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measurements to be practically the same as that and six times as powerful as the most energetic of light, as had been generally assumed. Construction of the 100,000,000-volt cyclotron at

atomic projectiles previously produced (those of

deuterons or heavy hydrogen), were manufactured Berkeley, Calif., was well advanced during the by the cyclotron. year. Etching glass with hydrofluoric acid vapor was

Radioactive strontium and barium were produced

in pure form for the first time. found to eliminate troublesome reflections by Four radioactive forms of germanium, an element forming a Alm of calcium nuoride one-quarter of similar to lead, were produced by the cyclotron. a wave-length of light in thickness.

The theoretical possibility of elements heavier An electrostatic generator giving 4,500,000 volts than uranium, the existence of which had been was constructed.

doubted despite claims of experimental discovery. Television pictures were projected on a theater was demonstrated. screen 15 by 20 feet in size from a balcony 60 feet Vacuums, reaching a millionth of an atmosphere away

pressure, higher than ever before employed in Aligned molecules instead of minute crystals chemical technology. were used to extract vitamins produced a nearly 100% efficient

polarizing screen, from fish oil. The first to be made entirely of synthetic materials. A temperature of 45,000 degrees Fahrenheit, as

A method of detecting airplanes at might by hot as found on the surfaces of the hottest stars. means of the heat rays they emit was invented. and a light 50 times as bright as the sun while

Transmutation of mercury into radioactive gold it lasted, were given by a spark produced by diswith a hall decay period of 48 minutes was ac- charging 40,000 kilowatts of electrical energy complished by bombardment of the mercury with through a quartz tube. last neutrons.

An infrared photoflash bulb was invented by Green diamonds were produced by bombarding which instantaneous photographs can be taken white ones with atomic particles from the cyclotron in complete darkness. and were found to be identical with the naturally Evidence was obtained that the mesotron occurring and highly prized green diamonds. (middle-weight atomic particle) can exist in at

Carbon bullets with energies of 96,000,000 elec- | least two states which decompose at quite different tron volta, as powerful as some of the cosmic rays rates.

BARTH SCIENCES A new type of weather map, giving much more The most nearly complete plesiosaur skeleton information than the old, was inaugurated by the known was found in Colorado. U. 8. Weather Bureau.

Fossil termites 25,000,000 years old were found This country's known bil reserves Teached an in Germany. all-time high, at 19,025,000,000 barrels.

A new type of earthquake wave was discovered. Forecasters were able to make predictions for The earth was weighed at intervals of six miles Ave to seven days approximately as reliably as

along a traverse from Perth Amboy, N. J., to Los the two or three-day forecasts previously had

Angeles been, and the reliability of two- and three-day

The centenary of America's first magnetic obforecasts improved materially.

servatory was celebrated in Philadelphia, A new mineral, with the smallest known natural

Canada and the United States jointly undertook crystals, was discovered in Argentina, and named

the preparation of an Ice Age Map. sarmientite.

A revision of the Geologic Map of North America

was under way with cooperation of Canada, Apparatus was built for taking flashlight paoto

Mexico and countries of the Caribbean. graphs of the ocean bottom. A fossil imprint of a jellyfish in the Smithsonian presented: one, that it is colloid or jelly-like; the

Two new theories of the earth's interior were Institution collections was pronounced the world's

other, that it is solid, containing much dissolved oldest evidence of life.

hydrogen. A dinosaur neck vertebra three feet across and

Measurements of geologic age of rocks by helium nearly four feet long was found in Texas.

method was refined by discovery that retentivity Several skeletons of Coryphodon, extinct hippo- of helium varies with minerals and that magpotamus-like animal, were discovered in Colorado. netite is most retentive.

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Reports of progress during 1941 should be read conversations was put in service between Stevens with the realization that many important technical Point, Wis., and Minneapolis, Minn., and an 800advances, both military and industrial, have been mile television transmission was demonstrated made but not announced due to the secrecy neces- through this cable. sary for American defense.

Toll calls were made by dialling the number A method of locating airplanes by means of wanted in certain distant cities. radio echoes reflected from them was perfected A new high-fidelity telephone circuit for radio and put into war use.

programs that will transmit sound vibrations up Powder bags were made successfully from cotton to 15,000 per second was demonstrated. Instead of silk.

Sound control in the theater was demonstrated A new

.30-caliber carbine with cartridges only by which voices and music emanate from space, halt the weight of the .45-caliber pistol cartridges humans speak with animal voices and sounds are was adopted by the U. S. Army widely to replace remade as desired. the pistol

Copper-plating of permanent magnets used in Radio antennae that send out transmission in a electrical meters was shown to shield them from searchlight beam instead of broadcasting it allowed demagnetizing effects. 50,000 watt modern transmitters to send to foreign New standards for abbreviations, eliminating areas the equivalent of 1,200,000 watt transmitters periods and spaces, were adopted, for example: with older type aerials.

rpm for revolutions per minute, psi for pounds Full color prints from Kodachrome transparencies per square inch, 95 F for 95 degrees of temperawere made available commercially.

ture Fahrenheit. A new method was disclosed of making stereo- Many plastics and other substitute materials scopic pictures by making two pictures on one used in automobiles and other machines as a nim and afterwards viewing them with polarizing result of the defense emergency gave promise of screens.

supplanting the older materials permanently beMillion-volt portable X-ray equipment was put cause they are better. into industrial use radiographing boiler welds and Powder metallurgy, making metal parts from steel castings.

powdered metal under heat and pressure, came Extensive telephone networks were arranged and into wider use. tested to send warnings of hostile aircraft to Static electrical charges up to 40,000 volts were central points and to order squadrons aloft for demonstrated on running rubber-tired motor defense.

vehicles. A radio receiver which also indicates visually the A new record for low coal consumption per direction of an airplane from the antenna was kilowatt-hour for steam-electric power plants was put into service.

established. Direct radio telephone circuits to Lisbon and The surface of steel was hardened by a new Panama were opened, radio telephone service was method using synthetic urea. made available to coastal shipping along all of Manufacturing industries spent nearly $120,000,this country's coast line, a radio telephone system 000 on research during the war, according to a which sends twelve channels on a single transmit- survey. ter was established.

To Dr. Edwin H. Armstrong, Columbia UniFrequency modulated radio relay stations were versity, was awarded the gold Franklin Medal of successfully used.

the Franklin Institute, for his achievements in A coaxial cable with an ultimate capacity of 480 radio.

MEDICAL SCIENCES Standards for "enriched” white flour were an- sulting from deficiency of the pancreas hormone, nounced by the U. S. Food, Drug and Cosmetic lipocalc, were reported. Administration, to become effective Jan. 1, 1942, Studies indicating heparin, anti-blood clotting and production of this flour and of "enriched' agent, might be useful in preventing adhesions bread made with such fiour, or with high vitamin after abdominal operations were reported. yeast or with ordinary flour plus added amounts Deaths of two boys from bubonic plague, increase of nicotinic acid, thiamin and iron was started. of the infection among wild rodents and eastward

A scientific yardstick for planning an adequate spread of the infection in these animals prompted daily diet was announced at the National Nutrition the Surgeon General of the U. S. Public Health Conference for Defense called by President Roose- Service to call a Plague ontrol Conference which velt.

recommended: 1-Extension of anti-plague mea"Cure' of gray hair in humans by daily doses sures, 2-Appropriation by federal and local auof a member of the vitamin B complex, para

thorities of $1,800,000 for plague control. aminobenzoic acid, was announced in a report of

Sulfathiazole was reported, on basis of sucmore than 300 cases, believed to be the first

cessful trials in mice, to be a potential anti-plague scientific announcement of cure of gray hair in remedy. humans.

It was demonstrated that bodily changes closely Influenza A virus was photographed, for the

similar to those of profound pituitary-gland defirst time, with the aid of the electron microscope

ficiency can be caused by chronic under-nutrition. which showed it to be one of the smallest disease

The urine of boys having muscular dystrophy causing substances yet isolated, a spherical particle

was shown to contain large amounts of female 11 millimicrons in diameter.

sex hormones. Prospects for control of influenza were improved

Treatment of sexual deficiency in the male was by development of a new relatively quick test for

advanced by development of a synthetic male sex influenza virus-neutralizing antibodies, by success

hormone, methyl testosterone, which is effective in protecting against influenza A 50% of several

when given by mouth. thousand persons in six institutions by influenza

Existence of a potent sex hormone, estriol, which A vaccine given six months before an epidemic

is found only in human beings, was announced. and by development of a new vaccine against

The synthetic female sex hormone, diethylstilinfluenza A which proved even more effective in

bestrol, was released for general medical use by mouse trials

the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetic Administration, First announcement of sulfadiazine spray treat

Encouraging result in treating the muscle weakment of burns showed that it promoted healing

ness disease, myasthenia gravis, by surgical re

moval of the thymus gland were reported. of burns more rapidly than any other method of treatment, reduced infection to less than 2% and

Discovery that other tissues of the body than will to some extent eliminate need for plastic

the thyroid gland can use iodine and may convert

it into a chemical like thyroxine, thyroid gland surgery to efface scars and correct deformities.

hormone, was announced. Evidence indicating that domestic barnyard and wild prairie fowl constitute a reservoir of the

All steroids having hormonal properties will

produce na cosis if given in pharmacological doses viruses of equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis

in a manner so that it is absorbed rapidly, but encephalitis and that mosquitoes carry the virus was reported.

steroids devoid of hormonal properties do not

exhibit this action, it was reported. Possibility that infantile paralysis may be spread

For the relief of high blood pressure improved by flies appeared in a report that the virus of the

kidney extracts, renin from kidneys of animals disease had been isolated on two occasions from other than that being treated, the enzyme, tyroflies caught in the vicinity of excreta from infantile paralysis patients during infantile paralysis

sinase, and a new surgical operation were reported

as promising but still in the experimental stage, epidemics.

with 3. five-year-progress report of an older Largest encephalitis epidemic on record in the

surgical operation showing striking prolongation Western Hemisphere occurred in the Northwest of life for patients with malignant hypertension. during the summer of 1941, attacking more than Kidneys with reduced blood circulation liberate 3,000 and killing nearly 10% of those attacked. a substance which acts upon a special pseudo

Encouraging results with vaccination against globulin in the blood and the product produced by encephalitis and from the use of human con- this action is responsible for the production of valescent or hyperimmune animal serum were re- experimental high blood pressure, it was reported. ported in Russia.

In vitro studies indicated that kidneys under Studies suggesting that the infantile paralysis anaerobic conditions are unable to destroy phenolic virus invades the body through the mouth and compounds which elevate blood pressure but will alimentary tract. rather than through the nose and do so under aerobic conditions. olfactory

nerves as previously believed, were Possible advances in cancer treatment still in reported.

the experimental stage, included use of radioA decline in pneumonia deaths during an in- strontium for metastatic bone cancer; a concentrafluenza epidemic occurred, for the first time on tion method of radio-therapy for resistant cancers record, during the winter of 1940-1941.

of mouth, larynx and pharynx; castration and First trials on human patients of gramicidin, female sex hormone treatment for cancer of the germicidal substance from soil bacteria, showed it prostrate gland: blocking blood circulation to into be effective in empyema from pneumonia, crease skin resistant to irradiation thereby ensinusitis, bladder infections and staphylococcus abling use of larger doses; and, in mice only so infections in wounds.

far, use of lithium or boron-containing dyes to Surgical construction of an artiñcial esophagus, increase destructive action of neutron rays. to replace one closed by lye burns, Was ac- Pattern of cancerous growth may be iufluenced complished successfully for the second time in the by surface forces, it was discovered from observaUnited States.

tions of cancer growth in the frog's eye. Evidence that the cause of cirrhosis of the liver Radio-phosphorus was announced as a promising is poor diet, and probably a specific vitamin de- treatment for the serious blood disease, polyficiency, appeared in many reports.

cythemia. Tuberculosis patients were treated with Promin, Anti-rickets action of vitamin D, it was rea new chemical remedy with results that justify ported, is due partly to its effect on the kidneys continuation of the investigation,

which it prevents from eliminating phosphorus Hope of preventing meningitis appeared in re- Sulfathiazole ointment was reported a successful ports that sulfadiazine not only succeeds as a remedy for common skin diseases such as acne, treatment but banishes the meningococci from the impetigo, infected eczema and boils. paiient's nose and throat, thus preventing his Transfusions of blood and sugar solutions were becoming a healthy carrier of the disease.

given by injecting into the bone marrow, a method A record of no rheumatic fever attacks among that can supplement transfusions into veins in 55 patients while taking sulfanilamide continu- certain cases. ously from November through June each year Chemical test for incipient toluene poisoning between 1936 and 1940 was announced, giving hope was announced. that this drug might prove effective in controlling Artificial feeding of a full meal through the the disease by preventing recurrences,

veins instead of the mouth came one step closer Sulfathiazole and suliapyridine offer a four-to- through development of a digest of casein, milk one chance for cure of gonorrhea in men within protein, with papain, digestive ferment, which five weeks after beginning of treatment, findings proved as effective as whole liver in promoting in eight clinics showed.

production of proteins in blood plasma of dogs. A method of treating group o blood, the uni- It was shown that the animal organism cannot versal donor blood, to make it safer for emergency synthesize the methyl group which therefore must transfusion, was announced.

be supplied in the diet. The major, if not the Studies showing that hardening of the arteries sole source of the methyl group is the amino acid, may be a condition of faulty fat utilization re- methionine.

With the tagged atom technique it was demon- it or shortens duration if given after it has strated that the proteins of the animal body are developed subject to a far more rapid, continuous process of A method of immunizing against epileptic metabolism than has been suspected.

seizures was suggested when it was found that A 5 mile delayed-opening parachute drop fur- a seizure intentionally induced by electric shock nished physiologists with valuable data on the in the safety of a physician's office makes the reactions of the human body during such a terrific patient temporarily resistant to recurring seizures. descent.

The violent convulsions accompanying metrazol Two of the principal factors influencing the treatment of mental disease were softened, and in Intensity of the symptoms of "bends" in the some cases the muscular contractions abolished bodies of aviators and deep-sea divers were shown entirely. by use with the metrazol of the easily to be the total atmospheric pressure and the obtained medicine, epsom salt, or pyridine and pressure produced by surface tension.

some of its derivatives. At pressure altitudes between 41,000 and 42,000 The electric shock treatment used for mental feet after preliminary denitrogenation and oxygen disease (passage of current through brain for very breathing, men performed physical exercise (work) short time) was demonstrated to cause a partial equivalent to 1,200 foot-pounds per minute for a loss of memory in the patient, particularly for full minute and a trained woman subject made events occurring just before the shock. a record for her sex by working for 15 seconds at Electric shock therapy was used increasingly to 1,200- foot-pounds per minute at a pressure eleva supersede insulin and metrazol shock therapies in tion of 41.200 feet.

the treatment of some mental diseases. What may possibly be the first case in 30 years New knowledge about the value of the vitamins in of laboratory-acquired infantile paralysis was the treatment of some acute mental diseases and reported.

neurological disorders, not only some alcoholic Three new sulfa drugs, sulfapyrazine, sulfahy- psychoses but some delirious states usually atdantoin, and sulfathiazolin, were announced, the tributed to senility, was discovered. last being put to clinical test because of low Warning that extreme caution is necessary in toxicity and high therapeutic value.

use of X-rays on women who might be pregnant A School of Nutrition, believed first of its kind was seen in the discovery that microcephalic idiocy in the world, was established at Cornell Uni- in an unborn child followed X-ray treatment of versity

the mother for a supposed tumor. Discovery of an eighth member of the vitamin Fixed al ormal habits in rats were not broken B group. folic acid, WAS announced.

up by dosage with metrazol even when convulsions A standard for oleomargarine permitting its were produced, a finding which affects present enrichment with vitamins A and D was

an- theories on how the drug acts to cure mental nounced by the United States Food, Drug and disease. Cosmetic Administration.

Deprivation, even though resented, makes a More rapid diagnosis of virus diseases seemed group more united and cooperative, but less conpromised by development of a collodion fixation structive, experiments on child groups revealed method for identification and typing of viruses. Anxiety can persist and cause the learning of

Discovery of a previously unknown anatomical new peculiar habits long after the original cause structure immediately below the bony floor of the for fear is gone, it was demonstrated by animal middle ear and believed concerned with regulation experiments, of the blood circulation was announced.

A fourteen-year study of identical twins demonLarge scale field trials of the Cox anti-typhus strated that both physical and mental traits of fever vaccine were inaugurated in Bolivia. Individuality persist' from infancy into adolescence.

Long-time immunity to such virus diseases as The Rorschach test, well-known ink-blot test of yellow fever is due to the fact that the virus personality and imagination, was adapted for remains in the body after an attack of the disease, group use to make it available for selection of it was suggested.

military personnel. A coumarin compound from spoiled sweet clover

Gasoline vapor, used as an anesthetic, has effects was announced as a possible effective and cheap similar to those of alcoholic vapors, it was found substitute for heparin, anti-blood clotting agent. in experiments on animals and a human subject. Successful use of vitallium, alloy of chromium

New light on & vitamin deficiency disease in nickel and cobalt, as plates for repair of damaged humans associated with alcoholism, was provided human skulls was announced.

by the discovery that fishes and foxes suffer an Development in Gautemala of large plantations identical ill when over-fed on raw fish. of cinchona trees, thus providing a potential Western Hemisphere source of quinine, was an

Short tempers, inefficiency, inattention, uncer

tain memory and confusion of thought were found nounced.

to result from a diet only slightly low in vitamin The flotation process was adapted from the

B, but continued over a period of months. mining industry to production of a high-vitamin,

Alcohol was found to reduce the ability of the high-protein flour from wheat.

body to respond to severe exposure to heat. The malaria rate among troops in the United States was reduced to one-third of the 1918 rate,

Progesterone, a sex hormone, was used sucvartly because of effective mosquito control mea

cessfully to reduce sexual excitability in monkeys sures carried on in nearly 100 camps. posts and

and was recommended to physicians for trial on stations.

women patients in need of temporary medical aid, A highly compact, lightweight, tasty and nour

The abstraction ability to sort by color, beishing ration was evolved by the Army for para

lieved a function of the important frontal lobes chutists and for delivery by air to troops engaged

of the brain, was found in monkeys, which may in mobile assault operations.

therefore be used experimentally to learn more Tablets containing vitamins A, B (thiamin), B2

about this brain area. (riboflavin), C, D and nicotinic acid were ordered

Learning of the simple type known to psycholoas dietary supplement to troops stationed in far

gists as "conditioning' is slowed but not eliminorthern latitudes.

nated when the important brain cortex and In military medicine, the use of high concentra- sub-cortical parts of the nervous system are tions of oxygen has been made practicable in the "knocked out by the drug nembutal, animal exforward zone by the construction of a portable. periments showed. closed-circuit type of apparatus .which uses only Doubt regarding the exact function of the 1 liter of oxygen per minute.

brain's important frontal lobes was raised by Publication was begun, by the American Medical experiments showing that monkeys without this Association, of a bimonthly journal entitled "War brain area can remember where to reach for food Medicine," edited by the Committee on Informa- even after a ten-second delay. tion, Division of Medical Sciences, National Re- By the learning process known as conditioning. search Council.

it is possible to gain the ability to interrupt the An apparatus for warming cold, refrigerated brain waves--electric impulses originating in the blood was described.

brain cells. Hope for future prevention or cure of nervous Eight persons were conditioned to control at disorders caused by noise was provided by re- will changes in the electric resistance of the searches on bise-sensitive rats: Vitamin Bwas skin, an apparently unconscious and involuntary

reaction. found to prevent the rats' convulsions, glandular treatment relieved them, combination of previ- Quantum theory was successfully applied to ously harmiess noise with shock caused them, and sensory experiences, particularly

hearing and heredity was found to play a part in producing vision. nolse-sensitivity.

A change in only eight or nine molecules of the Protracted shock, most dangerous complica- visual purple in the eye's retina was found to be tion of insulin shock treatment for mental disease, suficient to produce the sensation of sight. can be predicted, prevented, or, if desired, pro. The excitement of powerful emotions was found duced at will, it was found; vitamin B prevents to affect the way in which the two eyes work

together in the perception of distances and depth, national morale were studied by psychologists poolimportant in the testing of military pilots. Ing their talents and research resources.

Color blindness was reported partly corrected by Scales were developed for measuring the level dosage with vitamin A.

of morale of various groups within the nation. The same tone is perceived as of slightly differ- Listening posts were established to record and ent pitch by the two ears of even normal-hearing analyze radio propaganda and methods of classipersons, it was reported.

fication and interpretation were developed. Bats' ears were found sensitive to high-pitched A new branch of psychology--military psychology sounds above the limits of human audibility, and was recognized when the Army started a school they guide themselves by echoes of their own to_train scientists in this profession. supersonic cries.

Documents dealing with German psychological Fatigue produced by highly skilled tasks was warfare were assembled and analyzed and infound to have different psychological effects from tensive study of this field was made cooperatively that caused by simple monotonous tasks; accurate under direction of two committees. timing in the first ability to break down.

Psychological research centers were established Conditions necessary for maintenance of high at flying fields of the Army Air Corps.


Science Clubs of America Science Clubs of America is comprised of amateur to learn science, but it has been greatly suppleand professional scientists of all ages. The or- mented by the support of scientific organizations ganization is international and non-profit making.

throughout the country. These include academies In November, 1941, it numbered 30.000 members in

of science, museums, colleges, universities more than 800 clubs organized in every state and

other such through which it has been possible to

set up Science Centers. Here clubs and individuals Puerto Rico, Alaska, Cuba, Hawaii, Canada, British

meet to discuss and demonstrate what they have West Indies and Portugal.

accomplished. In these Centers are held such Science Clubs of America seeks to weld together functions as Fairs, Congresses, Salons of Photogthe thousands of laymen and scientists, teachers raphy, Conferences, all designed to help young and and students, youths and adults, amateurs and mature scientists in an area to know one another professionals into a great movement for under- and to acquaint the public with what goes on in standing and applying science in neighborhood. science. community, national and world affairs. Believing In September, 1941, clubs outside of New York that the knowledge and application of science and City which were affiliated with The American its methods is essential to the very existence of our Institute Science and Engineering Clubs were civilization, this international organization is spon- transferred to Science Clubs of America. The sored by Science Service, a non-profit institution American Institute of the City of New York cofor the popularization of science, 1719 N Street, operatively continues to carry on the New York N.W., Washington, D. C. (New York office, 310 programs for clubs, many of which have been Fifth Avenue). Watson Davis is director.

ainliated with the Institute for the past 14 years. There are three types of membership: l-in Science Service, the world's only science news Science Clubs; 2-as Associates; 3-as Patrons. syndicate, provides thorough, accurate reports of Science Clubs vary in size from 4 to 150 members the latest developments and discoveries in all fields and each is sponsored by an adult who is re- of science. These reports are distributed to newssponsible in large measure for the splendid progress papers and magazines in two forms: made by clubs.

i. A daily News Report containing latest news The members of Science Clubs of America have reported by wire or mail. This is supplemented by their laboratories and workshops in cellars and a service called "Wire Stories by Mail," which conattics, school classrooms and labs, in industrial tains advance releases on scientific conventions plants and museum lecture rooms Experiments and other important events. Leading scientists and study of the boys, girls, men and women range cooperate with Science Service writers SO that through the myriad branches of science. In some reports can be mailed several days before other cases the work is of a general nature; in others agencies send wires on the same subjects. ultra-specific.

2. A weekly Science Page containing exclusive The national headquarters supplies membership news and feature stories and pictures for daily paraphernalia as well as a wide variety of ma- or weekly use. Another strong feature is the terial for the support and direction of the club and "Experimental Science for You" section which individual program. The official organ is the carries experimental material written especially Science News Letter which runs club news weekly for the Science Clubs of America. with & special Science Observer issue eight times Trustees for Science Service are nominated by a year expressly for members of Science Clubs of the National Academy of Science, the National America.

Research Council, the American Association for The success of the Science Clubs of America de- the National Academy of Sciences, the National pends largely on the eager desire of the members Estate, and the journalistic profession.

American Mother of

the Year Source: The Golden Rule Foundation Mothers' Rule Committee; New York City The American Mother is selected annually from nominations sent to the committee. The choice is based on these requirements; she must be a successful mother, as evidenced by the character and achievements of her children; she must embody those traits most highly regarded in mothers-courage, moral strength, patience, affection, kindness, understanding. homemaking ability; she must have a sense of social and world relationships and must have been active in her own community betterment or in some other service for public benefit. Year Name

Home 1935 Mrs. Fletcher M Johnson

Gainesville, Ga. 1936 Mrs. James R. Smith

Claremont. Calir. 1937 Mrs. Carl R. Gray

Omaha, Neb. 1938 Mrs. Grace Noll Stowell

Dallas, Tex. 1939 Mrs. Elias Compton

Wooster, Ohio. 1940 Mrs. Charles H. Mayo

Rochester, Minn. 1941 Mrs. Dena Shelby Diehl

Danville, Ky. The Mothers' Day paraphrase of the Golden Rule reads:

"Whatsoever ye would that others should do for your Mother if she were in need, and whatsoever your Mother would do for the needy if she had the opportunity, do in Her Name and in Her Honor for other Mothers and their children, victims of the wars in Europe and Asia, or present-day maladjustments in our own land."

Candy Consumption in U. S. 16.9 Pounds Per Capita The per capita consumption of confectionery in confectionery (1940) was approximately 2,250,000,the United States reached an all time high of 16.9 000 pounds with an estimated value of $336,000,000 pounds (1940) compared with 15.7 pounds (1939), The survey is based on voluntary reports of 273 the Department of Commerce reported (May 31, manufacturers of confectionery and competitive 1941). This is an increase of 71, against an ad- chocolate products whose sales comprise 70% for once in national income of 7%. The sale of the entire industry.


The Astronomical Calculations, beginning on the next page, are in local Mean Time, except as otherwise indicated, and are made expressly for The World Almanac by H. P. M. Hedrick, Washington, D. C.

Calendar for 1942





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9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Mar. 1

31............ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 June.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sept...Ti 2 3 4 5 6 Dec... 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 30 311........., 29 30 28 29 30 ........

25 29.30.311... The Seasons In the temperate zones, these are four in number: 1 days in the southern hemisphere are shorter than Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter; beginning the nights. respectively at the vernal equinox, the summer

In December the North Pole is tilted 23° 27' away solstice, the autumnal equinox and the winter

from the sun, and the nights in the northern solstice; for which, in the north temperate zone,

hemisphere are longer than the days; at the same

time the nights in the southern hemisphere are the approximate dates are March 21, June 21, shorter than the days. September 23, and December 21.

The heating influence of the sun increases with In the south temperate zone, the vernal equinox the length

of the day and with the sun's altitude or the beginning of Spring is September 23, the

at noon. The greatest daily accession of heat is, summer solstice or the beginning of summer is therefore, at the time of the summer solstice. December 21, and so on.

In June, in the north temperate zone, the heat The earth's axis continually points in the same

received by day far exceeds the loss through direction, and if the axis were perpendicular to the radiation by night, and it is not until July or plane of the earth's orbit around the sun there August that the two become equal and the maxiwould be no change of seasons. Day and night

mum temperature of the year is experienced. would everywhere be of equal length and equable In December, the heat received by day fails to conditions temperature would ail.

make good the loss by night, and it is not until But the axis is tilted 23° 27' away from a perpen- | January or February that gain and loss become dicular to the orbit, and only in March and Sep- equal and the thermometer ceases to show

& tember is the axis at right angles to the direction downward tendency. of the sun.

The seasons in 1942 (Eastern Standard Time) beIn those months occur the equinoxes, when day gin as follows: Vernal Equinox (Spring), March 21, and night are equal the world over.

1:11 A. M.: Summer Solstice (Summer), June 21. In June, the North Pole is tilted 23° 27' toward 8:17 P. M.; Autumnal Equinox (Autumn), Septemthe sun and the days in the northern hemisphere ber 23. 11:17 A. M.; Winter Solstice (Winter) are longer than the nights; at the same time, the December 22, 6:40 A. 'M,

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