 April 12 1964.
Feb. 17 April 4 1965.
Mar. 8 April 23 1966.
Feb. 21 April 8 1967.
Feb. 13 Mar. 31 1968.
Mar. 5 April 20 1969.
Feb. 18 April 4 1970.
Feb. 9 Mar. 27 1971.
Mar. 1April 16 1972...
Feb. 14 April 1973.
Mar. 5 April 20 1974.
Feb. 25 April 12 1975.
Feb. 17 April 4 1976.
Mar. 2 April 17 1977.
Feb. 22 April 8 1978.
Feb. 13 Mar. 31 1979.
Mar. 5 April 20 1980.
Feb. 18 April 5 1981.
Feb. 10 Mar. 27 1982..
Mar. 1 April 16 1983.
Feb. 14 April 1 1984.
Mar. 6 April 21 1985.
Feb. 26 April 12 1986
Feb. 10 Mar 28 1987.

2 April 17 15 April 2 7 April 22 Feb. 27 April 14 Feb. 12 Mar. 29 Mar. 3 April 18 Feb. 23 April 10 Feb. 8 Mar. 26 Feb. 28 April 14 Feb. 19 April 6 Feb. 11 Mar, 29 Feb. 24 April 11 Feb. 16 April 2 Mar. 7 April 22 Feb. 27 April 14 Feb. 12 Mar. 30 Mar. 3 April 18 Feb. 23 April 10 Feb. 8 Mar. 26 Feb. 28 April 15 Feb. 20 April 6 Mar. 4 April 19 Feb. 24 April 11 Feb. 16 April 3 Mar. 7 April 22 Feb. 20 April 7 Feb. 12 Mar. 30 Mar. 4 April 19 Feb. 17 April 3 Feb. 8 Mar. 26 Feb. 28 April 15 Feb. 13 Mar. 31 Mar. 4 April 19

2 April 17 1931.
Feb. 22 April 9 1932.
Feb. 7 Mar. 25 1933
Feb. 27 April 13 1934.
Feb. 18 April 5 1935.
Mar. 10 April 25 1936
Feb. 23 April 101937.
Feb. 15 April 1 1938.
2 April 17 1988.
Mar. 6 April 21 1939. Feb. 22 April 9 1989.
Feb. 19 April 6 1940. Feb. 7 Mar. 24 1990.
Feb. 11 Mar. 29 1941. Feb. 26 April 13 1991.
Mar. 2 April 17 1942. Feb. 18 April 5 1992..
Feb. 15 April 2 1943. Mar. 10 April 25 1993.
Feb. 7 Mar. 25 1944. Feb. 23 April 9 1994.
Feb. 27 April 14 1945. Feb. 14 April 1 1995.
Feb. 19 April 5 1946. Mar. 6 April 21 1996
Mar. 3 April 18 1947 Feb. 19 April 61997
Feb. 23 April 10 1948. Feb. 11 Mar. 28 1998.
Feb. 15 April 2 1949. Mar. 2 April 17 1999.
Feb. 28 April 15 1950, Feb. 22 April 9 2000.
days previous to Easter Sunday, not counting

In A. D. 325 the Council of the Christian Churches at Nicea in Asia Minor (present-day Nice or Isnik, in Asiatic Turkey) drew up the Nicene Creed, and also decided that Easter shall be on the first Sunday following the Paschal Full Moon which happens upon or next after the 21st of March. The principal reason was that the pilgrims needed moonlight to travel on their way to the great yearly Easter festivities. The date of Easter thus may vary between March 22 and April 25, over a period of 35 days.

Because of this wide fluctuation the British Parliament in 1928 passed a permissive statute with the purpose of bringing Easter within the "orderly scope of a solar measurement of time," determining provisionally that it should be "the first Sunday after the second Saturday in April." This reduces the range of variation less than a week. But the change was to await international consent and that has so far not been obtained.

If Paschal Full Moon falls on a Sunday, then Easter Day is the next Sunday. The Paschal Full Moon is the Fourteenth Day of a Lunar month reckoned according to an ancient ecclesiastical computation and not the real or astronomical full

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Lent originally was a period of but 40 hours. Later it comprised 30 days of fasting, omitting all the Sundays and also all the Saturdays except one. Pope Gregory added Ash Wednesday to the fast, together with the remainder of that week.

The last seven days of Lent constitute Holy Week, beginning with Palm Sunday. Passion Week precedes Holy Week. The last Thursday-Maundy Thursday commemorates the Institution of the Eucharist.

The following day, Good Friday, commemorates the day of the crucifixion. Mohammedans celebrate Friday as the day of Adam's creation. Among Germans Friday was sacred to the goddess-mother. wife of Odin.

Easter is the chief festival of the Christian_year. commemorating the resurrection of Christ. It occurs about the same time as the ancient heathen Roman celebration of the Vernal Equinox, the arrival of Spring. In the second century, A.D., Easter Day was, among Christians in Asia Minor, the 14th of Nisan, the seventh month of the Jewish calendar. The Christians in Europe observed the nearest Sunday.

The Jewish calendar is based on days reckoned from evening to evening.

The Golden Number, used in the table below, is greater by unity than the remainder obtained upon dividing the given year by 19; for example: 10 is the Golden Number for the year 1928; from the table, the date of Paschal Full Moon is April 5, and this being Thursday, Easter Sunday is on April 8, 1928.

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Holidays of the World

Source: Official Records and World Almanac Questionnaire

Christmas and New Year's are observed the world over.

In Episcopal countries, such as England, the only church days which are regular legal holidays, aside from Christmas, are Good Friday, Easter Monday, and Whit-Monday.

In Roman Catholic countries, the church days other than Christmas which are usually legal holidays are Epiphany, Ascension, Assumption, All Saints', and Immaculate Conception. Throughout the Latin-American countries it is usual to observe Good Friday and Corpus Christi.

In Lutheran countries Epiphany, Annunciation, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Ascension Day, WhitMonday, Ash Wednesday, and Corpus Christi are holidays.


Jan. 6. TWELFTH DAY, or Twelfth-tide, sometimes called Old Christmas Day, the same as Epiphany. (Feast of the Three Kings). It is celebrated in Spain as Christmas and in Italy as Epiphany (Befana Day). The previous evening is Twelfth Night. Since 1900 the Russian Orthodox Church has observed Jan. 7 as Christmas, in as much as 13 days instead of 12 now mark the difference between the old and the new or Gregorian calendar. Feb. 2. CANDLEMAS: Festival of the Purification

of the Virgin. Consecration of the lighted candles to be used in the church during the year. Also known as "Groundhog Day" in the United States. Feb. 14. OLD CANDLEMAS: St. Valentine's Day. March 25. LADY DAY: Annunciation of the Virgin.

April 6 is old Lady Day.

June 24. MIDSUMMER DAY: Feast of the Nativity of John the Baptist.

July 7 is old Midsummer Day.

July 15. ST. SWITHIN'S DAY. There was an old superstition that if rain fell on this day it would continue forty days.

Aug. 1. LAMMAS DAY. Originally in England the festival of the wheat harvest. In the church the festival of St. Peter's miraculous deliverance from prison. Old Lammas Day is August 13.

Sept. 29. MICHAELMAS: Feast of St. Michael the Archangel. Old Michaelmas is Oct. 11. Nov. 1. ALL-HALLOMAS: All-hallows. or All Saints' Day. The previous evening is All-hallowe'en.

Nov. 2. ALL SOULS' DAY. Day of prayer for the souls of the dead.

Nov. 11. MARTIN MAS: Feast of St. Martin. Old Martinmas is Nov. 23.

Dec. 28. CHILDERMAS: Holy Innocents' Day.

Legal or Public Holidays in the United States in 1942

Source: World Almanac Questionnaire

There are no "National" holidays in the United States. Each State has jurisdiction over the holidays to be observed. These are designated either by legislative enactment or executive proclamation. The only National holiday ever proclaimed by Congress was when they ordered (April 30, 1869) that the one hundredth anniversary of the Constitution be observed as a National holiday. The President and Congress designate for the District of Columbia and the Government employees throughout the Nation, but not for the States with the one exception referred to. The law signed by President Roosevelt (May 12, 1938) made November 11 a legal holiday in the District of Columbia, the Congress and the President having exclusive jurisdiction over the District.

The legal holidays in New York State are-New Years (Jan. 1); Lincoln's Birthday (Feb. 12): Washington's Birthday (Feb. 22); Memorial Day (May 30); Independence Day (July 4); Labor Day (1st Monday in Sept.); Columbus Day (Oct. 12); Election Day (1st Tuesday after 1st Monday in November); Armistice Day (Nov. 11); Thanksgiving Day; Christmas Day (Dec. 25).


Jan. 1-New Years Day. In all the States District | Oct. 12-Columbus Day. In Alabama, Arizona, of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone, Hawaii, Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. Jan. 20-Inauguration Day. Began in 1937. To be observed every fourth year from that date by the 20th Amendment to the Constitution. In the District of Columbia only.

Feb. 12-Lincoln's Birthday. In California, Colo-
rado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri (banking transactions not affected),
Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New
York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Washington, West Virginia (by some banks),
Wisconsin, Wyoming. Alaska (not observed by
Federal employees), Hawaii, Puerto Rico (by
banks), Virgin Islands.

Feb. 22-Washington's Birthday. In all the States,
the District of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone
(not by banks), Hawaii, Philippine Islands,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands.

April 3-Good Friday. In Arizona (in 5 Coun-
ties), Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Indiana,
Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey,
North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina (in
Charleston County), Tennessee, Canal Zone,
Hawaii, Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands. In Connecticut Good Friday is usually
proclaimed by the Governor as a day of fasting

and prayer.

May 30-Decoration or Memorial Day. In all the
States, District of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone
(not by banks), Hawaii, Philippine Islands,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, with the following
exceptions-Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, M's-
sissippi, North Carolina (applies to State and
National banks only), South Carolina (Con-
federate Memorial Day in Virginia.)
July 4-Independence Day. In all the States. Dis-
trict of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone, Hawaii,
Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands.
Sept. 7-Labor Day. In all the States, District of
Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone (not by banks),
Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands.


Arkansas (by some banks), California, Colorado (by some banks part of day), Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan (banks remain open), Missouri (possibly; banks close 12 noon), Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, (banks not closed), Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia (banks remain open), Washington, Ohio, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. Puerto Rico, It is Fraternal Day (In Alabama), Discovery Day (North Dakota) and Landing Day (Wisconsin). Nov. 3-General Election Day (1st Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November). In Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio (a half day), Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. Nov. 11-Armistice Day. In all the States, District of Columbia, Alaska, Canal Zone (not by banks), Hawaii, Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. (Called "Victory Day" in Colorado, Tennessee, Texas and Hawaii.) Nov. 26-Thanksgiving Day (last Thursday in November.) Every State, Territory and Possession. Abraham Lincoln issued (1864) the first Presidential Proclamation fixing Thanksgiving Day as a holiday on the fourth or last Thursday in November. In 1939, 1940 and 1941 observance was divided, when President Roosevelt proclaimed that the preceding Thursday be observed. The President proclaims only for the District of Columbia and Federal employees. States observe the day set by the Governors. President Roosevelt announced (1941) that the traditional date would be observed again in 1942 and thereafter. Dec. 25-Christmas Day. In all the States, District of Columbia, Territories and possessions, Philippine Islands.


Jan 6-Three King's Day (Epiphany)._In_Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands (half holiday in St. Thomas and St. John).

Jan. 8-Battle of New Orleans. In Louisiana.
Jan. 11-De Hostos' Birthday. In Puerto Rico.
Jan. 19-Lee's Birthday. In Alabama, Arkansas
(some banks), Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas. It is Lee-Jackson
Day, in Virginia.

Jan. 21-Foundation Day. In the Canal Zone.
Feb. 14-Admission Day. In Arizona.

Feb. 15-Constitution Day. In the Canal Zone. Feb. 17-Shrove Tuesday. Observed as Madri Gras in Alabama, Florida (in cities and towns where carnival is celebrated), Louisiana (Parishes of Jefferson, Orleans, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, East Baton Rouge), Canal Zone. March 1-State Day. In Nebraska.

March 2-Texas Independence Day. In that State. March 15-Andrew Jackson's Birthday. In Ten

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April 12-Date of Passage of Halifax Independence
Resolution. In North Carolina.
April 13-Thomas Jefferson's Birthday. In Ala-
bama, Missouri (bank transactions not affected),
Oklahoma (banks not closed), Virginia.
April 16-De Diego's Birthday. In Puerto Rico.
April 19-Patriots' Day. In Maine, Massachusetts.
April 21-San Jacinto Day. In Texas.
April 22-Arbor Day. In Nebraska.
April 23-Fast Day. In New Hampshire. (Usually
the 4th Thursday in April but not always. The
date is determined by the Governor and Council).
April 26-Memorial Day. In Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Mississippi. (Will be observed following

May 1-Labor Day. In the Canal Zone, Philippine

May 4-Rhode Island Independence Day. In that State.

May 10-Confederate Memorial Day. In North Carolina, South Carolina.

May 20-Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. in North Carolina.

May 25-Whit Monday. In the Virgin Islands. June 3-Birthday of Jefferson Davis or (*) Memorial Day. In Alabama, Arkansas (by some banks), Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, "Louisiana,

Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
In Hawaii.

June 11-Kamehameha Day.

June 14-Flag Day. In Missouri (bank transactions not affected), Pennsylvania. June 15-Pioneer Day. In Idaho.

June 17-Bunker Hill Day. In Massachusetts (in Suffolk County).

June 20-West Virginia Day. In that State (by some banks).

June 22-Bolivarian Day. In the Canal Zone. June 24-San Juan Day. In Puerto Rico (bank holiday).

July 13-Gen. Tennessee.

Bedford Forrest's Birthday. In

July 14-Bastile Day. In the Canal Zone.
July 17-Munoz Rivera's Birthday. In Puerto Rico.
July 24-Pioneer Day. In Utah. It is also Simon
Bolivar Day in the Canal Zone.

July 25-Occupation Day. In Puerto Rico. It is also Supplication Day in the Virgin Islands (except at St. Croix).

July 27-Barbosa's Birthday. In Puerto Rico.
Aug. 1-Colorado Day. In that State.

Aug. 13-Occupation Day. In the Philippine Islands.

Aug. 16-Bennington Battle Day. In Vermont.
Aug. 19-National Aviation Day.

Aug. 30-Birthday of Huey P. Long. In Louisiana.
Sept. 9-Admission Day. In California.
Sept. 12-Defenders' Day. In Maryland.
Sept. 19-Regatta Day. In Hawaii.

Oct. 6-Missouri Day. In that State (banking transactions not affected).

Oct. 12-Fraternal Day (in Alabama); Discovery Day (in North Dakota); Landing Day (in Wisconsin).

Oct. 18-Alaska Day. In Alaska. (Not observed by Federal employees.)


Oct. 25-Thanksgiving Day (Hurricane).
Virgin Islands (except in St. Croix).
Oct. 31-Nevada (Admission) Day. In that State.
Nov. 1-All Saints' Day. In Louisiana. It is
Liberty Day in the Virgin Islands (St. Croix

Nov. 2-Memorial Day. In the Canal Zone.
Nov. 3-Secession from Colombia. In the Canal

Nov. 10-First move toward Independence from
Spain. In the Canal Zone.

Nov. 15-Proclamation of the Commonwealth. In (This the Philippine Islands. date may be observed as a holiday).

Nov. 19-Discovery Day. In Puerto Rico. Nov. 23-Repudiation Day. In Maryland (bank half-holiday in Frederick County).

Nov. 28-Independence from Spain. In the Canal Zone.

Nov. 30-Bonifacio Day. In the Philippine Islands. Dec. 30-Rizal Day. In the Philippine Islands.


In New York State the General Construction Law makes Saturday, noon to midnight, a legal holiday. This is the case in almost all of the States. Susan B. Anthony Day, Feb. 15, is observed in honor of the birthday of the pioneer crusader for equal rights for women. On that day in 1938 the National Park Service furnished a Sequoia (Big Tree) seedling for the grounds around the headquarters of the National Woman's Party, the Alva Belmont House, on B St., N. E., Washington, D. C. St. Patrick's Day, March 17, is widely observed. Gen. Washington, when encamped at Cambridge, Mass., in 1776, on the night of March 16, issued a special order authorizing as parole for the next day Boston," and as countersign "St. Patrick." naming General John Sullivan as "Brigadier General of the Day."

Army Day, April 6, is observed in New York, and some other states, by a display of flags and by military parades.

Navy Day, October 27, sponsored annually by the Navy League of the United States. October is also the month in which the American Navy was founded (1775) by the Continental Congress.

Pan American Day is observed April 14, because on that date in 1890 the First International Conference of American States, meeting in Washington, adopted a resolution that resulted in the creation of the organization known today as the Pan American Union. The day is intended especially to appeal to schools.

Mother's Day is the second Sunday in May; Father's Day, third Sunday in June: Child Health Day, May 1 (by annual Presidential Proclamation); National Maritime Day, May 1; American Indian Day (fourth Friday in September); Constitution Day, September 17 (date fixed).

Forefathers' Day, Dec. 21 (landing on Plymouth Rock in 1620) is celebrated by dinners of New England societies everywhere and "Down East," but is not a public holiday.

National Maritime Day was first proclaimed in 1935, in commemoration of the departure of the Savannah from Savannah, Ga., on May 22, 1819, on the first successful transatlantic voyage under steam propulsion. May 22 is an observance, not a holiday.

PUBLIC STATUTORY HOLIDAYS IN CANADA, 1942 New Year's, Jan. 1; Good Friday, April 3; Easter Monday, April 6; Victoria Day, May 24; King's Birthday (*); Dominion Day, July 1; Labor Day, Sept. 7; Thanksgiving Day (); Remembrance Day, Nov. 11; Christmas, Dec. 25.

(*) The birthday of the reigning Sovereign, or the day fixed by proclamation for its celebration (usually June 9); (*) any day appointed by proclamation for a public holiday or for a general fast or general thanksgiving. (When New Year's, Christmas. Victoria Day, Dominion Day and Sovereign's Birthday fall on Sunday, the following day is observed as the holiday).

Astronomical Time

Source: United States Naval Observatory

Time is the measurement of the earth's rotation or sidereal time is due to nutation. Its greatest on its axis. This rotation causes the stars to ap- value is only a little over a second, and its greatest pear to cross the sky from east to west, in the daily change is a little more than a hundredth of same manner as the Sun.

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The period of the Earth's rotation measured with - respect to the Vernal Equinox is called a sidereal day, or apparent equinoctial day.

The period measured with respect to the Sun is called an apparent solar day.

The apparent solar and sidereal days are of variable length.

The longest apparent solar day occurs about Dec. 23, and it exceeds the average day in length by approximately 30 seconds. In order to overcome this objection, mean time has been devised.

Mean solar time, which is universally used in ordinary life, is sometimes ahead of and sometimes behind apparent solar time, but on the average it is the same.

a second.

On account of the fact that this difference is so small, sidereal time has generally been used by astronomers. In recent years a few observatories, including the Naval Observatory, have begun to employ mean equinoctial time in computing the rates of precision clocks.

The Calendar Year begins at the stroke of 12 on the night of Dec. 31. The solar day and the calendar month also begin at midnight. The interval during which the Earth makes one absolute revolution round the Sun is called a Sidereal Year, and consists of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.6 seconds.

The Tropical Year, on which the return of the seasons depends, is the interval between two consecutive returns of the Sun to the Vernal Equinox. If this were a fixed point, the Sidereal and Tropical Years would be identical; but in consequence of the action of the Sun and Moon upon the equatorial protuberance of the Earth's mass and, in a much less degree, the disturbing influence of the planets upon the Earth's orbit, the Equinox has a slow, retrograde mean motion of 50".26 annually, so that the Sun returns to the Equinox sooner every year than it otherwise would by 20 minutes 23.6 seconds.

The Tropical Year, therefore, consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds. The The difference between these two kinds of time Tropical Year is not of uniform length; it is now is called the equation of time. Its maximum value slowly decreasing at the rate of .530 second per is a little over 16 minutes. The difference be- century, but this variation will not always contween mean equinoctial and apparent equinoctial tinue. TIME, WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH'S ROTATION. Source: Smithsonian Physical Tables, Eighth Revised Edition The fluctuations in the earth's rate of rotation indicated by astronomical evidence are of a quite greater order of magnitude. Moreover, the changes vary in sign, whereas frictional effects should not. The observations come from deviations of the sun and moon from their gravitational orbits, the transits of Mercury, the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. Changes in the speed of rotation of the earth rotation seem the only explanation.

This may be due to shifts of matter within or on the earth. The following figure by Brown indicates that in 1928 the earth was about 25 sec. ahead of its average rotational motion during the last three centuries.

The greatest apparent change is the loss or gain of one sec. in a whole year (1 part in 30,000,000). slowly and the moon recede from the earth. The Tidal friction should make the earth rotate more rate of dissipation of energy by friction is about 1.4 x 10'19 erg sec.

The earth's rotation from this cause should have slowed by 4 hours during geologic time.

The moon should continue to recede until its period of revolution and that of the earth's rotation are equal to 47 of our present days.

The moon should then gradually approach the earth, ultimately coming within Roche's limit (about twice the earth's radius), breaking up. possibly, into a ring like Saturn's.

Standard Time

Source: U. S. Bureau of Standards; "The rotation of the earth about its axis once in 24 hours," says the U. S. Bureau of Standards. "gives a time change of 1 hour for every 15° of longitude. That is, if observations were made on the transit of the sun across the meridian at points separated by 15° of longitude, it would be found that the time of transit at two such points would differ by 1 hour. If the separation of the points of observation were decreased, the difference in time would be decreased in the same proportion.

"Since the distance around the earth is less at points not on the Equator than at the Equator the distance on the earth's surface corresponding to a time difference is also less in the same proportion. For example, at the Equator 15° corresponds to about 1,040 miles, while at the latitude of New York 15 corresponds to only about 784 miles. Or. at the Equator, a difference of about 17 miles makes a time difference of 1 minute, while in the latitude of New York a difference of only 13 miles makes a difference of 1 minute in true local time."

Although the United States has used standard time since 1883, no legislative action for the country as a whole is recorded until March 19, 1918, when Congress directed the Interstate Commerce Commission to establish limits for the various time zones in this country.

The United States is divided into four standard time zones, each approximately 15° of longitude in width. All places in each zone use, instead of their own local time, the time counted from the transit of the "mean sun" across the meridian which passes through the approximate center of that zone.

Interstate Commerce Commission

The following places on the boundary between the Eastern and the Central Time Zones use Eastern Standard Time:

Dungannon, Va.; Bristol, Tenn.; Asheville, N. C.; Franklin, N. C.; Apalachicola, Fla.

Georgia has adopted Eastern Standard Time for that state.

Chicago is on Central Standard Time with the usual Daylight Saving in the Summer.

The following municipalities located on the boundary between the Central and the Mountain Time Zones use Central Standard Time:

Murdo Mackenzie, S. Dak.; Phillipsburg, Kans.; Stockton, Kans.; Plainville, Kans.; Ellis, Kans. All other places on this boundary use Mountain Standard Time.

All municipalities on the boundary between the Mountain and the Pacific Time Zones use Mountain Standard Time except Huntington, Ore., which uses Pacific Standard Time.

Standard time is used also in the territories outside of the continental United States. The places and the time used (slower or faster than Greenwich) are given below:

Official Alaska time is 10 hours slower; Guam 10 hours faster; Hawaii, 1011⁄2 hours slower; Panama Canal Zone, 5 hours slower; Philippines. 8 hours faster; Puerto Rico, 4 hours slower; Samoa, 11 hours slower; Virgin Islands, 4 hours slower.

Alaska time, by act of Congress in 1918 was fixed as that of the 150° meridian west, 10 hours slower than Greenwich. Actually, however, four times are used in the territory 120°W, 135°W, 150°W, 165°W, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, and 11 hours slow, respectively.

These time zones are designated as Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific, and the time in these zones is reckoned from the 75th, 90th. 105th, and 120th meridians west of Greenwich, respectively. The time in the various zones is slower than Greenwich time by 5, 6, 7, and 8 hours, respectively. ❘ transferred to NSS (Annapolis).

Standard time signals are transmitted from the U. S. Naval Observatory through NSS (Annapolis) and over wires to various points using this service. The NAA (Arlington) station has been abolished and the transmission of time signals has been

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