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Toll of American Ships in the War


1941 1941

Robin Moor, 4,985 tons, owned by Robin Line of Reuben James, 1190 tons, United States destroyer,

New York, flying American flag, torpedoed, shelled torpedoed and sunk west of Iceland while on

and sunk by a German submarine in the South convoy duty, Oct. 30.

Atlantic, May 21.
Attacked but Not Sunk

Sessa, 1.700 tons, owned by Maritime CommisGreer, destroyer, torpedoed en route to Iceland,

sion, flying Panamanian flag, destroyed by torpedo Sept. 4.

300 miles southwest of Iceland, Aug. 17. Kearny, destroyer, torpedoed 350 miles southwest

Steel Seafarer, 5.714 tons, owned by the Isthmian of Iceland, Oct. 17.

Steamship Company, flying American flag. atSalinas, navy tanker, torpedoed off Iceland,

tacked from the air and sunk in the Gulf of Suez,

Sept. 5. Oct. 29.

Montana, 1.900 tons, owned by United States MERCHANT SHIPS

Maritime Commission, flying Panamanian flag. 1940

torpedoed and sunk in waters off Iceland, Sept. 11. Joseph Seep, owned by a subsidiary of the Maritime Commission, 'flying Panamanian flag,

Pink Star, 6,850 tons, owned by United States Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and regis- torpedoed and sunk 255 miles southwest of Iceland, tered in Panama, sunk by mine or torpedo in

Sept. 19.
Havre Roads, France, May 25.
James McGil, owned by a subsidiary of the

I. C. White, 7,052 tons, owned by the Standard

Oil Company of New York, flying Panamanian Standard Oil Company of Vew Jersey and registered in Panama, sunk by mine or torpedo in the

flag, torpedoed in the South Atlantic, Sept. 27. English Channel, June 20.

Bold Venture, 3,222 tons, owned by United States City of Rayville, 5,883 tons, owned by United

Maritime Commission, flying Panamanian flag. States Maritime Commission, flying American flag.

sunk 500 miles south of Iceland, Oct. 16. struck a mine and sank in Australian waters,

W. C. Teagle, 9,552 tons, owned by the Standard Nov. 9.

Oil Company of New Jersey, flying flag of Panama, Charles Pratt, 8,902 tons, owned by the Panama sunk in North Atlantic waters, Oct. 16. Transport Company, a subsidiary of Standard Oil Lehigh, 4,983 tons, owned by the United States Company (New Jersey), flying Panamanian flag. Line, flying American flag, sunk by torpedo off torpedoed and sunk off West Africa, Dec. 21. Africa, Oct. 19. Union and Confederate Losses in Chief Battles of the Civil War Source: Official records, compiled by Marcus J. Wright, U. S. War Department





Killed W'd'd! Mis. Tot. Killed W'd'd. Mis. Tot. July 21, 1861 Bull Run, V&. 481 1.011 1,216 ,708

3871,582 12 1,981 Feb 12-16, 1862.

Fort Donelson, Tenn 500 2.108 224 2,832 2.000 8.14,623 6,623 April 6-7, 1862 Shiloh, Tenn.

1.754 8,408 2.885 13,047 1,723 8.012 9,596 10,694 June 27, 1862 Gaines' Mill, Va

894 3,107 2,836 6,837 8,751 June 29, 30-July 1, 1862 Malvern Hill, V&.

724 4,245 3.067 8,036 8.602

875 9,477 June 25-July 1, 1862 Seven Days, Va.

1,734 8,062 6,075 15,849 3,478 16,261 875 20,614 Sept. 8, 1862. Manassas (2nd), Va.. 1,724 8,372 5,958 16,054 1,481 7,627

89 9,197 Sept. 16-17' 1862 Antietam, Md..

2,018 9,549 753 12,390 2.700 9,024 1.800 13.524 Dec. 13, 1862

Fredericksburg, Va... 1.284 9,600 1,769 12,653 595 4,061 653 5,309 Dec. 31, 1862-Jan. 1. 1863 Stone River, Tenn. 1,677 7,543 3.686 12,906 1.294 7.945 2.476 11,715 May 1-4, 1863

Chancellorsville, Va. 1,575 9,594 5,676 16,792 1.665 9.081 2,018 12,764 July 1-3, 1863 Gettysburg. Pa

3,155 14,529 5.365 23,049 3,903 18.735 5,425 28,063 Sept. 19-20, 1863

Chickamauga, Gs 1,657 9,7561 4,757 16,170 2,312 14.674 1,468 18,484 Nov. 23-25, 1863

Chattanooga, Tenn. 753 4.722 349 5,824 3611 2.160 4,146 6,667 May 5-7, 1864,

Wilderness, Va. 2,246 12.137 3.383 17,666 Reports of losses incomplete May 10, 12, 1864 Spotsylvania, Va.

753 9.367 80010,920 June 1-3. 1864 Cold Harbor, Va.

12,000 June 15-30, 1864

Petersburg, Va

2,013 9,935 4,621 16,569 Oct 19, 1864 Cedar Creek. Va

644 3,430 1,591 5,656 320 1.540 1,050 2,910 Nov. 30. 1864 Franklin, Tenn.

189 1,033 1,104 2,336 1,750 3,8001 7021 6,252 April 2, 1865 Petersburg, V& 625 3,1891 326 4,140

No report of losses March 29-Apr. 9, 1865 Appomattox, Va. 1,316 7,750 1.714 10.780

The total deaths in the Union Armies during the Civil War, according to records in the AdjutantGeneral's office in Washington, D. C., were:

Killed and died of wounds, 110,070 (6,365 officers, 103,705 men); died of disease, 224,586 (2,795 officers, 221,791 men); other deaths, 24,872 (424 officers, 24,448 men); Total Deaths--359,528 (9,584 officers, 349,944 men.)

The Confederate losses were estimated (no official data in the Adjutant General's office) as follows Killed in battle, 52,954 (2.,086 oficers, 50,868 men); died of wounds, 21,570 (1,346 officers, 20,324 men): died of disease, 59,297 (1.294 officers, 58,003 men); Total Deaths-133,785 (4,626 officers, 129,159 men).

Troops Engaged in United States Wars

Source: Adjutant-General's Office, United States Army

Troops Engaged
Active Hostil- Regu- Volun-



ities Ceased lars teers Drafted Troops Revolutionary War.. April 19, 1775 Jan, 14, 1784 a April 19, 1783

b War of 1812 June 18, 1812 Feb. 17, 18151 Jan. 8, 1815 56,652 471.622

528.274 War with Mexico... dApnt 25, 1816|May 30, 1848 eSept. 14. 1817 43,300 73,297

116,597 Civil. War (lnion) April 15, 1861 Aug. 20, 1866 April 9, 1865 75,2151 1.933.779 g119,954] 2,128,948 War with Spain... April 21, 1898 April 11. 1899Aug. 13, 1898 57,3201 223.235

280,564 World War..

April 6, 1917 July 2, 19211 Nov. 11, 1918545.7731 725,234) 2.783,094/h4,057,101 a Proclamation of Congress read to Army at 12 46,347 were actually drafted; the remaining 73,607 o'clock noon on April 19, 1783. b Estimates on total served as substitutes. h Army only, does not introops run from 250.000 to 395,858. Greatest clude Marines who served with the Army in France.

There were 2.112 French soldiers and sailors who strength of Continental Army was about 35,000 in November, 1778. e Evidently represents enlistments monument to their memory was unveiled at the

lost their lives in the American Revolution. A and not individual soldiers, hence is considerably Palace of Versailles, near Paris, on June 17, 1936 in excess of actual number of troops employed. As to the number of Confederate troops in the d Hostilities began on this date. The Act of Con- Civil War, Woodrow Wilson, in his "History of the areas approved May 13. 1846, declared the existence American People," put the total at 900,000. Prof of a state of war. e Capture of the City of Mexico. H Hart, of Hampden-Sydney College, fixed Con( Date of Gen. Lee's surrender. g of this number federate total between 700,000 and 800.000.

The American National Red Cross

Source: An Official of the Organization The American National Red Cross operates un- Instruction in first aid, swimming and life saving der the charter granted by the United States Con- is conducted at army posts. camps and stations gress on January 5, 1905, to furnish volunteer aid Volunteers in Red Cross chapters are making comto the sick and wounded of armies in time of war

fort items such as bathrobes, bedjackets. socks, under the Treaty of Geneva to which the United

sweaters, pajamas to be supplied to men in inilitary

hospitals, as well as forty million surgical dressings States became a signatory in 1882. It also was

for the Army and Navy. chartered to continue and carry on a system of Ten thousand additional Red Cross reserve national and international relief in time of peace nurses are being recruited for Army and Navy duty, and to apply the same in mitigating the sufferings plus medical technologists and dietitians. Blood caused by pestilence, famine, fire, floods and other donors are being enrolled and a blood plasma great national calamities."

collection program conducted for the Army and It is a member of the International Red Cross

Navy. whose duties relate to war and the observance of Other services were expanded to assist in civilian Red Cross treaties, and of the League of Red Cross

defense. More than 577,000 persons received Red Societies, devoted to civilian welfare work in peace

Cross first aid training last year, while 260,000 and war. The International Red Cross was formed

learned Red Cross water safety techniques. More at Geneva, Switzerland, 1864, where it and the

than 2.880 highway first aid stations dot the League now have their headquarters. The American nation's highway supplemented by 3,959 mobile first society was organized by Clara Barton in 1881. Its

aid units. Active in fostering home and farm president is, by custom, the President of the United accident prevention are more than 1,100 of the States. Its active head since April 12, 1938, has

local chapters. been the Honorable Norman H. Davis, chairman of

Approximately 24.000 Red Cross nurses stand the Central Committee.

ready for emergency duty and the Red Cross mainThe society is popular in organization, holding tains 639 public health nurses on duty throughout an annual Roll Call for membership throughout the

the nation and last year instructed 81,000 women continental United States and outlying possessions.

and girls in Red Cross home nursing. Women National Headquarters are in Washington, D. C..

volunteers numbering more than 1,000,000 are today and branch offices in Alexandria, Va., St. Louis, giving service in production rooms, making surgical MO., and San Francisco, Calif. "There are 3.735 dressings and war refugee garments: in ambulance local Red Cross Chapters scattered throughout driving and first aid to the injured: in canteen every section of the country, plus 6,127 branches. work; as nurse's aides in hospitals. Membership totals 9,191.000 and there are 9,749,000 An important activity during 1941 were the instischool boys and girls enrolled in the American tutes on Disaster Preparedness and Relief conJunior Red Cross.

ducted at strategic points to instruct chapter The year 1941 witnessed a large expansion in all volunteers in methods of relief and rehabilitation Red Cross domestic services as a result of the for families and individuals suffering from effects national defense program. The military and naval of flood, tornadces, fires and other natural disasters welfare service expanded to place field directors at as well as those occurring in industries. During all army and navy posts and stations. The Red the year the Red Cross aided 334,672 persons in Cross is the only non-military organization per- 222 disasters. mitted within military establishments. Field di- Meanwhile, the extensive foreign war relief work rectors, cooperating with local chapters, aided of the society continued unabated. Up to July 1, 127,000 men in military service or their dependents. 1940, a total of $47,087,052 worth of_relief supplies Medical-social and recreational workers known had been shipped to war victims in Europe and the as Gray Ladies, are at work at the larger military | Orient, partly financed by a U. S. Government apand naval hospitals. The Red Cross furnished propriation of $50,000,000 and partly by a $22,$1,000,000 worth of athletic equipment to the Army 000,000 Red Cross war relief fund contributed by pending availability of congressional appropriation. the public. More than 20.000.000 surgical dressings.

Occupational therapy supplies and personnel are 4,192.000 garments and 312,761 layettes made by made available as needed in military hospitals. chapter volunteers also were shipped.

INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS The Red Cross of the world comprises the Inter- tion of national societies banded together for national Red Cross Committee and the League of purposes of practical cooperation and mutual Red Cross Societies, both with headquarters in assistance in war and peace. Henry P. Davidson, Geneva, Switzerland. The former is an indedepdent

who guided the undertakings of the American Red body composed of Swiss citizens, whose chief

Cross through the World War, was instrumental in

founding the League, while the Honorable Norman characteristic is its absolute neutrality. It is en

H. Davis, present chairman of the American Red trusted with overseeing the observance of Red

Cross, is chairman of the board of governors of Cross treaties. Since 1928 its president has been

the League, M. Max Huber, Judge and one-time President of

The League had 63 member societies at the outthe Permanent Court of International Justice. break of the present war whose voluntary contri

Among the functions of the Committee is the butions support its activities. It acts as a clearing relief of war sufferers, especially prisoners of war, house of information for member societies and disproviding information and means of communication tribution agent for international funds for disaster between prisoners and their families, visiting relief, health betterment, education and relief of prisoners' camps, etc.

civilian war victims. It has stimulated the formaThe League of Red Cross Societies is an associa- 1 tion of many new national Red Cross societies.

German Weekly Food Ration, as of July, 1941
Source: Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, U. S. Department of Agriculture

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The Proper Display of the American Flag

Source: United States War Department The flag should be displayed only from sunrise flag of the United States of America, the latter to sunset, or between such hours as may be desig- should always be at the peak. nated by proper authority. It should be hoisted When displayed either horizontally or vertically briskly but should be lowered slowly and cere- against a wall, the union should be uppermost and moniously. Only over three buildings in America

to the flag's own right, i. e., to the observer's left.

When displayed in a window it should be displayed does the national flag fly officially night and day

the same way, that is with the union or blue field continuously over the east and west fronts of

to the left of the observer in the street. the National Capitol and over the adjacent House When displayed over the middle of the street, the of Representative and Senate Office Buildings.

flag should be suspended vertically with the union When the Stars and Stripes float from the flag- to the north in an east and west street or to the staff of the White House, from sunrise to sunset,

east in a north and south street. it is indicative of the presence in Washington of When used to cover a casket, the flag should be the President.

placed so that the union is at the head and over the When carried in a procession with another flag or left shoulder. flags, the flag of the United States of America When the flag is displayed in the body of the should be either on the marching right, i. e., the church, it should be from a staff placed in the posiflag's own right, or when there is a line of other tion of honor at the congregation's right as they flags, the flag of the United States of America may face the clergyman. If in the chancel or on the be in front of the center of that line.

platform, the flag should be placed on the clergyWhen displayed with another flag against a wall man's right as he faces the congregation. from crossed staffs, the flag of the United States

The American flag should not be permitted to should be on the right, the flag's own right, and its touch the ground, or trail in the water and it staff should be in front of the staff of the other

should not be used as drapery or as decoration, flag. When a number of flags of States or cities or pen

where bunting of red, white and blue is in order. nants of societies are grouped and displayed from

When the flag is in such condition that it is no staffs with the flag of the United States of America, longer a fit emblem for display, it should be prithe latter should be at the center or at the highest vately burned. point of the group.

The complete flag circular of the War DepartWhen flags of States or cities or pennants of so- ment can be obtained by writing to the Adjutant cieties are flown on the same halyard with the General's Office, Washington.

THE PRESIDENT'S FLAG The President's flag consists of the President's National Anthem is played by the band, and officers seal in bronze, upon a blue background, with a and men salute.. large white star in each corner. The design of this The flag of the Secretary of the Navy, says the seal may be seen in the floor of the entrance cor- National Geographic Society, dates from 1866. It ridor of the White House.

is not known who designed this flag, with its white When the President visits a vessel of the United "fouled anchor in the center and its white stars States, the President's flag is broken at the main in each of the four corners. the moment he reaches the deck and is kept flying The Secretary of War's flag was authorized in as long as he is on board.

1897 by order of the Adjutant General's Office. It When the President is embarked on a boat he is scarlet, with a white star in each corner and the usually directs that his flag be displayed from the coat of arms of the United States in the center. staff in the bow of his barge. When he passes in (1) A color is a flag carried by unmounted units. a boat flying his fiag, vessels of the navy parade (2) A standard is a flag carried by mounted or the full guard, four ruflles are given on the drum, motorized units. four flourishes are sounded on the bugle, the (3) An ensign is a flag flown on ships.

The American Flag, Its Origin

Source: Dr. A. C. Flick, when Director of Archives, State of New York In 1775 the Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse white; that the union have twenty stars, white carried a standard with thirteen alternate blue and in a blue field. silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At "That on the admission of every new state Cambridge on January 2, 1776, Washington without into the union, one star be added to the union

of the flag; and that such addition shall take authorization of the Continental Congress, raised

effect on the fourth of July next succeeding a flag consisting of thirteen alternate white and

such admission." red stripes with the crosses of St. George and St.

Since 1818 additional stars have been added unti) Andrew in a blue field in the upper left-hand cor

today there are 48 on the flag. No law has been ner. It was called the “Union Flag." "Grand

passed to designate how the stars shall be arUnion Flag" and the "Continental Flag' and was

ranged. At one time they formed a design of a employed until displaced by the Stars and Stripes larger star. Now by common practice they form adopted by the Continental Congress.

six rows of eight stars each. The beautiful tradition that Betsy Ross, as early Betsy Ross, it is now said, lived at 233 Arch St., as June, 1776, made a Stars and Stripes flag from Philadelphia, and not at 239. She made flags, but, a pencil sketch supplied by Washington but

says Theodore D. Gottlieb, she never made the first changed the points of the stars from six to five,

Stars and Stripes. He adds: "The Department of has become a classic. Historians doubt its ac- State, the War and Navy Departments, the Hiscuracy. Half a dozen localities claim to have torical Sites Commission of Philadelphia and other been the place where the Stars and Stripes was official bodies repudiate the legend. The book and first used. Within N. Y. State such contention pamphlet material available is overwhelmingly has been for Ft. Ann on July 8, Ft. Stanwix on against the legend. Aug. 3. Bennington on Aug. 16, and Saratoga on "The story arose for the first time on March 14, Sept. 19, 1777. The flag with thirteen stripes and 1870, when William J. Canby read a paper before thirteen stars, authorized on June 14, 1777, con- the Pennsylvania Historical Society in which he tinued to be used as the national emblem until stated that in 1836, when his grandmother, Betsy Congress passed the following act, which Presi- Ross, was 84 years old and he was 11, she told him dent Washington signed:

the story. He apparently thought little of it be"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag cause nothing was done until 1857, when at the of the United States be fifteen stripes, alter

suggestion of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of nate red and white; and that the union be

Betsy, he wrote out the notes as he remembered the fifteen stars, white in a blue field."


"Nothing further was done until 1870 when he This action was necessitated by the admission of the states of Vermont and Kentucky to the Union.

wrote his paper. The Historical Society of Pennsyl*The flag of 1795 had the stars arranged in three

vania thought so little of the paper it neither rows of five each instead of in a circle, and served Canby, younger brother of William, disputed several

catalogued nor kept a copy of it. Even George for 23 years. *With the admission of more new states, how

points in the paper.

"The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 ever, it became apparent that the 1795 flag would have to be further modified; hence in 1818 a law

when promoters secured an option on the so-called

Flag House, was passed by Congress providing:

"Modern historical researchers are giving much "That from and after the fourth day of thought to Francis Hopkinson of New Jersey as tiu July next, the flag of the United States be possible designer and the Fillmore or Benningto thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and flag as the first flag."

Labor Review for 1941

By John J. Leary, Jr. The year 1941 will go down in history as one of Office of Production Management, and with him, the most troubled of the American labor movement. a co-founder of the C. I. O. There was a sharp Split in twain, the two major factions were

demand in Congress for anti-strike legislation. plagued by internal differences; both were under

Union politics was a factor in the disturbance. heavy fire in Congress and out for strikes in de

The strike in the captive mines was called shortly fense industries; there were threats of a nation

before the annual convention of Congress of In

dustrial Organizations. In some quarters it was wide railroad strike, averted at almost the last

held that Mr. Lewis would be repudiated because moment, and a strike of miners supplying the of is person feud with President Roosevelt great mills of the United States Steel Corporation Mr. Murray, a Lewis protege who had succeeded and sympathetic strikes in commercial mines in the him as president of the c. I. O. and had supclosing months of the year; general charges of ported the President, was re-elected. racketeering by Union officials culminated in the The convention unanimously endorsed the strike, conviction of the head of an important American to which Mr. Murray, a vice president of the Federation of Labor union and an associate on miners union, gave his full blessing. The convencharges of extorting $1,200,000 from moving picture tion also endorsed the President's defense program producers, while the Congress of Industrial Or- which Mr. Lewis had denounced and under a gag ganizations came in for much criticism for permit- rule avoided what was certain to be a bitter debate ting alleged Communists to remain in prominent by passing a resolution which avoided any mention positions.

of Mr. Hillman's agreement, by which the AmeriHighlighting the defense strikes was a sharp can Federation of Labor Building Trades Unions exchange of letters between President Roosevelt

gained control of defense construction. and John L. Lewis, who contributed $500,000 to Obscured by the more spectacular developments Mr. Roosevelt's 1932 campaign, and an almost in coal was the termination of the 50-year-old peremptory order to Daniel J. Tobin, in charge of battle of the United Mine Workers to bring wages the labor division of the Democratic National in the great fields of the South up to the scales Committee in 1932, 1936 and 1940 to order teamsters paid in the fields in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and on strike in Detroit to return to work.

Western Pennsylvania. It was to provide funds Contributing to public clamor for anti-union for the organization and increasing wages in these legislation, was the blacking out for a few hours Southern Telds that the organized operators of of Kansas City by & strike of a handful of elec- the North first conceded the check off of dues and tricians in a power plant, a building trades strike assessments in 1898. in New York to force a utility company to employ In the 43 intervening years millions of dollars union electricians on construction work and a were spent and some of the bloodiest pages in five-day general building trades strike in San American labor history written. The end came Diego, Cal., ended by international union heads by the capitulation of operators in four States after after the Navy had threatened to take over the a brief shut down of their mines in April. struck work.

Other spectacular features of the year were the King Coal was the chief villain of the labor show. use of Federal troops to force the reopening of In April the bituminous mines of the country closed struck aviation plants in Englewood, Calif., and for å brief period, pending the signing of a new Bendix, N. J., and the taking over by the naval basic agreement, a dislocation disturbing rather forces of the big Federal Ship Building plant in than destructive. The real show came in Novem- Kearny, N. J., because of the reiusal of the ber. following the refusal of the National Defense

management to comply with a ruling of the Mediation Board to find for a union shop in the National Defense Mediation Board requiring emso-called captive mines that produce exclusively ployes who might join a union to maintain union for the great steel companies. A strike of 53.000 standing during the life of the contract. men was ordered in Western Pennsylvania, Illinois, How serious. as distinguished from the specKentucky, Tennessee and Alabama and 200.000 men tacular, the defense strikes actually were is eviin commercial mines quit in sympathy, forcing denced by a statement by the Office of Production the closing down of some and threatening the Management under date of Nov. 8, which said: continued operation of blast furnaces engaged in "The records of the labor division list 130 strikes production of steel for defense purposes.

of significance to defense from June 1, 1940, to The sole question in dispute was the refusal of Oct. 11, 1941. These strikes involved a total of the steel companies to require five per cent of 235,000 workers who lost approximately 2.445,000 their miners to join the United Mine Workers and man days of work, a very small fraction of the a nine to two finding of the National Defense more than 3,000,000 man years of work which had Meditaion Board against ordering the companies gone into defense work in the same period." to do so.

By the term "strikes of significance'' was meant, In this vote representatives of the A. F. of L. it explained, strikes actually affecting the flow of voted with the industrial and public representatives necessary war materials as distinguished from a of the board against Phillip Murray, president of strike, say, in a factory making pillows for the the c. I. O. and Thomas Kennedy, Secretary- Army which could be gotten elsewhere or done treasurer of the United Mine Workers. Subse- without. quently Murray and other c. I. O. members of the In the nine months ending Sept. 30, the Bureau National Defense Mediation Board resigned from of Statistics of the United States Department of that body.

Labor reported 3,312 strikes involving more than The chief centers of disturbance were the fields six persons each and lasting more than one day, supplying coking coal to the great mills in the as compared with 2,508_like strikes in 1940, and a Pittsburgh area. There was a sharp exchange of five-year average of 3,761. letters between President Roosevelt and John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers, The report for 1941 by months: ending with the acceptance of an agreement to

Workers Min. arbitrate by Mr. Lewis. Previously Mr. Lewis had

Strikes Idle Days Lost denounced such a proposition. His acceptance followed information that the third man of a three. January.

231 109.483 660,275 man arbitration board would be John R. Steelman, February

252 125,401 1,130,355 chief of the Department of Labor Conciliation March

332 176.295 1,552,012 Service, in whom Mr. Lewis expressed confidence April

371 562.549 7,090,157 of fair dealing.


436 415,313 2,161,279 The acceptance of the offer and the order to June


218.393 1,448,234 return to work was the action of the policies July

430 140,000 1.300.000 committee of the union, taken after Mr. Lewis August,

460 190,000 1,825,000 had been advised that the board would be com- September.

475 270,000 1,925.000 posed F. Fairless, president of the United States Steel

3.312 1.849,495 19.092,312 Corporation. The board voted (Dec. 7) two to one for the Union shop.

The clamor for legislation restricting the use of The loss in steel production caused by the strike the strike as a weapon to enforce union demands was estimated at 30.000 tons, roughly enough to was reflected in legislation in several of the States build 30 torpedo destroyers.

requiring holding up of strikes for stated periods In the correspondence between the President and after the order had been issued limiting the right Mr. Lewis. the former declared that the Ad- to picket and secondary boycotts. ministration would not order legislation forcing a In Congress, 30 or more of bills were presented closed shop, and Mr. Lewis made a bitter attack that corered many phases of union activites rangupon Sidney Hillman, associate director of the ing from the age-old demand that unions be


required to incorporate, to demands for general The outstanding gain of the A. F. of L. was the governmental supervision of all unions, including negotiation of an agreement with the Office of secret strike votes and elections under Federal Production Management in effect making its Buildsupervision, publication of complete financial ing and Construction Trades Department the sole records to making it a felony to order or induce bargaining agency on defense construction as a strikes or stoppages on defense work in time of means of stabilizing production. Under its terms national err.ergency.

all jurisdictional strikes were barred and the As this is written some of these measures were unions waived double time for Sunday and holiday before the House and Senate and conservative labor work, and extra rates for night and Sunday work leaders were almost unanimously fearful that legis- where men are worked in shifts. lation would be enacted materially restricting their Almost immediately the validity and propriety activities.

of the agreement was questioned when a dispute As against these adverse developments, both over the low bid for deiense housing of a Detroit major elements in the movement recorded sub- lumber dealer, working through a subsidiary corstantial gains in membership, with wages rising poration, dealing with the minority C. I. O. group, In all industries through union activities and the led to the holding up of the contract. effect of the Fair Labor Standards Act, commonly In Congress and elsewhere it was maintained known as the Wages and Hours Act, and liberali- that the lowest bidder able to provide surety bonds zation of unemployment and workmen's compensa- for the fulfillment of his obligations was entitled tion laws in several of the States.

under the law to any contract he might bid upon. The American Federation of Labor reached an As against Sidney Hillman, associate director of all time peak in membership during 1941, with O. P. M., maintained that financial responsibility 4,569,056 paid up card holders as against a previous was not enough, that early delivery of wanted high of 4,078,040 in the post war, boom year of goods, not bonds to guarantee delivery and possible 1920, a depression low of 2,060,933 in 1937 and litigation was the need of the hour. 4,247.443 in 1940. Making allowance for members The railroad labor controversy had its origin in exempted from dues paying because of illness, the demand May 20, 1940, of the five operating idleness and age, the total membership approxi- rail unions (engineers, firemen, conductors, trainmated 5.000.000.

men and switchmen) for a 30 per cent increase in The Federation reported 106 affiliated national wages and of 14 shop craft unions for an increase of and international unions with 35,000 local unions, 30 cents an hour and two weeks' annual vacation 49 State Federations, and 793 City Central bodies. with pay. The railroads countered with a demand

Starting the fiscal year (Sept. 1, 1940) with a for a 10 per cent cut in wages and changes in balance of $716,151.82 income of the Federation operating rules. The resulting deadlock led to a for the year was $2,126,971.57 and expenditures strike vote on Aug. 5, 1941, and the setting up of $1,835,973.43, leaving a balance on hand as of an emergency mediation board by the President, Aug. 31, 1941, of $1,067,149.06. of this balance acting under the Railway Labor Act on Sept. 10, $800,054.13 is in the defense fund for local trade this, under the law, acting as a stay of proceedings. and Federal unions.

On Nov. 5 the Emergency Board recommended a In the annual convention held in Seattle, the 712 per cent increase to the 350,000 operating men, Federation pledged full support to the limit of the 9 cents an hour to non-operating men, 712 cents national defense program, including the Lend- an hour to employees of the Railway Express Lease Bills; for continued appropriation of the Agency, with one week's vacation. Rejected by the United States Housing Authority Building pro- unions, agreement was reached Dec. 1 on the basis gram; against any ceiling on wages; suspended the of an increase of 912 cents an hour for operating United Brewery workers for refusing to comply employes and 10 cents an hour for non-operating with jurisdictional award in favor of the employes. Spokesmen for the railroads estimated teamsters; reiterated previous declarations against the carriers' annual wage outlay would be inCommunism and racketeering, and left the door creased by $300,000,000 to $325,000,000. open for return to the fold of the International The Fair Labor Standards Act was upheld by Typographical Union, suspended for non-payment the United States Supreme Court Feb. 3. It alof dues. and unions affiliated with the C. I. 0. fected, according to Administrator Phillip B.

President William Green and all of his associates Fleming. 350 establishments whose 15,000,000 emin the Executive Council were re-elected with the ployees who received $100.000,000 more in wages exception of George E. Browne, later convicted for than they could have collected for like work under racketeering: The place of Browne was abolished $4 to $6 a week for 60 hours' work formerly preby an amendment to the Constitution reducing the vailing in many industries. number of vice-presidents. Nominated for one of Nearly 19.000.000 man-years of labor will be the remaining places, Browne received only 419 required to complete the defense program set up votes, cast by his organization, the International by Congressional appropriations, contract authoriAssociation of Stage and Theatrical Mechanics and zations, and other allocations, on the basis of Moving Picture Operators, out of 45,282 in the estimates made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. convention.

of the 18,800.000 man-years of labor called for The Congress of Industrial Organizations, meet- by expenditures from defense funds the Bureau ing in Detroit Nov. 17, reported a membership in estimates approximately 9,000,000 man-years will round numbers of 5.000.000 in 41 national and be needed on construction Jobs, in shipyards, or international unions, 33' State councils and 204 in factories engaged in making finished products city, county and district councils. Differing from such as airplanes, aeroengines, tanks, ships, ordthe practice of the A. F. of L., the C. I. o. does nance materials, and other military equipment and not make public the number of members paying supplies. An additional 9.800.000 man-years of dues and initiation fees, the 5,000,000 reported labor will be needed to supply primary contractors including persons who have merely signed up as with basic materials. well as those paying dues. Of the 5,000,000 reported Approximately 36 per cent of the employment 600,000 are reported to be in the United Mine required in defense work is skilled labor: about 40 Workers, 400,000 in the United Automobile Workers per cent semi-skilled and approximately and 500,000 on the rolls of the Steel Workers quarter unskilled. Over three-quarters of the Organizing Committee.

employment created by defense appropriations, in the convention there was warm approval of therefore, will require trained workers in many President Roosevelt's policies, a long demonstra- types of occupations. tion of affection for President Murray, and en- Between June, 1940, and June, 1941, total nonthusiastic approval of his demand that the agricultural employment increased by 3,365,000 organization carry for union organization into the workers, and the greater part of this increase South.

occurred in defense industries. The total labor The convention denounced the National Labor force at work in June, 1941, in nonagricultural Relations Board as now constituted or alleged pursuits exceeded the total at work in June, 1929, discrimination in favor of the American Federation by more than 1.900,000. Employment in private of Labor and company unions, protested against shipbuilding and aircraft plants more than doubled the training of trcops for strike breaking purposes, over this period, while employment in other denounced the Federal Bureau of Investigation for strategic defense industries showed sizeable inalleged Invasion of the civil rights of union men creases and failure to combat subversive groups and called The defense industries still require a large numupon the Government to cancel "collusive con- ber of additional trained workers at the end of the tracts with ship yards and other defense work year to maintain present production schedules for with the American Federation of Labor.

airplanes, ships, tanks, guns and other equipment. The outstanding achievement of the organization On the basis of defense orders placed through the in the year was the signing of closed shop con- middle of May, 1941, it was estimated that at least tracts with the Ford Motor Co. and several other 1,409,000 additional workers will be required in priof the major air motor organizations and the mary defense industry by April, 1942, exclusive of signing up of employees of Bethlehem and Republic the additional workers required in industries Steel companies, preliminary to further formal supplying the basic materials for the implements demands for recognition

of war.


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