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Toll of American Ships in the War


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Joseph Seep, owned by a subsidiary of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and registered in Panama, sunk by mine or torpedo in Havre Roads, France, May 25.

James McGill, owned by a subsidiary of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and registered in Panama, sunk by mine or torpedo in the English Channel, June 20.

City of Rayville, 5,883 tons, owned by United States Maritime Commission, flying American flag. struck a mine and sank in Australian waters, Nov. 9.

Charles Pratt, 8,902 tons, owned by the Panama Transport Company, a subsidiary of Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), flying Panamanian flag. torpedoed and sunk off West Africa, Dec. 21.


Robin Moor, 4,985 tons, owned by Robin Line of New York, flying American flag, torpedoed, shelled and sunk by a German submarine in the South Atlantic, May 21.

Sessa, 1,700 tons, owned by Maritime Commission, flying Panamanian flag, destroyed by torpedo 300 miles southwest of Iceland, Aug. 17.

Steel Seafarer, 5,714 tons, owned by the Isthmian Steamship Company, flying American flag, attacked from the air and sunk in the Gulf of Suez, Sept. 5.

Montana, 1,900 tons, owned by United States Maritime Commission, flying Panamanian flag, torpedoed and sunk in waters off Iceland, Sept. 11. Pink Star, 6,850 tons, owned by United States torpedoed and sunk 255 miles southwest of Iceland, Maritime Commission, flying Panamanian flag. Sept. 19.

I. C. White, 7,052 tons, owned by the Standard Oil Company of New York, flying Panamanian flag, torpedoed in the South Atlantic, Sept. 27.

Bold Venture, 3,222 tons, owned by United States Maritime Commission, flying Panamanian flag. sunk 500 miles south of Iceland, Oct. 16.

W. C. Teagle, 9,552 tons, owned by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, flying flag of Panama, sunk in North Atlantic waters, Oct. 16.

Lehigh. 4,983 tons, owned by the United States Line, flying American flag, sunk by torpedo off Africa, Oct. 19.

Union and Confederate Losses in Chief Battles of the Civil War

Source: Official records, compiled by Marcus J. Wright, U. S. War Department

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The total deaths in the Union Armies during the Civil War, according to records in the AdjutantGeneral's office in Washington, D. C., were:

Killed and died of wounds, 110,070 (6,365 officers, 103,705 men); died of disease, 224,586 (2,795 officers, 221,791 men); other deaths, 24,872 (424 officers, 24,448 men); Total Deaths-359,528 (9,584 officers, 349,944 men.)

The Confederate losses were estimated (no official data in the Adjutant General's office) as followsKilled in battle, 52.954 (2.,,086 officers, 50,868 men); died of wounds, 21,570 (1,246 officers, 20,324 men): died of disease, 59,297 (1,294 officers, 58,003 men); Total Deaths-133,785 (4,626 officers, 129, 159 men).

Troops Engaged in United States Wars

Source: Adjutant-General's Office, United States Army




Active Hostil- Regu-
ities Ceased lars

Troops Engaged Volunteers Drafted Troops



b 56,652 e 528.274 43,300 116,597 75,215 1,933,779 g119,954 2,128,948 57,329 223.235 280,564 728,234 2.783,094 h4,057,101

FromRevolutionary War.. April 19, 1775 Jan. 14. 1784 & April 19, 1783 War of 1812 June 18, 1812 Feb. 17, 1815 Jan. 8, 1815 War with Mexico...dApril 25, 1846 May 30, 1848 eSept. 14, 1847 Civil. War (Union) April 15, 1861 Aug. 20, 1866 fApril 9, 1865 War with Spain.. April 21, 1898 April 11, 1899 Aug. 13, 1898 World War. April 6, 1917 July 2, 1921 Nov. 11, 1918 545.7731 46.347 were actually drafted; the remaining 73,607 served as substitutes. h Army only, does not include Marines who served with the Army in France.

a Proclamation of Congress read to Army at 12 o'clock noon on April 19, 1783. b Estimates on total troops run from 250,000 to 395,858. Greatest strength of Continental Army was about 35,000 in November, 1778. e Evidently represents enlistments and not individual soldiers, hence is considerably in excess of actual number of troops employed. d Hostilities began on this date. The Act of Congress approved May 13, 1846, declared the existence of a state of war. e Capture of the City of Mexico. [ Date of Gen. Lee's surrender. g Of this number

There were 2,112 French soldiers and sailors who lost their lives in the American Revolution. A monument to their memory was unveiled at the Palace of Versailles, near Paris, on June 17, 1936

As to the number of Confederate troops in the Civil War, Woodrow Wilson, in his "History of the American People," put the total at 900,000. Prof. H. Hart, of Hampden-Sydney College, fixed Confederate total between 700,000 and 800,000.

The American National Red Cross

Source: An Official of the Organization

The American National Red Cross operates under the charter granted by the United States Congress on January 5, 1905, to furnish volunteer aid to the sick and wounded of armies in time of war under the Treaty of Geneva to which the United States became a signatory in 1882. It also was chartered to "continue and carry on a system of national and international relief in time of peace and to apply the same in mitigating the sufferings caused by pestilence, famine, fire, floods and other great national calamities."

It is a member of the International Red Cross whose duties relate to war and the observance of Red Cross treaties, and of the League of Red Cross Societies, devoted to civilian welfare work in peace and war. The International Red Cross was formed at Geneva, Switzerland, 1864, where it and the League now have their headquarters. The American society was organized by Clara Barton in 1881. Its president is, by custom, the President of the United States. Its active head since April 12, 1938, has been the Honorable Norman H. Davis, chairman of the Central Committee.

The society is popular in organization, holding an annual Roll Call for membership throughout the continental United States and outlying possessions. National Headquarters are in Washington, D. C.. and branch offices in Alexandria, Va., St. Louis, Mo., and San Francisco, Calif. There are 3,735 local Red Cross Chapters scattered throughout every section of the country, plus 6.127 branches. Membership totals 9,191,000 and there are 9,749,000 school boys and girls enrolled in the American Junior Red Cross.

Instruction in first aid, swimming and life saving is conducted at army posts, camps and stations. Volunteers in Red Cross chapters are making.comfort items such as bathrobes. bedjackets, socks. sweaters, pajamas to be supplied to men in military hospitals, as well as forty million surgical dressings for the Army and Navy.

Ten thousand additional Red Cross reserve nurses are being recruited for Army and Navy duty, plus medical technologists and dietitians. Blood donors are being enrolled and a blood plasma collection program conducted for the Army and Navy.

The year 1941 witnessed a large expansion in all Red Cross domestic services as a result of the national defense program. The military and naval welfare service expanded to place field directors at all army and navy posts and stations. The Red Cross is the only non-military organization permitted within military establishments. Field directors, cooperating with local chapters, aided 127,000 men in military service or their dependents. Medical-social and recreational workers known as Gray Ladies, are at work at the larger military and naval hospitals. The Red Cross furnished $1,000,000 worth of athletic equipment to the Army pending availability of congressional appropriation." Occupational therapy supplies and personnel are made available as needed in military hospitals. INTERNATIONAL

The Red Cross of the world comprises the International Red Cross Committee and the League of Red Cross Societies. both with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The former is an indedepdent body composed of Swiss citizens, whose chief characteristic is its absolute neutrality. It is entrusted with overseeing the observance of Red Cross treaties. Since 1928 its president has been M. Max Huber, Judge and one-time President of the Permanent Court of International Justice.

Among the functions of the Committee is the relief of war sufferers, especially prisoners of war. providing information and means of communication between prisoners and their families, visiting prisoners' camps, etc.

Other services were expanded to assist in civilian defense. More than 577,000 persons received Red Cross first aid training last year, while 260,000 learned Red Cross water safety techniques. More than 2,880 highway first aid stations dot the nation's highway supplemented by 3,959 mobile first aid units. Active in fostering home and farm accident prevention are more than 1,100 of the local chapters.

Approximately 24,000 Red Cross nurses stand ready for emergency duty and the Red Cross maintains 639 public health nurses on duty throughout the nation and last year instructed 81,000 women and girls in Red Cross home nursing. Women volunteers numbering more than 1,000,000 are today giving service in production rooms, making surgical dressings and war refugee garments: in ambulance driving and first aid to the injured; in canteen work; as nurse's aides in hospitals.

An important activity during 1941 were the institutes on Disaster Preparedness and Relief conducted at strategic points to instruct chapter volunteers in methods of relief and rehabilitation for families and individuals suffering from effects of flood, tornadces, fires and other natural disasters as well as those occurring in industries. During the year the Red Cross aided 334,672 persons in 222 disasters.

Meanwhile, the extensive foreign war relief work of the society continued unabated. Up to July 1, 1940, a total of $47,087,052 worth of relief supplies had been shipped to war victims in Europe and the Orient, partly financed by a U. S. Government appropriation of $50,000,000 and partly by a $22,000,000 Red Cross war relief fund contributed by the public. More than 20,000,000 surgical dressings, 4,192,000 garments and 312,761 layettes made by chapter volunteers also were shipped.


tion of national societies banded together for purposes of practical cooperation and mutual assistance in war and peace. Henry P. Davidson, who guided the undertakings of the American Red Cross through the World War, was instrumental in founding the League, while the Honorable Norman H. Davis, present chairman of the American Red Cross, is chairman of the board of governors of the League.

The League had 63 member societies at the outbreak of the present war whose voluntary contributions support its activities. It acts as a clearing house of information for member societies and distribution agent for international funds for disaster relief, health betterment, education and relief of civilian war victims. It has stimulated the forma

The League of Red Cross Societies is an association of many new national Red Cross societies.

German Weekly Food Ration, as of July, 1941

Source: Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, U. S. Department of Agriculture

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The Proper Display of the American Flag

Source: United States War Department

The flag should be displayed only from sunrise to sunset, or between such hours as may be designated by proper authority. It should be hoisted briskly but should be lowered slowly and ceremoniously. Only over three buildings in America does the national flag fly officially night and day continuously-over the east and west fronts of the National Capitol and over the adjacent House of Representative and Senate Office Buildings. When the Stars and Stripes float from the flagstaff of the White House, from sunrise to sunset, it is indicative of the presence in Washington of the President.

When carried in a procession with another flag or flags, the flag of the United States of America should be either on the marching right, i. e., the flag's own right, or when there is a line of other flags, the flag of the United States of America may be in front of the center of that line.

When displayed with another flag against a wall from crossed staffs, the flag of the United States should be on the right, the flag's own right, and its staff should be in front of the staff of the other flag. When a number of flags of States or cities or pennants of societies are grouped and displayed from staffs with the flag of the United States of America, the latter should be at the center or at the highest point of the group.

When flags of States or cities or pennants of societies are flown on the same halyard with the

flag of the United States of America, the latter should always be at the peak.

When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, i. e., to the observer's left. When displayed in a window it should be displayed to the left of the observer in the street. the same way, that is with the union or blue field

When displayed over the middle of the street, the flag should be suspended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a north and south street.

When used to cover a casket, the flag should be placed so that the union is at the head and over the left shoulder.

When the flag is displayed in the body of the church, it should be from a staff placed in the position of honor at the congregation's right as they face the clergyman. If in the chancel or on the platform, the flag should be placed on the clergyman's right as he faces the congregation.

The American flag should not be permitted to should not be used as drapery or as decoration, touch (the ground, or trail in the water and it where bunting of red, white and blue is in order. When the flag is in such condition that it is no longer a fit emblem for display, it should be privately burned.

The complete flag circular of the War Department can be obtained by writing to the Adjutant General's Office, Washington.


The President's flag consists of the President's seal in bronze, upon a blue background, with a large white star in each corner. The design of this seal may be seen in the floor of the entrance corridor of the White House.

When the President visits a vessel of the United States, the President's flag is broken at the main the moment he reaches the deck and is kept flying as long as he is on board.

When the President is embarked on a boat he usually directs that his flag be displayed from the staff in the bow of his barge. When he passes in a boat flying his flag, vessels of the navy parade the full guard, four ruffles are given on the drum, four flourishes are sounded on the bugle, the


National Anthem is played by the band, and officers and men salute..

The flag of the Secretary of the Navy, says the National Geographic Society, dates from 1866. It is not known who designed this flag, with its white "fouled" anchor in the center and its white stars in each of the four corners.

The Secretary of War's flag was authorized in 1897 by order of the Adjutant General's Office. It is scarlet, with a white star in each corner and the coat of arms of the United States in the center.

(1) A color is a flag carried by unmounted units. (2) A standard is a flag carried by mounted or motorized units.

(3) An ensign is a flag flown on ships.

The American Flag, Its Origin

Source: Dr. A. C. Flick, when Director of Archives, State of New York

In 1775 the Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse carried a standard with thirteen alternate blue and silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At Cambridge on January 2, 1776, Washington without authorization of the Continental Congress, raised a flag consisting of thirteen alternate white and red stripes with the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew in a blue field in the upper left-hand corner. "Grand It was called the "Union Flag." Union Flag" and the "Continental Flag" and was employed until displaced by the Stars and Stripes adopted by the Continental Congress.

The beautiful tradition that Betsy Ross, as early as June, 1776, made a Stars and Stripes flag from a pencil sketch supplied by Washington but changed the points of the stars from six to five, has become a classic. Historians doubt its accuracy. Half a dozen localities claim to have been the place where the Stars and Stripes was first used. Within N. Y. State such contention has been for Ft. Ann on July 8, Ft. Stanwix on Aug. 3. Bennington on Aug. 16, and Saratoga on Sept. 19, 1777. The flag with thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, authorized on June 14, 1777. continued to be used as the national emblem until Congress passed the following act, which President Washington signed:

"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag of the United States be fifteen stripes, alternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen stars, white in a blue field."

This action was necessitated by the admission of the states of Vermont and Kentucky to the Union. The flag of 1795 had the stars arranged in three rows of five each instead of in a circle, and served for 23 years.

"With the admission of more new states, however, it became apparent that the 1795 flag would have to be further modified; hence in 1818 a law was passed by Congress providing:

"That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and

white; that the union have twenty stars, white in a blue field.

"That on the admission of every new state into the union, one star be added to the union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the fourth of July next succeeding such admission."

Since 1818 additional stars have been added until today there are 48 on the flag. No law has been passed to designate how the stars shall be arranged. At one time they formed a design of a larger star. Now by common practice they form six rows of eight stars each.

Betsy Ross, it is now said, lived at 233 Arch St.. Philadelphia, and not at 239. She made flags, but, says Theodore D. Gottlieb, she never made the first Stars and Stripes. He adds: "The Department of State, the War and Navy Departments, the Historical Sites Commission of Philadelphia and other official bodies repudiate the legend. The book and pamphlet material available is overwhelmingly against the legend.

The story arose for the first time on March 14. 1870, when William J. Canby read a paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in which he stated that in 1836, when his grandmother, Betsy Ross, was 84 years old and he was 11, she told him the story. He apparently thought little of it because nothing was done until 1857, when at the suggestion of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of Betsy, he wrote out the notes as he remembered the conversation.

"Nothing further was done until 1870 when he wrote his paper. The Historical Society of Pennsylcatalogued nor kept a copy of it. vania thought so little of the paper it neither Canby, younger brother of William, disputed several Even George points in the paper.

when promoters secured an option on the so-called "The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 Flag House.

"Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis Hopkinson of New Jersey as th possible designer and the Fillmore or Benningto: flag as the first flag."

Labor Review for

By John J. The year 1941 will go down in history as one of the most troubled of the American labor movement. Split in twain, the two major factions were plagued by internal differences; both were under heavy fire in Congress and out for strikes in defense industries; there were threats of a nationwide railroad strike, averted at almost the last moment, and a strike of miners supplying the great mills of the United States Steel Corporation and sympathetic strikes in commercial mines in the closing months of the year; general charges of racketeering by Union officials culminated in the conviction of the head of an important American Federation of Labor union and an associate on charges of extorting $1,200,000 from moving picture producers, while the Congress of Industrial Organizations came in for much criticism for permitting alleged Communists to remain in prominent positions.

Highlighting the defense strikes was a sharp exchange of letters between President Roosevelt and John L. Lewis, who contributed $500,000 to Mr. Roosevelt's 1932 campaign, and an almost peremptory order to Daniel J. Tobin, in charge of the labor division of the Democratic National Committee in 1932, 1936 and 1940 to order teamsters on strike in Detroit to return to work.

Contributing to public clamor for anti-union legislation, was the blacking out for a few hours of Kansas City by a strike of a handful of electricians in a power plant, a building trades strike in New York to force a utility company to employ union electricians on construction work and a five-day general building trades strike in San Diego, Cal., ended by international union heads after the Navy had threatened to take over the struck work.

King Coal was the chief villain of the labor show. In April the bituminous mines of the country closed for a brief period, pending the signing of a new basic agreement, a dislocation disturbing rather than destructive. The real show came in November, following the refusal of the National Defense Mediation Board to find for a union shop in the so-called captive mines that produce exclusively for the great steel companies. A strike of 53,000 men was ordered in Western Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama and 200,000 men in commercial mines quit in sympathy, forcing the closing down of some and threatening the continued operation of blast furnaces engaged in production of steel for defense purposes.

The sole question in dispute was the refusal of the steel companies to require five per cent of their miners to join the United Mine Workers and a nine to two finding of the National Defense Meditaion Board against ordering the companies to do so.

In this vote representatives of the A. F. of L. voted with the industrial and public representatives of the board against Phillip Murray, president of the C. I. O., and Thomas Kennedy, secretarytreasurer of the United Mine Workers. Subsequently Murray and other C. I. O. members of the National Defense Mediation Board resigned from that body.

The chief centers of disturbance were the fields supplying coking coal to the great mills in the Pittsburgh area. There was a sharp exchange of letters between President Roosevelt and John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers, ending with the acceptance of an agreement to arbitrate by Mr. Lewis. Previously Mr. Lewis had denounced such a proposition. His acceptance followed information that the third man of a threeman arbitration board would be John R. Steelman, chief of the Department of Labor Conciliation Service, in whom Mr. Lewis expressed confidence of fair dealing.

The acceptance of the offer and the order to return to work was the action of the policies committee of the union, taken after Mr. Lewis had been advised that the board would be composed of Mr. Steelman, himself, and Benjamin F. Fairless, president of the United States Steel Corporation. The board voted (Dec. 7) two to one for the Union shop.

The loss in steel production caused by the strike was estimated at 30,000 tons, roughly enough to build 30 torpedo destroyers.

In the correspondence between the President and Mr. Lewis, the former declared that the Administration would not order legislation forcing a closed shop, and Mr. Lewis made a bitter attack upon Sidney Hillman, associate director of the

Leary, Jr.


Office of Production Management, and with him, a co-founder of the C. I. Ö. There was a sharp demand in Congress for anti-strike legislation.

Union politics was a factor in the disturbance. The strike in the captive mines was called shortly before the annual convention of Congress of Industrial Organizations. In some quarters it was held that Mr. Lewis would be repudiated because of his personal feud with President Roosevelt, Mr. Murray, a Lewis protege who had succeeded him as president of the C. I. O. and had supported the President, was re-elected.

The convention unanimously endorsed the strike, to which Mr. Murray, a vice president of the miners union, gave his full blessing. The convention also endorsed the President's defense program which Mr. Lewis had denounced and under a gag rule avoided what was certain to be a bitter debate by passing a resolution which avoided any mention of Mr. Hillman's agreement, by which the American Federation of Labor Building Trades Unions gained control of defense construction.

Obscured by the more spectacular developments in coal was the termination of the 50-year-old battle of the United Mine Workers to bring wages in the great fields of the South up to the scales paid in the fields in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Western Pennsylvania. It was to provide funds for the organization and increasing wages in these Southern fields that the organized operators of the North first conceded the check off of dues and assessments in 1898.

In the 43 intervening years millions of dollars were spent and some of the bloodiest pages in American labor history written. The end came by the capitulation of operators in four States after a brief shut down of their mines in April.

Other spectacular features of the year were the use of Federal troops to force the reopening of struck aviation plants in Englewood, Calif., and Bendix, N. J., and the taking over by the naval forces of the big Federal Ship Building plant in Kearny, N. J., because of the refusal of the management to comply with a ruling of the National Defense Mediation Board requiring employes who might join a union to maintain union standing during the life of the contract.

How serious, as distinguished from the spectacular, the defense strikes actually were is evidenced by a statement by the Office of Production Management under date of Nov. 8, which said: "The records of the labor division list 130 strikes of significance to defense from June 1, 1940, to Oct. 11, 1941. These strikes involved a total of 235,000 workers who lost approximately 2,445,000 man days of work, a very small fraction of the more than 3,000,000 man years of work which had gone into defense work in the same period."

By the term "strikes of significance" was meant, it explained, strikes actually affecting the flow of necessary war materials as distinguished from a strike, say, in a factory making pillows for the Army which could be gotten elsewhere or done without.

In the nine months ending Sept. 30, the Bureau of Statistics of the United States Department of Labor reported 3,312 strikes involving more than six persons each and lasting more than one day. as compared with 2,508 like strikes in 1940, and a five-year average of 3,761.

The report for 1941 by months:



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3.312 1,849,495 19,092,312

The clamor for legislation restricting the use of the strike as a weapon to enforce union demands was reflected in legislation in several of the States requiring holding up of strikes for stated periods after the order had been issued limiting the right to picket and secondary boycotts.

In Congress, 30 or more of bills were presented that covered many phases of union activiites ranging from the age-old demand that unions


required to incorporate, to demands for general governmental supervision of all unions, including secret strike votes and elections under Federal supervision, publication of complete financial records to making it a felony to order or induce strikes or stoppages on defense work in time of national emergency.

As this is written some of these measures were before the House and Senate and conservative labor leaders were almost unanimously fearful that legislation would be enacted materially restricting their activities.

As against these adverse developments, both major elements in the movement recorded substantial gains in membership, with wages rising in all industries through union activities and the effect of the Fair Labor Standards Act, commonly known as the Wages and Hours Act, and liberalization of unemployment and workmen's compensation laws in several of the States.

The American Federation of Labor reached an all time peak in membership during 1941, with 4,569,056 paid up card holders as against a previous high of 4,078,040 in the post war boom year of 1920, a depression low of 2,060,933 in 1937 and 4,247,443 in 1940. Making allowance for members exempted from dues paying because of illness, idleness and age, the total membership approximated 5,000,000.

The Federation reported 106 affiliated national and international unions with 35,000 local unions, 49 State Federations, and 793 City Central bodies. Starting the fiscal year (Sept. 1, 1940) with a balance of $716,151.82 income of the Federation for the year was $2,126,971.57 and expenditures $1,835,973.43, leaving a balance on hand as of Aug. 31, 1941, of $1,067,149.06. Of this balance $800,054.13 is in the defense fund for local trade and Federal unions.

In the annual convention held in Seattle, the Federation pledged full support to the limit of the national defense program, including the LendLease Bills; for continued appropriation of the United States Housing Authority Building program; against any ceiling on wages; suspended the United Brewery workers for refusing to comply with a jurisdictional award in favor of the teamsters; reiterated previous declarations against Communism and racketeering, and left the door open for return to the fold of the International Typographical Union, suspended for non-payment of dues, and unions affiliated with the C. I. O. President William Green and all of his associates in the Executive Council were re-elected with the exception of George E. Browne, later convicted for racketeering. The place of Browne was abolished by an amendment to the Constitution reducing the number of vice-presidents. Nominated for one of the remaining places, Browne received only 419 votes, cast by his organization, the International Association of Stage and Theatrical Mechanics and Moving Picture Operators, out of 45,282 in the convention.

The Congress of Industrial Organizations, meeting in Detroit Nov. 17, reported a membership in round numbers of 5,000,000 in 41 national and international unions, 33 State councils and 204 city, county and district councils. Differing from the practice of the A. F. of L., the C. I. O. does not make public the number of members paying dues and initiation fees, the 5,000,000 reported including persons who have merely signed up as well as those paying dues. Of the 5,000,000 reported 600,000 are reported to be in the United Mine Workers, 400,000 in the United Automobile Workers and 500,000 on the rolls of the Steel Workers Organizing Committee.

In the convention there was warm approval of President Roosevelt's policies, a long demonstration of affection for President Murray, and enthusiastic approval of his demand that the organization carry for union organization into the South.

The convention denounced the National Labor Relations Board as now constituted or alleged discrimination in favor of the American Federation of Labor and company unions, protested against the training of troops for strike breaking purposes. denounced the Federal Bureau of Investigation for alleged invasion of the civil rights of union men and failure to combat subversive groups and called upon the Government to cancel "collusive contracts" with ship yards and other defense work with the American Federation of Labor.

The outstanding achievement of the organization in the year was the signing of closed shop contracts with the Ford Motor Co. and several other of the major air motor organizations and the signing up of employees of Bethlehem and Republic Steel companies, preliminary to further formal demands for recognition.

The outstanding gain of the A. F. of L. was the negotiation of an agreement with the Office of Production Management in effect making its Building and Construction Trades Department the sole bargaining agency on defense construction as a means of stabilizing production. Under its terms all jurisdictional strikes were barred and the unions waived double time for Sunday and holiday work, and extra rates for night and Sunday work where men are worked in shifts.

Almost immediately the validity and propriety of the agreement was questioned when a dispute over the low bid for defense housing of a Detroit lumber dealer, working through a subsidiary corporation, dealing with the minority C. I. O. group, led to the holding up of the contract.

In Congress and elsewhere it was maintained that the lowest bidder able to provide surety bonds for the fulfillment of his obligations was entitled under the law to any contract he might bid upon. As against Sidney Hillman, associate director of O. P. M., maintained that financial responsibility was not enough, that early delivery of wanted goods, not bonds to guarantee delivery and possible litigation was the need of the hour.

The railroad labor controversy had its origin in the demand May 20, 1940, of the five operating rail unions (engineers, firemen, conductors, trainmen and switchmen) for a 30 per cent increase in wages and of 14 shop craft unions for an increase of 30 cents an hour and two weeks' annual vacation with pay. The railroads countered with a demand for a 10 per cent cut in wages and changes in operating rules. The resulting deadlock led to a strike vote on Aug. 5, 1941, and the setting up of an emergency mediation board by the President, acting under the Railway Labor Act on Sept. 10, this, under the law, acting as a stay of proceedings. On Nov. 5 the Emergency Board recommended a 712 per cent increase to the 350,000 operating men, 9 cents an hour to non-operating men, 712 cents an hour to employees of the Railway Express Agency, with one week's vacation. Rejected by the unions, agreement was reached Dec. 1 on the basis of an increase of 91⁄2 cents an hour for operating employes and 10 cents an hour for non-operating employes. Spokesmen for the railroads estimated the carriers' annual wage outlay would be increased by $300,000,000 to $325,000,000.

The Fair Labor Standards Act was upheld by the United States Supreme Court Feb. 3. It affected, according to Administrator Phillip B. Fleming, 350 establishments whose 15,000,000 employees who received $100,000,000 more in wages than they could have collected for like work under $4 to $6 a week for 60 hours' work formerly prevailing in many industries.

Nearly 19,000,000 man-years of labor will be required to complete the defense program set up by Congressional appropriations, contract authorizations, and other allocations, on the basis of estimates made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Of the 18,800.000 man-years of labor called for by expenditures from defense funds the Bureau estimates approximately 9,000,000 man-years will be needed on construction jobs, in shipyards, or in factories engaged in making finished products such as airplanes, aeroengines, tanks, ships, ordnance materials, and other military equipment and supplies. An additional 9,800,000 man-years of labor will be needed to supply primary contractors with basic materials.

Approximately 36 per cent of the employment required in defense work is skilled labor; about 40 per cent semi-skilled, and approximately onequarter unskilled. Over three-quarters of the employment created by defense appropriations, therefore, will require trained workers in many types of occupations.

Between June, 1940, and June, 1941, total nonagricultural employment increased by 3,365,000 workers, and the greater part of this increase occurred in defense industries. The total labor force at work in June, 1941, in nonagricultural pursuits exceeded the total at work in June, 1929. by more than 1,900,000. Employment in private shipbuilding and aircraft plants more than doubled over this period, while employment in other strategic defense industries showed sizeable in

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