« ZurückWeiter »
United States Coast Guard
Source: Office of the Commandant The function of the United States coast Guard tem consisting of radio stations and some three is to enforce all Federal laws on navigable and thousand miles of coastal land wire and submarine territorial waters of the United States and to cable, administrative offices, stores and bases. promote safety and security to vessels that use About 2800 small boats are attached to the ships our waters for legitimate commerce and pleasure;
and stations of the Service. to have all Coast Guard vessels and stations pre
Organizing and training of yachtsmen is propared for active war time duty with the Navy and
vided under the provisions of an Act of Congress of to organize yachts and small craft and train Feb. 19, 1941, which authorized a United States their crews for duty in case of national emergency.
Coast Guard Auxiliary composed of citizens who The origin of the Coast Guard dates from
are owners of motorboats or yachts and who may August 4, 1790, when there was created by Act of
voluntarily enroll therein. This Auxiliary is ad Congress what was known as the Revenue-Marine ministered by the Commandant of the Coast Guard. and later as the Revenue-Cutter Service. Under This act also created the Coast Guard Reserve, the Act of January 28, 1915, the Revenue-Cutter
an organization similar to the Naval Reserve insoService and Life-Saving Service were merged into far as military obligations are concerned, the one single organization--the United States Coast members of which, however, are not organized into Guard-which constitutes by law, a part of the active units. During the present emergency Remilitary forces of the United States, operating serve personnel are being called to active duty. under the Treasury Department in time of peace,
The Coast Guard Academy, at New London, and as a part of the Navy, subject to the orders Connecticut, accommodates about 300 cadets. of the Secretary of the Navy,
in time of war or The course, embracing engineering, military when the President shall so direct. The Coast science, cultural and other professional subjects, Guard was further augmented when on July 1,
is for four years. A well rounded program of 1939, as a part of President Roosevelt's reorgani- athletics is carried out, and each year a practice zation plan number 2, the former Lighthouse cruise, usually touching at foreign ports, is made. Service was consolidated with it.
Upon graduation, a cadet is commissioned by the The Coast Guard has a personnel averaging for President as an ensign in the Coast Guard, rethe calendar year 1941 about 600 commissioned off-ceiving the same pay and allowances as an encers, 800 chief warrant and warrant officers, 17,000 sign in the Navy. Cadets are paid $789 a year enlisted men and 4,000 civilian personnel.Ranks with a commuted ration. They are required to and ratings in the Coast Guard are similar to deposit $200 on entrance into the service, to those established in the Navy and carry the same assist in paying for their uniforms; after this the provisions as to pay and allowances. At present pay is sufficient to meet all expenses, the Coast Guard material is composed of a fleet Entrance is by competitive examination, held of 267 cutters (consisting of vessels of over 65 feet
the middle of May each year at designated cities, in length with armaments of l-pounders, to the A sound body is a requisite and the age limits are largest cutters of 327 feet in length carrying 5.
from 17 to 22 years. Applicants should be gradinch broadside batteries); 229 picket boats, 15 uates from a high school, and a year of college auxiliary craft, 30 lightships and 9 relief light- or other preparation is desirable. ships. The aviation wing comprises 10 air sta- In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941, accordtions, encircling the coast, and operates 50 ing to official reports, Coast Guardsmen saved planes. The shore establishment includes 197 8,928 lives. active Coast Guard lifeboat stations, 47 inactive Ships and aircraft of the Coast Guard have stations and 3 houses of refuge. Training fa- participated in the neutrality patrol which has cilities include the Coast Guard Academy, 4 been maintained for the past several months. Coast training stations for enlisted men, 4 Maritime Guard officers have been designated as Captains Service Training Stations, and the Coast Guard of the Port in practically all the important ports Institute. In addition to these, there are the of the country, and under their direction a large Coast Guard Yard for the construction and re- volume of defense patrol work is daily being carried pair of boats and vessels, a communication sys- out.
The U. S. Neutrality Act-Before and After The so-called Neutrality Act of 1939-it was actually a joint resolution of the Senate and House-set forth its purposes, as follows:
The United States, desiring to preserve its neutrality in wars between foreign states and desiring also to avoid involvement therein, voluntarily imposes on its nationals by domestic legislation the restrictions set out in this joint resolution.
Bo so doing the United States waives none of its own rights or privileges, or those of any of its nationals, under international law, and expressly reserves all the rights and privileges to
which it and its nationals are entitled under the law of nations. Section 1 of the 1939 law said that, "whenever find that the protection of citizens of the United the President, or the Congress by concurrent reso- States so requires, he shall, by proclamation, define lution, shall find that there exists a state of war combat areas, and thereafter it shall be unlawful,
except under such rules and regulations as may between foreign states, and that it is necessary to
be prescribed, for any citizen of the United States promote the security or preserve the peace of the
or any American vessel to proceed into or through United States or to protect the lives of citizens of
any such combat area. The combat areas so dethe United ates, the President shall issue a
fined may be made to ply to surface vessels or proclamation naming the states involved; and he aircraft, or both. shall, from time to time, by proclamation, name Section 6 of the law of 1939 provided that whenother states as and when they may become in- ever the President shall have issued a proclamavolved in the war."
tion under the authority of Section 1, it shall Section 2 of the 1939 law said that whenever thereafter be unlawful, until such proclamation is the President shall have issued a proclamation revoked, for any American vessel, engaged in under the authority of Section 1 it shall thereafter commerce with any foreign state to be armed, be unlawful for any American vessel to carry any except with small arms and ammunition therefor passengers or any articles or materials to any state which the President may deem necessary and shall named in such proclamation,
publicly designate for the preservation of discipline Section 3 of the 1939 law said whenever the aboard any such vessel. President shall have issued a proclamation under The 1939 Act (joint resolution) was approved on the authority of Section 1, and he shall thereafter Nov. 4 of that year, at 12:04 p.m.
THE JOINT RESOLUTION OF 1941 Resolved by the Senate and House of Repre- section 16 of the Criminal Code (relating to bonds sentatives of the United States of America in from armed vessels on clearing) shall not apply to Congress assembled. That Section 2 of the Neu- any such vessel. trality Act of 1939 (relating to commerce with States Approved, Nov. 17, 1941, 4:30 p.m. E.S.T. (Eastern engaged in armed conflict), and section 3 suc Standard Time.) Act (relating to combat areas), are hereby repealed. The Act of 1939 stated that "it shall be unlawful
Section 2. Section 6 of the Neutrality Act of for any vessel belonging to or operating under the 1939 (relating to the arming of American vessels) jurisdiction of any foreign state to use the flag is hereby repealed; and, during the unlimited of the United States thereon, or to make use oi national emergency proclaimed by the President any distinctive signs or markings, indicating that on MAY 27, 1941, the President is authorized, the same is an American vessel." through such agency as he may designate, to arm, Any vessel violating that provision is denied for or to permit or cause to be armed, any American 3 months the right to enter the ports or territorial vessel as defined in such Act. The provisions of waters of the U. S. except in cases of force majeure.
Statistics Source: An Official of the Administration (Includes pensions, compensation, disability allowance, and Emergency Officers' retirement pay) By Executive Order of July 21, 1930, the Veterans' bined organization is known as the Veterans AdBureau, the Bureau of Pensions, and the National ministration under the direction of Brig. Gen. Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, were con- Frank T. Hines, formerly Director of the Vetsolidated in accordance with the Act of Congress, erans' Bureau, now Administrator of Veterans' approved July 3, 1930, by the President. The com- Affairs.
Year Soldiers Widow8 Tot. on Total Disb. Year Soldiers, Widows Tot. on Total Disb. (Fis't) on Roll on Roll Pen. Roll for Pensions (Fis'l) on Roll on Roll Pen. Roll for Pensions No. No. No. Dollars
Dollars 1890.. 415.654 122,200 537.914 106,093,850 1921.. 422,691 345.881 768,572 380,025,874 1900.. 752,510 241,019 993,529 138,462,130 1922... 430,942 341,437 772,379 377,158,125 1901.. 748,649 249,086 997,735 138,531.483 |1923.. 436,776
341.404 778,180 388,606,769 1902... 739,443 260.003 999,446 137,504,267 1924... 427,153 335,394 762,547 345,489,769 1903... 729,356 267.189 996,545 137,759,653 1925... 456,530 333.609 790,139 346,748,069 1904... 720,921 273,841 994,762 141,093,571 ||1926... 472,623 334,465 807,088 372,281,487 1905... 717,761 280,680 998,441 141,142,861 1927... 489,805 326,575 816,380 403,629,677 1906... 701,483 284,488 985,971 139,000, 288 1928... 516,566 317,798 834,364 410,765,338 1907.. 679,937 287,434 967,371 138,155,412 1929... 525.961 306,003 831,964 418,820,440 1908...
658,071 293,616 951,687 153,093,086 1930... 542,610 298,223 840.833 418,432,808 1909... 632.557 313.637 946,194 161,973,703 1931... 790,782 289, 205 1,079,987 488,388,942 1910...602,622 318,461 921,083 159,974,056 1932... 994,351 283,695 1.278.046 545,776,761 1911.. 570,456 321,642 892,098 157,325,160 1933... 997,918 272,749 1,270,602 550,559.342 1912...538,382 321,932 860,294 152,986,433 1934..581.225 257.630 838.855 321,376,786 1913... 503,633 316,667 820.200 174,171,660 1935..585,955 252.982 838.937 374,407.169 1914... 470.623 314,616 785,239 172,417,546 1936.. 600,562 251,470 852,032 398.992,478 1915... 437.723 310,424 748,147 165,518, 266 1937.. 598,510 243,427 841,937 396,030,052 1916.. 403,372 306.200 709,572 159,155,089 1938.600,848 236.105 836,953 402,768 696 1917.. 370.147 302.964 673,111 160.895,053 1939. 602.757 239,674 842,431 416,703,868 1918.. 341.632 307,865 649,497 180,176,694 1940. . 610,122 239,176 849,298 429,138,465 1919... 338.216 335.616 673,832 233.460.635 1941. 618,926 237,515 856,441 433,113,953 1920..
419.627 349,916 769,543 316,418,029 Figures for widows on roll represent the number of deceased veterans.
The Veterans Administration estimated that 659,365 former soldiers will have died since the first Armistice Day to Jan. 1, 1942,
PENSIONERS ON THE ROLL, JUNE 30, 1941 (1940 Figures in Parentheses) Civil War--Soldiers and nurses, 1,560 (2,381); Emergency Officers receiving retirement pay, 2,617 widows, etc., 43,313 (50,141).
(1,784); widows, etc., service connected, 96,833 War with Spain Soldiers and nurses, 153,072 (99,479); non-service connected, 22,010 (17,524). (159,230); widows, etc., 60,555 (57,720).
Pensioners by classes Soldiers, 618.926 (610.122); Indian Wars-Soldiers, 1,955 (2,216); widows, widows, etc., 237,515 (239,176). etc.. 3,836 (4,055).
Pensions paid during fiscal year 1941-Civil War, War with Mexico-Widows, etc., 107 (130). $23,173,466.95; War with Spain, $127,357,083.20; War of 1812-Widows, etc., 1 (1).
World War, '$261,939,634.55; all other. $20,643,Regular Establishment-Soldiers, 37,520 (36,051); 768.06. widows, etc., 10,860 (10.126).
The total number of ex-service men admitted to World War-Soldiers, service connected, 349,724 hospitals or facilities to June 30, 1941, was (348,164): non-service connected, 72,478 (60,296): 1,218,762.
OTHER VETERANS' ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITIES On June 30, 1941, there were 91 facilities under The total disbursements made by the Veterans' direct control of the Veterans' Administration for Administration to June 30, 1941, exclusive of hospitalization and domiciliary care of veterans
amounts disbursed under the Civil Service and and, in addition to these, 37 hospitals of other
Canal Zone Retirement Acts, amounted to $24,Governmental Agencies and 102 Civil and State
613,636.993.12, and of these disbursements $1,309,
992,076.54 was from insurance premiums and trust Institutions were being utilized by the Veterans' funds. Administration.
The largest items are: Adjusted Service CertifThe total number of veterans remaining in all cates, $3,751,769,477.11 (which amount represents facilities and hospitals on June 30, 1941, was 58,160 payments made on Adjusted Service Certificates under hospital care and 13,978 under domiciliary and amounts reimbursed to the U. S. Government care.
Life Insurance Fund on account of loans made On June 30, 1941, service and ex-service men from the fund on certificates under the provisions and women were carrying 613,320 Government Life of the World War Adjusted Compensation Act as Insurance policies aggregating $2,567,154,350; Ad- amended and the Adjust Compensation Act of justed Compensation benefits had been extended 1936); compensation and pension benefits to vetto 4,118,922 veterans or dependents of deceased erans and dependents of deceased veterans of all, veterans of the World War amounting to $3,766,- Wars including Regular Establishment soldiers 126, 108.21, and of this number and amount from 1790 to June 30, 1941, _$14,564,974.831.28; 3,792,509 veterans received Adjusted Service Cer- military and naval insurance (Term), $2,162,392,tificates amounting to $3,709,991,577.
039.28; vocational training, $644,874,599.36.
The Berlin-Rome Axis The Berlin-Rome axis-a term used to describe fensive and defensive alliance that provides for the the political friendship and collaboration between closest political, economic and military collaboraAdolf Hitler, Chancellor of the German Reich, tion in peace and war. The declared object of the and Benito Mussolini, Premier of Italy-was born alliance is to reorganize Europe and promote agout of the Italian-Ethiopian war. At that time
grandizement of the two nations and thereby (1935) when the League of Nations applied eco
create a "just peace" throughout the world. The
pact provides: nomic penalties to Italy in an effort to cripple her
In peace constant contact between the two govmilitary adventure, Germany refused to subscribe
ernments in all matters affecting their common to the sanctions... Hitler paid a State visit (May. | interests or the European situation. 1938) and was wildly acclaimed by 300,000 specta- In case of danger, immediate consultation on tors. The visit was in return to one paid to Berlin the full political and diplomatic support for (Sept. 1937) by Mussolini. In the absorption of counter-measures to meet the danger, Austria, Czecho-Slovakia and Memel, Mussolini has Finally, in case of war involving one partner, given approval to the tactics of Hitler and in re- no matter how started. full mutual support with turn received Hitler's support in the conquest of all military forces by land, sea and air. Albania.
In war it was understood that Germany would Germany and Italy signed in Berlin (May 22, have supreme command on the land and Italy op 1939) & ten-year unconditional and automatic of the seas.
American Army Battle Casualties in World War
Source: United States Army and Navy Records
Off-Bol. Offi- Army) Enl. Aggrecers Nur's Men Total ic's Men Tot.
Nur's Men gate Killed in action...
35,912 37,568 Dled of wounds received in action.
8 8 559
12,383 12,942 Wounded, not mortally 6,471 3|176,147 182,622
48 52 6,475
3 176,195 187,674 Totals.
8,685 3224,408 233,097 5 82 871 8,690 3'224,490 233,184 United States Navy Losses at Sea in World War-Killed in action, 30 officers and 326 men; died of wounds 6 officers and 52 men: lost at sea, 41 oficers and 416 men; total, 77 officers and 794 men,
Declarations of War 1914-18 to Armistice Nov. 11, 1918
Source: Government records here and abroad The Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Aug. 4; China, Aug. 14; Brazil, Oct. 26; AustriaTurkey, Bulgaria) made declarations of war Hungary, Dec. 7. against the following Allies on the dates named- (1018) Guatemala, April 21; Nicaragua, May 6;
(1914) Serbia, July 28; Russia, Aug. 1: France, Haiti, July 12; Honduras, July 19. Aug. 3; Belgium, Aug. 7; Montenegro, Aug. 9; The joint resolution of Congress, approved April Japan, Aug. 27; Britain, Nov. 23.
6, 1917, provides "That the state of war between (1916) Portugal, March 9; Roumania, Aug. 27. the United States and the Imperial German Gov
The following Allies and their associates (Britain, ernment which has been thrust upon the United the United States, etc.) made declarations of war States is hereby formally declared." against the Central Powers on the dates named The existence of a state of war between the United
(1914) France. Aug. 3; Britain, Aug. 4; Serbia States of America and the Imperial and Royal and Montenegro, Aug. 6; Japan, Aug. 23; Russia, Austro-Hungarian Government was declared by Nov. 3.
joint resolution of Congress approved Dec. 7. 1917. (1915) Italy, May 23; San Marino, June 6.
Russia surrendered to Central Powers Dec. 16, (1916) Roumania, Aug. 27; Portugal and Greece, 1917; Roumania, May 6, 1918. NOV. 23.
Bulgaria surrendered to the Allies Sept. 29. 1918; (1917) the United States, April 6; Belgium, Pan- Turkey, Oct. 30, 1918; Austria-Hungary, Nov. 3 ama and Cuba, April 7; Siam, July 22; Liberia, / 1918; Germany, Nov. 11, 1918.
PEACE TREATIES (1918) March 3, in Brest-Litovsk, between Rus- main, between Austria and Allies; (1919) Nov. 27, sia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and in Neuilly, between Bulgaria and Allies; (1920) Turkey; (1918) March 7 between Germany and June in the Grand Trianon, between Hungary Finland: (1919) June 28, In Versailles, between and Allies; (1920) Aug. 10, in Sevres, between Germany and Allies; (1919) Sept. 10, at St. Ger-Turkey and Allies.
U. S. PEACE PACTS WITH CENTRAL POWERS (Memorandum by the Department of State) at Vienna, Nov. 8, 1921; proclaimed, Nov. 17, 1921.
Treaty between the U. S. and Germany Restor- "Treaty between the U. B. and Hungary Estabing Friendly Relations signed at Berlin, Aug. 25, / lishing Friendly Relations signed at Budapest,
Aug. 1921; ratification advised by Senate. Oct. 18, 1921; 29, 1921;, ratification advised by Senate, Oct. 18. ratified by the President, Oct. 21, 1921; ratified by by Hungary, Dec. 12, 1921; ratifications exchanged
1921; ratified by President, Oct. 21, 1921; ratined Germany, Nov. 2, 1921; ratifications exchanged at
at Budapest, Dec. 17. 1921; proclaimed Deo. 20, Berlin, Nov. 11, 1921; proclaimed, Nov. 14, 1921.
1921. **Treaty between the U. 8. and Austria Estab- "In proclaiming the treaties Restoring Friendly bishing Friendly Relations signed at Vienna, Aug. Relations with Germany and Austria, the Presi24, 1921; ratification advised by Senate, Oct. 18, dent declared the state of war between the U. 8. 1921; ratified by the President, Oct. 21, 1921: rati, and the Governments of Germany and Austria to fied by Austria, Oct. 8, 1921; ratifications exchanged | have terminated on July 2, 1921.
Chief Dates in First Two Years of War in Europe
premier of France and seeks an armistice with Sept. 1-German troops invade Poland under
Germany. cover of air bombardments. Poland appeals to
June 22-Armistice is signed in same railroad Great Britain and France for aid.
car in Compeigne where Germany sued for peace Sept. 3-Great Britain and France declare wax
in 1918. Armistice terms give Germany control of
entire French coast. on Germany. Liner Athenia sunk with loss of
June 25–Armistice with Italy is signed. Hostili142 lives.
ties in France end. Sept. 5-President Roosevelt proclaims the neu
June 28-Russia begins occupation of Bessarabia trality of the United States.
and Northern Bukowina in Rumania. Sept. 17-Russian troops cross the border and
July 3--The British Navy destroys or incapacibegin occupation of Eastern Poland.
tates the major units of the French fleet off the Sept. 22—Germany and Russia agree to the harbor of Mers-el-Kebir, the naval base of Oran. partition of Poland. Sept. 27--Warsaw capitulates unconditionally Great Britain.
Aug. 8-Germany opens an air blitzkrieg against after devastating air bombardment.
Aug. 19-Great Britain withdraws from British Sept. 29Germany and Russia divide Poland.
Somaliland. Oct. 6-Chancellor Hitler makes first peace offer
Aug. 28-German raiders drop incendiary bombs in a speech in the Reichstag.
on London and the British bomb Berlin for three Oct. 14-German submarine torpedoes and sinks hours. British battleship Royal Oak in Scapa Flow; 786
Sept. 16-President Roosevelt signs the Selective lives lost.
Service Act and proclaims Oct. 16 as registration Nov. 30-Russia attacks Finland by air, land
day. and sea Dec, 2- British cruisers Exeter, Ajax and Achilles
Sept. 22--Japanese troops enter French Indo
China and establish a base for operations against engage pocket battleship Graf Spee in 11-hour
China. battle off Montevideo; German warship forced to take refuge in harbor.
Sept. 27-Japan joins the Berlin-Rome Axis.
Oct. 4-Reichchancellor Hitler and Premier MusDec. 17-Germans scuttle damaged Graf Spee in Montevideo harbor when time for repairs expires. solini confer under heavy guard at Brenner Pass
on joint future moves in the war. 1940
Oct. 10—St. Paul's in London is bombed by March 12-Finnish-Russian peace treaty signed
German fliers. in Moscow
Oct. 11-German troops occupy strategic military April 9- Germany invades and occupies Denmark points in Rumania, Rumanian army is disbanded. virtually without opposition. German troops seize
Oct. 18--Great Britain reopens the Burma road. chief cities in Norway.
Japanese planes bomb the highway. April 15-British and Allied troops land in fjords
Oct. 19--Heavy damage is inflicted on London of Norway.
by German air raiders as the attack enters its May 2-Allies withdraw troops from Norway
seventh week. Royal Air Force continues raids
on south of Trondheim.
invasion ports and industrial centers in May 10 - Germany invades Belgium, the Nether
Germany. lands and Luxemburg. Neville Chamberlain resigns
Oet. 24-Chancellor Hitler and Marshal Petain, as Prime Minister of Great Britain and is suc- accompanied by Gen. Franco of Spain confer in ceeded by Winston Churchill.
occupied France. May 14 The Netherlands capitulates to the
Oct. 17-Italian planes join in the bombing of German forces. Queen Wilhelmina flees to
England while the R. A. F. reply with attacks on England.
German and Italian cities. May 17-Nazi troops enter Brussels after Allied
Oct. 28--Italy invades Greece; Great Britain troops suffer reverses on a line
promises help to Greece. south to Bethel, 100 miles from Paris,
Nov, 8-Chancellor Hitler in Munich speech reMay 18The German High Command opens a
jects any compromise. drive to separate the Allies with a smash to the
Nov. 13-Chancellor Hitler and Soviet Commissar Channel ports.
Molotov confer. May 19-Gen. Maxine Weygand replaces Gen.
Nov. 14—Greek army launches a general of Maurice Gamelin as Generalissimo of the Allied
fensive against the Italians. forces.
Nov. 15-Coventry. England, is blasted by May 26-German forces reach the Channel and German air bombers. occupy Boulogne.
Nov. 20—Hungary joins Berlin-Rome-Tokio axis. May 28-King Lecpold and the Belgian army Nov. 23-Rumania joins Berlin-Rome-Tokio axis. surrender. Allied troops capture Narvik
Nov. 24-Slovakia joins Berlin-Rome-Tokio axis. May 29British troops begin evacuation of
Dec. 17-British capture three Italian forts in Dunkirk under heavy dive bombing attack.
Africa. June 3-Nazi bombers raid Paris, Germans mass force of 600,000 troops on Argonne front in a
Dec. 21-Berlin suffers longest and most destruc
tive air raid of the war. thrust to turn the left flank of the Belgian line. June 5-Germans open new offensive along the
Dec. 24--Pope Pius pleads for a "just peace." Somme.
Dec, 29_Greek troops capture three strategic Jane 10-Italy enters war against France and
Albanian villages. Great Britain. Allies withdraw from Norway.
Dec. 31-Chancellor Hitler, in a New Year's King Haakon goes to London.
speech, promises German people victory in 1941, June 14-German troops occupy Paris.
(For chief dates of war in
see War June 17-Marshal Henri Philippe Petain becomes Chronology).
Roosevelt's Warning of a “Shooting War”
President Roosevelt, in a speech broadcast to the American people and the world (Sept. 11, 1941), warned Germany and Italy that from that date on the United States Navy and its planes would fire on sight at Axis war vessels--he called them "the rattlesnakes of the Atlantic''-if they ventured into seas that were vital to United States defense.
After citing Axis attacks and the loss of four United States ships in widely separated waters, the President said:
*Upon our naval and air patrol--now operating in large number over a vast expanse of the Atlantic Ocean--falls the duty of maintaining the American pclicy of freedom of the seas-now. That means, very simply, very clearly, that our patrolling vessels and planes will protect all merchant shipsnot only American ships but ships of any flagengaged in commerce in our defensive waters. They will protect them from submarines; they will protect them from surface raiders.
"It is no act of war on our part when we decide to protect the seas that are vital to American defense. The aggression is not ours. Ours is solely defense.
*But let this warning be clear. From now on, if German or Italian vessels of war enter the waters the protection of which is necessary for American defense, they do so at their own peril,
The orders which I have given as Commander in Chief of the United States Army and Navy are to carry out that policy-at once.
"The scle responsibility rests upon Germany. There will be no shooting unless Germany continues to seek it.
"That is my obvious duty in this crisis. That is the clear right of this sovereign nation. This is the only step possible, if we would keep tight the wall of defense which we are pledged to maintain around this Western Hemisphere."
The United States Navy, under "shoot first" orders, began a convoy patrol (Sept. 16) for LendLease cargoes in transit from the United States to Iceland.
Peace Aims of United States and Great Britain
The President of the United States and the Prime of the peoples concerned;
w II live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and They have been accompanied by officials of their self-government restored to those who have been two governments, including high ranking officers forcibly deprived of them; of their military, naval and air services.
Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for The whole problem of the supply of munitions of their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment war, as provided by the Lease-Lend Act, for the by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, armed forces of the Unted States and for those of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the countries actively engaged in resisting aggression raw materials of the world which are needed for has been further examined.
their economic prosperity: Lord Beaverbrook, the Minister of Supply of the Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest British Government. has joined in these con- coilaboration between all nations in the economic ferences. He is going to proceed to Washington to field with the object of securing, for all, improved discuss further details with appropriate officials of labor standards, economic adjustment and social the United States Government. These conferences security; will also cover the supply problems of the Soviet Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi Union.
tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which The President and the Prime Minister have had will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in several conferences. They have considered the safety within their own boundaries, and which will dangers to world civilization arising from the afford assurance that all the men in all the lands policies of military domination by conquest upon may live out their lives in freedom from fear and which the Hitlerite government of Germany and want; other governments associated therewith have em- Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to barked, and have made clear the steps which their traverse the high seas and oceans without countries are respectively taking for their safety in hindrance; the face of these dangers.
Eighth, 'they believe that all of the nations of They have agreed upon the following joint the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons, declaration:
must come to the abandonment of the use of force. The President of the United States of America Since no future
peace can be maintained it land, and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, represent sea or air armaments continue to be employed by ing His Majesty's Government in the United nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggresKingdom, being met together, deem it right to sion outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending make known certain common principles in the the establishment of a wider and permanent system national policies of their respective countries on of general security, that the disarmament of such which they base their hopes for a better future for nations is essential. They will likewise aid and the world.
encourage all other practicable measures which First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing territorial or other:
burden of armaments. Second, they desire to see no territorial changes
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes
WINSTON S. CHURCHILL. Full adherence to the Atlantic Charter as drawn Soviet Union. The nine governments are Belgium, up by President Roosevelt and Prime Mininter Free France, Czecho-Slovakia, Greece, Luxemburg. Churchill was pledged (Sept. 24, 1941) by the free the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia. governments of nine European countries and by the
Proclamation of Unlimited National Emergency
A PROCLAMATION WHEREAS on September 8, 1939, because of the outbreak of war in Europe a proclamation was issued declaring a limited national emergency and directing measures "for the purpose of strengthening our national defense within the limits of peacetime authorizations,"
WHEREAS a succession of events makes plain that the objectives of the Axis belligerents in such war are not confined to those avowed at its commencement, but include overthrow throughout the world of existing democratic order, and a worldwide domination of peoples and economies through the destruction of all resistance on land and sea and in the air, and
WHEREAS indifference on the part of the United States to the increasing menace would be perilous, and common prudence requires that for the security of this nation and of this hemisphere we should pass from peacetime authorization of military strength to such a basis as will enable us to cope instantly and decisively with any attempt at hostile encirclement of this hemisphere, or the establishment of any base for aggression against it, as well as to repel the threat of predatory incursion by foreign agents into our territory and society.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, President of the United States of America, do proclaim that an unlimited national emergency conironts this country, which requires that its military, naval, air and civilian defenses be put on the basis of readiness to repel any and all acts or threats of aggression directed toward any part of the Western Hemisphere.
I call upon all the loyal citizens engaged in production for defense to give precedence to the needs of the nation to the end that a system of government that makes private enterprise possible may survive.
I call upon our loyal workmen as well as employers to merge their lesser differences in the larger effort to insure the survival of the only kind of government which recognizes the rights of labor or of capital
I call upon loyal State and local leaders and oficials to cooperate with the civilian defense agencies of the United States to assure our internal security against foreign directed subversion and to put every community in order for maximum productive effort and minimum of waste and unnecessary frictions
I call upon all loyal citizens to place the nation's needs first in mind and in action to the end that we may mobilize and have ready for instant defensive all of th physical powers, all of the moral strength and all of the material resources of this nation.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this twenty-seventh day of May, in the Year of Our Lord Nineteen
Hundred and Forty-one, and of the Independence of the United States of America the (Seal] One Hundred and sixty-fifth.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT. By the President:
CORDELL HULL, Secretary of State.