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Military Forces of Nations of the World
Source: Latest official reports: data are as of Nov. 1, 1941

Air Forces

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1

Argentina
Belgium.
Bolivia..
Brazil.
British Empire
Bulgaria.
Chile.
China
Colombia.
Costa Rica
Cuba.
Dominican Rep.
Ecuador
El Salvador
Finland
France (Metrop)
French No. Atr
French W. Afr..
Germany
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti.
Honduras
Hungary
Italy
Japan,
Mexico
Netherlands
Nicaragua
Paraguay.
Peru.
Portugal
Rumania
Spain
Sweden.
Switzerland
Turkey
Uruguay
U.S. S. R.
Venezuela
Yugoslavia
United States

49,680 282,503 334,161 1,978

1,978 334,161 In Army None

None None

In Army 9,500 62.300 71,960 160

1601 71,960 In Army 92,000 296,318 391,993 3,675

3,675 391,993 In Army

4,000,000 410.000 130.000 540,000

40,000 540,000 In Army 45,102 212,000 257,102 2.863

100 2,963 260,065 Separate 1,910.000 1,000,000 2,910,000 16,401

500 16,901 2,910,000 in Army 14,700 100,000 115,800 1,100

1,100 115,800 In Army 542) 200 742

742 None 14,209 29,510 44,047 208

120

328

44,047 In Army 3,171 1,500 4,736

65

65 4,736 In Army 11,676 40,000 51,948

272 51,948 In Army 3,370 708 4,177

78

20

98

4,177 In Army 100,000 350,000 450,000 2,250

0 2,250 450,000 In Army 93.000 None 93,000 3,350

3,350 96,350 Separate 100,000 permitted 100,000

Separate 80,300 80.300

Separate 8,000,000 Active 8,000,000 1,000,000

1,000,000 9,000,000 Separate None

None

Separate 5,758 34,808 40,624

58

40.624 In Army 3,404 551 3,955 None None

3,955 2,203 15,000 17,225

22

22 17,225 In Army 200,000 1,100,000 1,300,000 8,600

8,600 1,300,000 In Army 2,000,000 2,200,000 4,200,000 257,483 105,550 363,033 4,563,033 Separate 1,965,000 1,201,000 3,217,500 35,500 16,000 51,500 3,217,500 In Army 62,500 63,680 126,180

489 None

489 126,180 In Army None

None None
3,442

637
4,123
44

44 4,123 In Army 7,504 88,000 95,726 222

95,726 In Army 24,650 460,895 485,545 2.244

2,244 487,789 Separate 70,000 124,910) 194,910 1,065 None

1.065 194,910 In Army Úndergoing reorganization due to German occupation 517,000 1.520.000 2,037,0001 16.000

16,000 2,053,000 Separate 180,000 220.000 400,000 6,000

0 6,000 406,000 Separate 46,000 205,000 251,000 7,790

7,790 258,790 Separate 803,340 0 803,340 3,340

3,340 803,340 In Army 8,093 16,650 25,128 385

385 25,128 In Army 4,000,000 13,000,000 17,000,000 150,000

150,000 17,000,000 In Army 19,500 20,000 39,928 428

428 39,928 In Army None

None 1,638,540) 65,7421 1,704,282 220,0001 1,990 221,900 1,704,282 in Army

United States Military Academy, West Point, N. Y.

Source: An Official of the Institution
The authorized strength of the U. S. Corps of high schools and students at accredited universi-
Cadets is 1,960 Cadets, appointed in number and ties and colleges of recognized standing may submit
from source as follows:

educational certificates which will be considered by Six from each State at Large, 288; 3 from each the Academic Board, and if satisfactory may be Congressional district, 1,305; 3 from each Terri- accepted in lieu of the regular mental examination. tory (Hawali and Alaska), 6; 5 from the District High School certificates must be validated by actual of Columbia, 5; 3 from Natives of Puerto Rico, 3; examinations in algebra, geometry and English. 1 from Panama Canal Zone, 1; 172 from the United The course of study is four years, during which States at Large, 172; 180 from among the enlisted time the cadets are under strict military discipline. men of the Regular Army and of the National The summers are spent in camp. Academic work Guard, in number as nearly equal as practicable, begins in September of each year and ends the 180, Total, 1.960.

following June. Cadets of the first, second and *or the number named 3 are appointed upon the third classes not undergoing examinations are recommendation of the Vice President, 40 are se- allowed short leaves of absence at Christmas, and lected from among the honor graduates of those those who have successfully completed the third educational institutions designated as

"honor class course are allowed leaves of absence from military schools''; and 40 are chosen from among about the middle of June to August 28. The course the sons of veterans who were killed in action or is largely mathematical and professional. died prior to July 2, 1921, of wounds received or The pay of a cadet is $780 per year and comdisease contracted in line of duty during the World mutation of ration, at 75 cents per day. The total War.

is $1,053.75, which with his initial deposit of $300 Candidates are eligible for admission from the to cover uniforms, is considered enough to meet day they are 17 (or 19 if from the Regular Army or actual needs. On graduation, cadets, except Filipino from the National Guard) until the day they be- and foreign, may be commissioned second lieutencome 22 years of age, on which latter day they are ants in the U.S. Army. not eligible.

Each cadet when admitted to the Academy signs Appointments to the Academy are made only to an agreement to serve for a period of eight years, all vacancies as they may occur, and candidates unless sooner discharged by competent authority. may be designated one year in advance of admis- The total number

of

graduates, including sion. For each Vacancy from a state or Con- foreigners receiving instruction under special Acts gressional district three candidates may

be of Congress, from 1802 to June 11, 1941, inclusive, nominated, & principal, a first alternate, and a is 12,661. second alternate. The selection of these candidates Detailed information is contained in an illusIs left entirely with the Senator or Representative trated pamphlet, a copy of which will be furnished who has the vacancy at his disposal,

without cost, upon application to The Adjutant Each candidate must pass a rigid physical ex- General War Department, Washington, DC. amination and none is accepted who has any defect The Military Reservation at West Point contains or infirmity which renders him unfit for military (June, 1940) 4,122 acres, but condemnation proservice. In addition, each candidate must pass an ceedings had been started to add 15,000 acres. examination in the subjects of Algebra, Geometry. West Point opened July 4, 1802 with ten cadets; English Grammar, Composition and Literature. West Point has been a military post since Jan. and History. However, graduates of accredited 20, 1778.

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United States Battleships as of June 1, 1941
(Treaty allowance of capital ship tonnage to the United States, 525,000 tons)
Stan-L'rth

1 1 Ships dard Water- Bridth Mean Speed

Malo Secondary Main Sec.
Displ.
line
Draft

Battery Battery Brds. Bs. Tons Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.Knots No. In. Cal. No. In. Cal. Lbs, Lbs. Arizona, 1916. 32,600 6000 106 3 27 7 20.70 12 14 45

12

6 51 16.800 600 Arkansas, 1912. 26, 100 556 0106

26 0 20.95 12 12 50 16 5 51 10,440 800 California, 1921. 32,600 6000 97

30 7 21.46

14 50 12 5 61 16.800 600 Colorado, 1923. 32,500 6000 97

30 6 20.67 8 16 45 12 5 61 16.800 600 Idaho, 1919. 33,400 600 0 106

6 21.60 12 14 50 12

51 16,8001 600 Maryland, 1921. 31,500 600 0 97

29 6 21.09 8 16 45 125 51 16,800 600 Mississippi, 1917. 33.000 6000 106

29 3 21.00 12 14

50 12 5 51 16,800 600 Nevada, 1916. 29.000 575 0 107 11 27 5 20.28 10 14 45 12 5 51 14.000 600 New Mexico, 1918. | 33.400 600 0 106 3 29

21.00 12 14 50 12

51 16,800 600 New York, 1914... 27,000 566 0 106 1 26

20.23
10

45 26 5 51 14.0001 800 North Carolina.. 35,000 704 0 108 0 26 8 Oklahoma, 1916. 29.000 575 107 11 27 5 19.68 10 14 45 12

51 14,000 600 Pennsylvania, 1916. 33, 100 6001 o 106 3 28 0 20.89 12 14 45 12 5 51 16,800 600 Tennessee, 1920....132.300 600 0 97 6 30 4 21.01 12 14 50 12

51 16,800 600 Texas, 1914. 27,000 566 0 106 1 26 0 19.77 10

45 16 5 51 West Virginia, 1923 31.800 600 0

14,000 800 97 6 29 11 21.10 8 16 45 12 5 51 16,800 600 Washington 35,000 704 0 (108 0

8 The South Dakota was launched on June 7, 1941; the Massachusetts, on Oct. 1, 1941; the Indiana, on Nov. 21, 1941; the Alabama, set for March 15, 1942; the Iowa, set for July 1, 1942.

Operating bases, capable of maintaining in every respect the ships that are based in them with supplies, fuel, necessary replacement equippage and repair facilities, are maintained at Balboa, C. Z., Bermuda; Norfolk, Va.; Newfoundland; San Diego, Calif.; San Francisco; Trinidad.

Training stations, where recruits receive their initial training, are maintained at Newport, R. I., Norfolk. Great Lakes, ill., and San Diego. Other shore activities include recruiting stations and substations, hydrographic offices, and radio-direction finder stations at selected points throughout the country.

As of Oct. 27, 1941, the United States Navy's ships of combatant types were
Battleships (built) 17; (building) 15;. total 32.
Aircraft carriers (bullt) 7; (building) 11; (total) 18.
Cruisers (built) 37; (building) 54; (total) 91.
Destroyers (built) 172; (building) 192; (total) 364.
Submarines (bullt) 113; (building) 73; (total) 186.

CALIBER OF CANNON The caliber of a naval gun is the diameter of its bore, but in describing the length of the gun the same term is used in a different meaning. The 14" gun of 45 calibers length means that the bore diameter is 14" and that the length of the tube of the gun is 45 times the 14 inches.

As the length of the breech mechanism (in rear of the tube) is about one caliber, the total length of the gun from breech to muzzle would be 45 X 14" + 14" = 644".

26

The United States Navy

Source: An Oficial of the Department
U. S. Navy Naval Militia

U.S. Navy
State Organizat'ns Year
Enlist'd

Enlist'd
Officers Pers'el Officers Men

Officers Pers'el

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1890.
1,499 7,516

1925.

8,389

84.289 3,818 24,349 1898. 1,494 20.780 (In reg' Navy) 1926.

8,574 82,161 3,736 26.042 1899. 1,580 14.501 492 6.302 1927.

8,904 83.566 3.771 26,414 1900. 1,683 16,832 567 5.309 1928.

8,856 84,276 4,091 27,316 1905 2,079 30,804 465 4,475 1929.

8.905 85.284 6.078 29,052 1910, 2,845 45,076 540 6.961 1930.

8,985 84,872 7,002 32,316 1915. 3,488 52,561 606 7.706 1931.

9,260 80.863 7,549 34,959 1916 3,870 54,234 638 9,170 1932.

9,423 81,093 7,869 35,060 Naval Res. Force 1933..

9,449 79,206 7,978 33.350 1917. 4,694 100,539 4,166 57.801 1934.

9,582 80,312 8,557 32,802 1918, 9,199 208,671 15,486 239,906 1935.

9,721 82,818 9,572 33,351 1919. 11.209 169,575 32,137 260,162 1936.

9,735 93,054 10.828 34,333 1920.

9,119
107,601 28,482 245,386 1937.

9,826 100,161 11,733 37, 138 1921. 8,792 119,205 19.734 204,016 1938.

10.172 104,848 12,578 40,012 1922. 7,831 88,580 5,340 11,262 1939

10,447 110.160 13,749 41,486 1923 7.873 82.355 4,222 17,511 1940

10,828 160,254 15,538 44,801 1924. 8,126 87,327 3,975 21,015 1941.

11,748 201,612 20,757 49,760 Retired omcers on active duty, 1,276; retired enlisted on active duty, 688.

U. S. Marine Corps, June 10, 1941, numbered 52,918. The authorized strength by June 30, 1942, 1s 75,000 1. The above table gives strength on January 1, 1890-1899, and on June 30, 1900, and since. 2. Where figures are omitted they are not readily available in the Department.

There are navy yards at Portsmouth, N. H.; Boston, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Washington, D. O.; Portsmouth, Va.; Charleston, S. C.; Mare Island, Callí.; Bremerton, Wash.; Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Cavite, Philippines.

There are outlying naval stations in Guam (naval, hospital and marine barracks); Tutuila, Samoa, Guantanamo, Cuba, Olongapo, Philippine Islands.

Puts U. S. Navy Cost at 2 Cents a Person a Day Rear Admiral Clark Howell Woodward, V. S. N. more than two cents per person each day. At an (retired), addressing the Great Buffalo Advertising approximate expenditure of $1,000,000,000 annually, Club (Oct. 14, 1941) in Buffalo, N. Y., said: "The the cost of the Navy is approximately $7.60 United States is getting the largest and most person each year, while the per capita annual efficient Navy in the world at a cost of a little income is $570."

Major Navies of the World—Capital Ships, Nov., 1941 Information on navies other than that of the United States is not to be considered as official U. S. Navy data. They have, however, been corrected for announced war losses and building programs prevailing before the outbreak of the present war. Type Built Building Total

Type

Built Building Total United States

Destroyers
53(e) 27

80(e) Battleships.

17
15
32
Submarines

59(e)
22

81 (e) Aircraft Carriers 6 12

18 Cruisers

37
54
91
Total.

131
57

188 Destroyers. 171 193

364 Submarines.

113
73
186

Italy
Battleships.

2
Total..
344 347

7 691 Aircraft Carriers. 0

0
Cruisers

16
14

30 British Empire

Destroyers

101
12

113 Battleships.

16
6
22
Submarines
81(e) 16

97(e) Aircraft Carriers 8

3 Cruisers.

63
14 ?
77 ?
Total
203(e)

247(e) Destroyers. 210

210 ?
Submarines
46

46 ? Germany
Battleships.

3
2

5 Total 343 23 ? 366 ?

Aircraft Carriers. 1

1

2 Cruisers

9
6

15 Japan

Destroyers

47(e)

9

47+? Battleships 8(e) 18(e) Submarines

120(e) 180(e) 300(e) Alrcraft Carriers.

2(e)

10(e) Cruisers

46
10(e)
56(e)
Total

180(e) 189+? 369+? Destroyers

125

11(e) 136(e) Submarines

71
7(e)
78(e) U.S.S.R
Battleships

3
3

6 Total 260 38

298
Aircraft Carriers 0

2

2 Cruisers

9
4

13 France

Destroyers

64
34(e)

98(e) Battleships.

4
3
7
Submarines
171(e) ?

171+ ?(e) Alrcraft Carriers 1

2

3 Cruisers

14
3
17
Total

247 (e) 43 +2 290+? (e) Estimated. Secretary of the Navy Knox, testifying before the House Foreign Affairs Committee at the hearings on the Lend-Lease Aid Bill to Great Britain, offered the following table of naval strengths:

Estimated Approximate Total Combatant Tonnage Built
Estimated Comparative Strengths in Types

(Does Not Include France)
Jan. 1, 1941
Jan. 1, 1942

Jan. 1, 1943
U.S.
Axis
U. S.
Axis

U. S. Axis Battleships

15
20
17
22
18

28 Alrcraft carriers.

6
8
6
8
7

8 Cruisers.

37
75
37
81
45

101 Destroyers

159
271
174
292
219

325 Submarines.

105
284
108
400
133

500 Total fighting craft.

322
658
342
803
422

962 Note: France has as immediately effective units: 1 battleship, 1 aircraft carrier, 14 cruisers, 52 destroyers, 60 submarines. It is now reported that no new construction is contemplated.

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Alrcraft

Public Totals of Mainten'ce Yr. Amount

Increase (includes Moderni- Works columns 3, equals cols. Fisc. Expended of Navy airships) zation (direct) 4, 5 and 6 2 minus 7 1915. $144,956,199 $39,363,324

$3,824.742 $43,188,067 $101.768,132 1916. 147,598,136 37.191.228

3,481.599 40,672,827 106,925,308 1917 231,671,137 49,337,963

4,168,804 53,506,768 178.164.369 1918. 1,169,447,554 208.954,205

43,246,332 252,200,537 917,247,017 1919. 1,721,098,608 263,936,761

69,000,995 332,937,756 1,388,160.852 1920. 838,485,576 202,139,790

38,017,848 240,157.639 598,327,937 1921 963,449,978 202,744.852

16,402,476 219,147.329 744,302,649 1922. 485,583,028 128,862,991 $998, 462

14,124.036 143.985,490 341,597.537 1923. 308,943,019 46,681.919 4,073,523

9,092,933 59,848,377 249,094,642 1924. 316,716,719 41,696,913 7.300.187

4,150,614 53,147,715 263,569,004 1925. 323,940,534 34.021.549 5.295,957 $212,832 3,816,774 43,347,114 280,593,419 1926. 317,495,316 25.249.796 4.963,705 5,745,280 3,561,201 39,519,984 277,975,331 1927 320,553,753 27,430,330 6,037,444 10,203,283 2,617,252 46,288,310 274,265,443 1928. 336,441,214 36,934,985 11.301,938 5,042,288 4,436,840 57,716,053 278,725,161 1929 366,443,933 46.759.720 15,769,724 9,564,567 8,584,307 80,678,319 285.765,613 1930. 375, 291,828 49,872,209 14,385,563 7,810,995 6,818,912 78,887,681 296.404,147 1931. 357,806,219 37,928, 742 13,157,747 7,605,862 12,830,323 71.522.675 286,283,543 1932 353,628,362 39,203,814 13,535,053 7,742,834 13,012,598 73,494,300 280.134,062 1933 342,176,417 48,251,178 13,123,811 12,349,210 11,214,276 84,938,476 257,237,940 1934. 303,639,404 66,730,837 4,281,505 5,565,767 13,975,969 90.554.080 213,085,324 1935. 440,604,669 132,312,739 10,347,261 2,680,864 13.947,176 159,288,041 281,316,628 1936. 518,625, 222 182,679,054 14,227,165 899,702 8,437,222 206,243,144 312,382,077 1937 539.030,790 181,522,074 18,315,769 243,346 8,609,029 208,690,219 330,340,570 1938 587,945,491 191,085,298 27,256,163

7,512,683 225,854.146 362,091.345 1939 660,206,184 226,709,306 24,247,414

34,383,582 285,340,303 374.865,881 1940. 885,769.793 326,454,878 24.011.998 2,364,515 72,503,150 425.334,543 460.435,250) 1941. 2,646,400,884 843,994,906 144,810,091 113,553,346 361,654,524 1,463,972,867 1.182,428,017 Tot.. 16.003,949,981 3,718,011,377 377,440,487 191,584,697 793,426,210 5.080,462,771 10,923,487,210

U. S. Naval Aviation Shore Establishments

Source: Omce of Chief of Naval Operations Naval Air Stations are a part of the Naval Shore Pensacola, Fla. Training, Establishment. Their primary mission is to pro- Corpus Christi, Tex. Training, vide facilities in support of the operation of air- Naval Aviation Facilities are so designated when craft attached to the United States Fleet.

the establishment provides, less than a Naval Air There are 8 Naval Air Stations whose primary Station. mission is other than stated above. They are: Naval Reserve Aviation Bases are established at

Anacostia, D. C. Test and trial of new air- existing Naval Air Stations, Naval Aviation Facillplanes and equipment.

ties, or as independent units in or near large Jacksonville, Fla. Training.

cities. The purpose of a Naval Reserve Aviatio. Lakehurst, N. J. Lighter-than-air training and Base is to provide elimination training for those operations.

civilians who are prospective Naval Aviation Miami, Fla. Training.

Cadets.
LOCATIONS OF OPERATION POINTS OF NAVAL AVIATION
Alameda, Calif.
Corpus Christi, Tex. Miami, Fla.

San Diego, Calif.
Anacostia, D. C.
Guantanamo, Cuba
New York, N. Y.

San Juan, P. R.
Argentina
Jacksonville, Fla.
Norfolk, Va.

San Pedro, Calif. Newfoundland

Kaneohe Bay, T. H. Pearl Harbor, T. H. Seattle, Wash.
Banana River, Fla.
Key West, Fla,
Pensacola, Fla.

Sitka, Alaska
Cape May, NJ.
Kodiak, Alaska

Quonset Point, R. I. Tongue Point, Ore.
Coco Solo, c. z.
Lakehurst. N. J.

Trinidad
U. S. Naval Air Stations Under Construction
Bermuda

1
Midway Island

Unalaska, Alaska
Johnston Island

Tutuilla, s. I.
Palmyra Island

1

Wake Island U. S. Naval Aviation Facilities--Annapolis, Md.; Group, San Diego, Calif., Scouting Squadron Antigua, British West Indies: Bahamas; Boulder Three, St. Thomas,' Virgin Islands. City, Colo.; Bremerton, Wash.; Cavite, P. I.; U. S. Naval Reserve Aviation BasesAnacostia, Charlotte Amalie, V. I.; Charleston, S. C.; Dahi- D. C., Atlanta, Ga., Boston, Mass., Brooklyn, gren, Va.; Georgetown, British Guiana; Jamaica; N. Y., Chicago, Ill., Dallas, Tex., Detroit, Mich., Newport, R. 1.; Parris Island, S. C.; San Clemente Kansas City, Kans., Long Beach, Calif., Miami, Island, Calif.; St. Lucia. Naval Aircraft Factory-Philadelphia, Pa.

Fla., Minneapolis, Minn., New Orleans, La., OakMarine Corps Aviation First Marine Aircraft land, Calif., Philadelphia, Pa., Seattle, Wash., Group, Quantico, Va., Second Marine Aircraft St. Louis, Mo.

United States Aviation Appropriations The appropriations for the Army Air (Service) Corps, and the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, have been as follows: Year,

Year,

Year, fiscal Army Navy fiscal Army Navy fiscal Army Navy 1922. $19,200,000 $13,413,431 | 1929.. $24,630,268 $31,956,000 | 1936.. $45,383,400 $40.732,310 1923. 12,895,000 14,803,560||1930. 34,690.785 31,430,000 1937. 59,397,714 38,588.270 1924. 12,436,000 14,793,560|1931 35,823,473 32,033,2111938 58,618,406 49,500,000 1925

12,798.576 15,328,500 ||1932. 31,479,635 31,145,000 1939. 70,556,972 48,075,000 1926. 14,911.191 14,981.000||1933. 25,439,131 25,245,420 1940. 186,252,244 111,450,000 1927

15,256,694 19,256,288 ||1934. 23,324,185) 21,957,459 1941 2,173,090,961 452,319,950 1928 20,602,694) 20,300,000 || 1935 27.646,328) 19,166,929) 1942. 14,341,735,322 1,006,596,600

The United States Marine Corps

Source: An Officer of the Organization The Marine Corps, formed by the Continental or fully naturalized American citizens between 17 Congress on November 10, 1775, and made a perma- and 30 years of age, 64 to 74 inches in height, of nent organization

in 1798 is under a Major General good character, and physically fit. Commandant who receives orders from the Secre- The Marine Corps supplies two triangular ditary of the Navy. The Corps has its headquarters visions as highly trained land auxiliaries of the at Washington, in the Navy Building.

Navy, which include infantry, light and heavy The Marine Corps also maintains a subhead- artillery, machine gun, signal, engineer, tank, quarters at San Francisco, California, under a chemical, amphibuous and parachute troops; and commanding general of the Department of the aviators equipped with land planes, together with Pacific, who supervises the administration of all other land fighting units which would be marines on the West Coast, Hawaii and Alaska. necessary to enable the Navy to carry out its

The plan of organization includes a Fleet Marine mission in war. Force, at Quantico, Virginia, San Diego, California, In addition to supplying the land forces necessary and New River, North Carolina.

to the successful operation of the Navy in war. The two recruit depots of the Corps are located which is known as the principal mission of the at Parris Island, South Carolina, and San Diego, Marine Corps, all capital ships and certain light California: recruits from the eastern part of the cruisers of the Navy carry a detachment of United States receive their training at the former, marines. while those from west of the Rocky Mountains The authorized strength of the Marine Corps in receive theirs at the latter station,

1942 (including both regular and reserve) is 75,000 Applicants for enlistment must be native born enlisted men and 6,000 officers.

Military Order of the Purple Heart

The Military Order of the Purple Heart was Gen. Washington on a field of purple enamel. founded by Gen. George Washington at Newburgh, During the American Revolution the award was N. Y. (Aug. 7. 1782), as a reward for "singularly won by three Continental soldiers- Sergeants

and revived by President Daniel Bissell, William Brown and Eljah Hoover on Feb. 22, 1932, the bicentennial of Churchiu, all of Connecticut regiments. The New Washington's birth.

The original badge consisted of purple sprigged Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati has in its silk edged with silver braid, and was sewn on the possession the only known badge of the original left breast on the uniform coat. The new decora- Purple Heart; but who was its recipient has not tion is a heart-shaped medal bearing a bust of been determined.

British Bomb Shelters Accommodate 20,000,000 Bomb shelters in Great Britain accommodate / ing 725,000. Indoor steel table shelters have been 20,000,000 of the nation's 46,000,000 inhabitants, given to 565,000 and 20,000 additional are being Lord Snell told the House of Lords (Oct. 15. 1941), built weekly, Lord Snell said. Bunks for steel at the same time announcing that shelters for garden shelters will be produced until 4,000,000 1,000,000 would be constructed at once. These will are provided, according to the deputy leader of the be constructed in subways with bunks accomodat- Upper House

Naval Education System of the United States

Source: Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department Midshipmen, when appointed, are given four year of entrance to the Naval Academy, must pass years' instruction in general and technical subjects a preliminary examination, and must not be over at the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.

21 years old on April 1 of that year. Postgraduate Work-Postgraduate work is given Naval Training Courses--The courses are availline officers at the Postgraduate School, Annapolis, able to all men of the Navy and are furnished Md., and a few civil universities.

free of charge to any ship or station upon official Naval War College-Newport, R. I., one year; request. advanced course for flag officers; senior course for Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps units captains and commanders; junior course for lieu have been established at Yale University. New tenant commanders and lieutenants with at least Haven, Conn.; Harvard University, Cambridge, six years' service as commissioned officers; corre- Mass.; Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.; spondence courses for any officer ashore or afloat. Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. Uni.

Army War College-Washington, D. C., one versity of Washington, Seattle, Wash., University year.

of California, Berkeley, Cal.; University of CaliMarine Corps Schools, Quantico, Va., 10 months. fornia at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Cal.; Univer

Submarines-New London, Conn., six months. sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, Cal.; Officers must have had at least two years' sea duty University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.; The to be eligible.

Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La.; Naval Finance and Supply School-Philadelphia, Brown University, Providence, R. I.; Marquette one year.

University, Milwaukee, Wis.; University of MichiAviation--Pensacola, Fla., eleven months; train- gan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; University of North Caroing in heavier-than-air craft; graduates of the lina, Chapel Hill, N. C.; University of Oklahoma, Naval Academy eligible for this course after com- Norman, Okla.; Univeristy of Pennsylvania, Philapleting two years' sea duty. They are also eligible delphia, Pa.; University of South Carolina, 'Colum. for training in lighter-than-air craft, at Lakehurst, bia, s. C.; University of Texas, Austin, Texas; N. J. Aviation Cadets in the Naval Reserve are University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. The also available for training at Pensacola and 3 years naval course at these universities is a 4-year course duty with the Fleet.

and is an elective one. Optical Instruction-Navy Yards, Washington, Graduates of the NROTC units may be, if physiD. C.; and Mare Island, Cal.

cally qualified, commissioned ensigns in the U. S. Gyro Compass---Navy Yards, New York, N. Y., Naval Reserve or second lieutenants in U. S. Maand Mare Island, Cal., four to six months, Gun- rine Corps Reserve. Certain specially recomners,(E) with gyro experience available for this mended graduates may be commissioned ensigns detail. There is available for radio electricians in the Regular Navy Supply Corps or second lieuand chief electricians an 8-month course at the tenants in the Regular Marine Corps. By recent Radio Material School, at Bellevue, D. C. The legislation, the President may commission 4 numFire Control Instrument School is at Long Island ber of NROTC graduates ensigns in the line of City, N. Y. The Torpedo School is at Newport, the Regular Navy after one year continuous sea R. I., for junior line officers. The Diving School duty. (salvage and submarine rescue), for commissioned Naval Reserve-The U. S. Naval Reserve is and warrant officers, is at the Navy Yard, Wash- trained and educated in naval duties by annual ington.

periods of training duty on board naval ships, at Correspondence Course-Correspondence courses naval air stations and, in some cases, at shore are issued to officers requesting them, as follows: stations; by attendance at armory drills, radio International Law, Strategy and Tactics, and ma- communication drills; and by correspondence rine engineering

courses for officers and naval training courses for Training Stations-The Bureau of Navigation enlisted men. maintains the following Naval Training Stations: Aviation Cadets-Aviation Cadets of the Naval Hampton Roads, Va., Newport, R. I., Great Lakes, Reserve must be between 20 and 27 years old Ill., and San Diego, Cal.

at time of appointment; physically, morally and The course of training of all newly enlisted men educationally qualified for selection. Educational covers twelve weeks.

requirements: 1. College graduates who

are Service Schools - These schools are maintained preferably_(a) graduates from Naval Reserve to supplement the training carried out on board Officers' Training Corps; (b) aeronautical encruising vessels.

gineers. 2. Two years or more of college. Naval Academy Preparatory Class-Hampton Upon acceptance of appointment, aviation cadets Roads, Va.; five months in length. Instruction is sign agreement to serve on active duty_for four given under the supervision of officers detailed years, including period of training at Pensacola for this work. In order to attend the Naval Acad- and active duty with aircraft squadrons of the emy Preparatory School, the applicant must have Fleet. Must be unmarried at time of selection and nine months' sea duty on & ship in full com- remain unmarried for first two years of period of mission by November 1 of the year preceding the service.

UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY AT ANNAPOLIS The students of the Naval Academy are styled, tion, engineering, navigation, and seamanship, midshipmen. Five are appointed annually by the and to take part in a month's coastal cruise in Vice-President; 5 by each member of Congress; 5 destroyers. from Puerto Rico; 5 from the District of Columbia Graduates in all respects qualified are probaand 25 at large appointed by the President; also 100 tionally commissioned either as Ensigns in the enlisted men from the Regular Navy and Marine line of the U. S. Navy or as 2d Lieutenants in the Corps, 100 from the Naval Reserve and Marine U. S. Marine Corps, to fill existing vacancies. Corps Reserve; 40 at large, appointed by the Graduates who are commissioned shall serve in a President from among the sons of those in the probationary status for seven years from graduaArmy, Navy and Marine in the world war who died tion, unless sooner discharged. in service; and 20 from honor schools and Naval The height of candidates for admission shall not Reserve Officers Training Corps units at certain be less than five feet, five and one-half inches; and colleges and universities.

the minimum weight at 17 years shall be one Candidates appointed by Senators and Repre- hundred and twelve. Midshipmen shall not sentatives may also be accepted on certificate of marry, and any midshipman found to be married credits, substantiated by an examination in English shall be recommended for dismissal, Graduates of and mathematics; but a candidate may be admitted the Naval Academy while serving under a revocwithout any mental examination 11 he is or has able commission in a probationary status may not been a regularly enrolled student in good standing marry for a period of two years after graduation. without condition in a university, college, or tech

Each candidate who has passed the required exnical school accredited by the Naval Academy, and aminations must, before being admitted, deposit provided he can submit high school and college $100 to cover part of the cost of his initial outfit. certificates filling the requirements.

After being admitted, he is credited with $250, All candidates, except 4 Filipinos, are required which is needed in addition to the $100 cash deposit to be citizens, and must not be less than 17 nor to complete paying for the uniforms, clothing, textmore than 21 years of age on April 1 of the books, etc. This amount ($250) is deducted from calendar year they enter the academy.

the midshipman's pay in monthly installments, but The course of midshipmen is four years, but has he may, immediately after entering, repay in full. been reduced to 3 years until August 1, 1945. Dur- Each candidate will be required to sign articles to ing the summer, midshipmen of the first and third serve in the Navy during the pleasure of the Presiclasses go to sea for about three months. It is dent (including his time of probation at the Acadthe policy to retain the second class at the Naval emy), unless sooner discharged. The pay is $780 Academy to receive practical instruction in avia. a year.

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