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Abhomination, p. 1. St. Augustine had already suggested a derivation of obominor as though it was abhonvinor, so to hate one as not to esteem him a man (Serm. ix. c. 9). — Abp. Trench, Augustine' s Sermon on Mount, oh. ii. How they ben to mankinds lothe And to the god abhominable. Gower, Con/. Amantis, iii. 204 (ed. Pauli).

Able, p. 2. Compare :— "What beeste in bis," quod be childe1 " bat

I shalle on houe?" "Hit is called an lion," quod be knyste • "a

good or an abutle."

Chevettrc Assigtu, 1. 289 (E.E.T.S.).

S, p. 4. "Petrarch introduced the form JEglogue for Eclogue, imagining the word to be derived from a?£ (ai'yur), 'a goat,' and to mean 'the conversation of goatherds.' But as Dr. Johnson observes in his Life of A. Philips, it could only mean 'the talk of goats' Such a compound, however, could not even exist, as it would be atyo-\ofla, if anything." — C. S. Jerram, Lycidas, p. 10.

Aelmesse, p. 4. The curious old derivation of alms as "White water" (Heb. el, God, and Egyptian mos, water (Philo), Coptic rno) is evidently founded on this verse :—

Water will quench a flaming fire; anda'nu maketh an atonement for sins. — / .•.•/"*., iii. 30.

Compare :—

Thet almesdede Sfenne quenketh
Ase water that fer aquencbeth.

Shoreham, Poems, p. 37. For (a boc seiS. Sicut aqua extinguit ignem; ita & elematina extinguit peccatum. Al »wa bet water acwenchefe bet fur, swa ba

elmtsse acwencheX ba aunne.—Old Der. Homilies, 1st 8er. p. 39.

[The book saith, &c. Just as water quencheth the fire, so alms quenchetb Bin].

Agnail, p. 5. Though this word and agin!, a corn, have no doubt been confused, the true origin is probably A. Sax. ang-naegl, that which pains the nail.

Aigbehoine, p. 458. Lat. agrimonta is itself a corruption of its other name argemonia, so called perhaps because used as a remedy for argema (Greek

tin i ./-.,.'•), a white speck on the eye. See Skeat, p. 776.

Arm p. 5. Prof. Skeat has since withdrawn the suggestion that Low Lat. area is of Icelandic origin. Haukes of nobule tin.

Sir Degrevaunt, 1. 46.

Ale-hoof, a popular old Eng. name for the plant ground ivy, is not (as the Brothers Grimm imagined) adopted from Dut. ei-loof, i.e. "ivy-leaf," a word of recent introduction, nor yet probably derived from o/«, A. Sax. ealo, And (be)hoof, A. Sax. (be-)hofian, "so called, because it serves to clear ale or beer" (Bailey). Compare its other name Tun-hoof.

The women of our Northern parts, especially about Wales and Cheshire, do turn the herbe Atetinoue into their ale, but the reason thereof I hiowe not, notwithstanding without all controuersie it is most singular against the griefes aforesaid; being turned up in ale and drunke. it also nurgrth the head from rheumaticke humours flowing from the braine.—Gerarde, Her ball (1597), p. 707.

It is quite impossible, too, that hoof should be a corruption of A. Su. heafd, heafod, head (Mahn's Webster).

The oldest forms of the word seem



to be heyhowe, hcyoue, hailioue (Way), which seem to have been corrupted into hilelwue, alclioof. The Prompt. Parwulorum gives "hove, or ground ivy," also "have of oyle, as barme, and ale." In this latter case Iiove seems to mean fermentation, the same word as A. Sax. faefe, leaven (Mark viii. 15, prov. Eng. heaving), from hebban, to heave. Hove, as applied to ground ivy would then mean the plant used, like yeast, to cause fermentation. The change to -hoof was favoured by its names folfoyt and horshove (Way).

Alexanders, a plant-name, is said to be a corruption of the specific Latin name of the plant, olusatrum, i.e. the "black vegetable," plus atrum (Webster; Hunter, Encyclopaed. Diet.). But see Prior, Pop. Names of Brit. Plants, s.v.

Allay, So spelt as if the meaning were "to lay down," to cause to rest or cease (so Richardson), as in the phrase "to allay the tumult," old Eng. alaye, cdaic (Gower), is an assimilation to the verb to lay of old Eng. ajegge (Chaucer), to alleviate, from old Ft. aleger, to soften or ease, and that from Eat. cdleviarc, to lighten. If by your art, my dearest father, you have Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them.

Shakespeare, Tempest, i. 2, 2. To stop the rumour, and allay those tongues That durst disperse it.

Id. Henry VIII. ii. 1, 153.

Alley, p. 6, prov. Eng. for the aisle of a church, is seemingly an Anglicized form of Fr. axle, the "wing" of the building, Lat. ala. Compare the soldier's rivally for reveille. The s in aisle is probably due to a confusion with isle. See Isle, p. 191. The following epitaph, exhibiting alley in this sense, I copied from a mural tablet in Lacock church, Wilts:—

Heare Lyeth In This Allye
Neere Vnto This Place
The Bodie Of Robert Hellier
Late One Of His Maiesties
Cryers To The Courts Of The
Common Pleas In Westminster
Whoe Lived 63 Yeares And
Deceased y' 9 Of Aprill Anu

Almidon, p. 459. Add Sp. almendra (Eng. almond), for amendra, the initial

a being assimilated to the Arab, article al, with which so many Spanish words are compounded.

Alewife, the name of an American fish resembling the herring (Glupea serrata), is a corruption of the Indian name aloof.—Winthrop (see Malm's Webster, s.v.).

Amaranth, So spelt as if derived from Greek dnfhos, a flower (like polyanthos, chrysanthemum, anthology, &c), was formerly more correctly written amarant (Milton), being derived from Lat., Greek, amarantus, "unfading." On the other hand, aerolite, chrysolite, should be, as they once were, spelt aerolith, chrysolith, as containing Greek lithos, a stone.

Ambry, p. 8. Compare :— The place . . . was called the Elemosinary, or Almonry, now corruptly the Ambry, for that the alms of the abbey were there distributed to the poor.—Stow, Survey, 160.1, p. 176 (ed. Thorns).

Anbeury, p. 8. A Lonsdale corruption of this word is angle-berry (R. B. Peacock).

Ancient, p. 7. Su-ike on your drummes, spread out your anryents.

Sir Andrew Barton, 1. 183 (Percy,
Fol. MS. iiil 412).

And-pussey-and, p. 8. An Oxfordshire name for the sign "&" isamsiam, apparently for "and [per] se, and" (E. D. Soc. Orig. Glossaries, C. p. 74).

Angrec, the French name of a species of orchidaceous plant brought from tho Indian Archipelago, Botan. Lat. angrcecum, is an assimilation to fcenugroBcum of the Malayan name anggreg (Davie),

Ankyr, p. 8. Add:—

Henry III. granted to Katherine, late wife to VV. Hardell, twenty feet of land in length and breadth in Smithfield, ... to build her a recluse or anchorage.Stow, Survey, 160:), p. 13!> (ed. Thorns).

Anointed, p. 8. Compare Isle of Wight nienttd, incorrigible, "a nicnted scoundrel," as if from nient, to anoint (E. D. S. Orig. Glossaries, xxiii.).

Apparent, p. 9.

Syr Roger Mortymer, erle of the Marche, & zone and heyre vnto syr Edinude Mor


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tymer . . . was soone after proclaymyd heyer

pjmunt vnto yc crowne of Englonde.—

Fabqiin, Chronicles, 1516, p. 5."J3 (ed. Ellis)

O, God thee save, thou Lady sweet,

My heir and Parand thou shalt be.

The Lovers' Quarrel, 1. 16 (Early Pop.

Poetry, li. 253).

Arbour, p. 10, properly a shelter, then a hut, a summer-house, the same word really as harbour, a shelter for ships, old Eng. herberwe, herber^e, Icel. herbergi (zz "army-shelter"), has been confused sometimes with Berber (Lat. herbarium), a garden of herbs, sometimes with Lat. arbor, a tree. For the loss of h compare ostler for Jwstler, old Eng. ost for host, and the pronunciation of honour, hcur, hospital, &c. So it for old Eng. hit, which matches 'im for him.

Other trees there was mane one,
The pyany, the popler, and the plane,
With brode braunchcs all aboute,
Within the arlmr and eke without.

Squyr of Lowe Degre, 1. 42 (Early Pop.
Poetry, ii. 24).

The identity of arbour and harbour was soon forgotten. Compare :—

Who e'r rigg'd faireship to lie in harbours, And not to seeke new lands, or not to deale with all 1 Or built hire houses, set trees, and arbors, Onely to look up, or else to let them fall? Donne, Poems, 1635, p. 31. Since Him the silent wildernesse did house: The heau'n His roofe and arbour harbour

The ground His bed, and his moist pil-
lowe, grasse.

C. Fletcher, Christs Victorie on
Earth, St. 11.

Archangel, p. 10. With reference to the angelic character attributed to birds, it may be noted that Giles Fletcher, speaking of Christ's ascension, and the attendant angels, says :—

So all the chorus sang Of heau'nly birds, as to the Btarres they nimbly sprang. Christs Trivmph after Death, St. 15,1610.

Birds, Heavenschoristers, orgranique throates, Whicli (if they did not die) might seeme to bee A tenth ranked in the heavenly hierarchie. Donne, Poems, 1635, p. 267.

Argosy. Mr. O. W. Tancock has a note in support of the Bagusan origin of this word in Notes and Queries, 6th S. iv. 489, where he has the following citations:—

Furthermore, how acceptable a thing may this be to the Wigusyes, Hulks, Caravels, and other foreign rich laden ships passing within or by any of the sea limits of Her Majesty's royalty.—Dr. John Dee, The Pettis Uni royal (in The English Garner, vol. ii. p. 67, date 1577).

A Sattee, which is a ship much like onto an Argosy of a very great burden and bigness.—A Fight at Sea, 1617 (Eng. Garner,ii. 200).

It is said that those vast Carrack's callrd Argosies, which are so much famed for the vastness of their burthen and Bulk were corruptly so denominated from Ragoiies, and from the name of this city [ Ragusa].—Sir P. Rycaut, Present State of the Ottoman Empire, 1675, p. 119.

In the following, argosie is the tumbler, Fr. argousin, Sp. alguazil.

And on the South side of Poule's churcheyarde an argosie came from the batilnient* of the same churche upon a cable, beying made faste to an anker at the deanes doore, lying uppon his breast? aidying himself neither with hande nor foote.—Fabian, Chron., Feb. 19, 1546, p. 709 (ed. Ellis)."

Arshetrick, p. 12.
The ferst of whiche is arsmetiqtie,
And the second is said musique.
Gower, Ctmf. Amantix, iii. 89 (ed. Pauli).
For God made all the begynnynge
In nombre perfyte well in certaynte
Who knewe arsmetruke in every degre.
Hawes, Pastime of Pleasure, cap. It.
p. 57 (Percy Soc.).

Aspen is a curious corruption, the same as if we spoke of Ml oaken instead of an oak. The proper name of the tree, as in prov. English, is the asp, old Eng. aspc, espe, A. Sax. cesp, the adjectival form of which was Aspen' s aspen leaf."—Chaucer). Similarly beechen, A. Sax. becen, was the adjective of b6c (Icel. b6k); and from this was evolved the substantive beech (A. Sax. bice). The true etymological name of the tree (fa-gus) would be book; the word for a volume being identically the same (see Skeat.s. w.). The Isle of Wight folk have corrupted the word into snapsen (E. D. S. Orig. Glossaries, xxiii.).

An exactly similar error is linden, which is properly the adjectival form of lind (A. Sax. Und), whence corruptly line and lime, the tree-name.

So linen meant originally made of I'm or flax (A. Sax. lin); we still say linseed, and the Lancashire folk speak

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of " a linshirt," or " a I'm sheet." Compare swine, which was prob. originally an adj. form (as if sowine, sow-ish), =z Lat. suinus, like equine (see Skeat,


Astonish, p. 13. The form stunny, to stun, is still used in Oxfordshire, e.g. "This noise is enough t' stunny anybody."—E. D. Soc. Orig. Glossaries, C. p. 99.

Aymont, p. 15.

Like as the am'rous needle joys to bend

To her magnetic friend:

Or at, the greedy lover's eye-balls fly

At his fair mistress' eye:

So, so we cling to earth ; we fly and puff,

Yet fly not fast enough.

QuarUs, Emblems, bk. i. 13. If we understood all the degrees of amiability in the service of God, or if we had such love to God as he deserves ... we could no more deliberate: for liberty of will is like the motion of the magnetic needle toward the north, full of trembling and uncertainty till it were fixed in the beloved point; it wavers as long as it is free, and is at rest, when it can choose no more.—Jer. Taylor, Sermon on 1 Cor. xv. ¥.'.

See also a passage in Bp. Andrewes, Sermons, fol. p. 383.

Baffle, p. 18.

Should we (you) borrow all out of others, and gather nothing of our selues, our names would be baffittdoa euerie booksellers stall. —T. Nash, Pierce Penilesse, p. 40 (Shaks. Soc.).

Baggage, p. 19. Compare:— Kindly,sweet son 1 c, she did unkindnesse take, That bagged baggage of a misers mudd, Should price other, as in a market, make, But gold can guild a rotten piece of wood. Sir V. Sidney, A rcadiu, 1689, p. M.

Baggage was formerly used in the sense of worthless, good-for-nothing.

Nunc tantum sinus et statio malefida carinis.
Now nothing but a baggage bay, & harbor
nothing good.
Camden, Remainei, p. 284 (1637).
1'le neuer be so kinde,
As venture life, for such an vgly hag
That lookes both like a baggage and a bag.
Sir J. Harington, Epigrams, iv. 42.

Balled, p. 19. Compare Lonsdale balled, white-faced (R. B. Peacock).

Bandicoot, a species of Indian rat, is a corruption of the Telinga name pandikoku, i.e. "pig-rat" (Sir J. E. Tennent, Nat. History of Ceylon, p. 44).

Bandog, p. 20. Hush now, yee band-doggs, barke no more at

me, But let me slide away in secrecie.

Marston, Satyres, v. sub fin.

Barge, p. 21. Compare :— There be divers old Gaulic Words yet remaining in the French which are pure British, both for sense and Pronunciation . . . but especially, when one speaks any old Word in French that cannot be understood they say, It parte Baragouin, which is to this Day in Welsh, White-bread.Howell, Fam. Letters, bk. iv. 19.

Barnaby, p. 22. In Tuscany the lady-bird is called lucia, the insect of light (De Gubernatis, Mytlwlogie des Plantes, i. 211).

Base-born, p. 23. With old Fr. fits de ba^t, son of a pack-saddle, compare Ger. bankart, a bastard, from bank, a bench, and old Eng. bulker, a prostitute. It. and Span, basto, Prov. bast, Fr. bat, a saddle, is of disputed origin. Mr. F. H. Groome says it is clearly of gipsy descent, comparing the Bomani btfshto, "saddle," pass. part, of beshdva, "I sit" (In Gipsy Tents, p. 289). Fr. fil de bat, " child over the hatch," from It. basto, Pop. Latin bastum, a packsaddle, connected with Gk. /Jdor(i?(?), from PaordStiv, to carry, support. Compare Lat. basterna, the sedan-chair; Fr. baton, stun, a stick, as a support (Atkinson).

And ouer this he hadde of bast, whiche after were made legyttymat, by dame Katheryne Swynforde. in Sonnys John, whiche was after duke of Somerset, Thomas erle of Huntyngedone, or duke of Exetyr, & Henry, which was callyd y° ryche cardynall.— Fabyan, Chronicles, 1516, p. 533 (ed. Ellis).

They which are born out of Marriage are called Bastards, that is base-born, like the Mule which is ingendred of an Asse and a Mare.—H.Smith, Sermons, p. 14(1657).

Battle-dore, p. 24. Now you talke of a bee, lie tell you a tale of a battledore.T. Nash, Pierce Penilesse, p. 69(Shaks. Soc).

Many a iole about the nole
with a great battilldore.
A Men/ Jest how a Sergeannt wolde
ler'ne to be a free, 1. 260.

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Beat, as a nautical word, e.g. in the phrase, "to beat up to windward," gene rally understood, no doubt, of the ship buffeting its way against wind and weather, and forcibly overcoming as with blows all opposing forces, has nothing to do with beat, to strike (A. Sax. bedtan), as the spelling would imply. It is really the same word as Icel. beita, to cruise, tack, weather, or sail round, properly "to let the ship bite [i.e. grip or catch] the wind (Cleasby, p. 56), and so identical with Eng. to bait. Icel. bcita is a derivative of bita, to bite (sc. the wind), to sail or cruise (Id. 64). See Skeat, Etym. Diet., s.v. Weatherbeaten. Compare prov. Eng. bite, the hold which the short ond of a lever has upon the thing to be lifted (Wright).

Bedridden, p. 25.

Of pore men kit ben beddrede & couchen in muck or dust is litel (jou3t on or not. — Rad cliffe, Unprinted Works, p. all (E.K.T.S.").

Dnuid—let him alone, for he was in bys childhood a bedred man.— Latimer, Sermons, p. 34.

Beau-pot. Mr. Wedgwood tells me that he has observed this word for a pot of flowers so spelt in a modern novel, as if from Fr. beau pot, pot of beauty. It is a corruption of bow-pot (Sala, in Latham), or more correctly bough-pot (Nomenclator, in Halliwell), a pot for boughs. There's mighty matters in them, I'll assure

And in the spreading of a bough-pot.

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Coxcomb,
iv. 3.

Become, p. 25. Strike out "See Comely."

Beefeater, p. 25. Lady Cowper in her Diary, under date March 3, 1716, speaks of the Earl of Derby as "Captain of the Beef-eatcru" (p. 90, ed. 1865). See AT. $ Q. 5th S. vii. 335.

Belial, p. 519. In the following sentence Carlyle evidently regards Belial and Beelzebub as kindred words :—

[He was watching to see] the sons of Mammon, and high sons of BetuU and Beelzebub, become sons of God.—Mrs. Otiphant, Life of Ed. Irving, p. 211.

Beseek, p. 28. Prof. Skeat tells me that this identification of beseen with bison is quite incorrect. Compare:—

Though thyn array be badde and yuel biseyt.
Chaucer, Clerkes Tale, 9i>5 (Cliren.
Hir array, so richelv biseue.

"Id. 984.

Bewaring, curiously used by De Quincey for "being ware," apparently from a notion that the boss is a prefix, as in bewilder, bewitch, &c. To beware is merely to be ware (esse cautus), irare, old Eng. war, meaning wary, cautious; A. Sax. user. We might as correctly form besuring from to be sure.

"Oh, my lord, beware of jealousy!" Yes, and my lord couldn't possibly bare inertreason for betporing of it than myself. —Be Quinceu, Autobiographic Sketches, Work*, xiv. 6">.

For the right usage compare :—

Of whom be thou ware also.—A. V. t Tun. iv. 15.

They were ware of it, and fled unto Lynn. —Acts xiv. 6.

I was ware of the fairest medler tree.

Chaucer, Flower and leaf, 1. M.

Compare the peculiar use of farewelling in the following:—

Till she brake from their amies (although

indeed Going from them, from them she could not

goe) And Jore-welting the flocke, did homeward


Sir P. Sidney, Arcadia, 16'29, p. 91.

Bile, p. 28, seems to be the right form, which has been corrupted to boil, from a confusion with boil, to bubble from heat. Compare the A. Sax. form byte, and Icel. beyla, the swelling (Skeat, p. 781).

Bless, p. 31. Prof. Atkinson thinks Fr. blesser, Norm. Fr. blesc^r (" Ele se sent blescee."Vie de St.Aultan, 522), is connected with M. H. Ger. bletxen, to chop to pieces, O. H. Ger. plea.

Curiously enough, this word seems to survive in prov. English. An East Lancashire cattle-dealer has been heard to ask a companion, one of whose fingers was bandaged, if he had a ble$$?r (= blessure) upon his finger, meaning evidently a wound or hurt (N. Sf Q. 6th Ser. vi. 28).

Blindfold, p. 31. As an instance of the general assumption that this word has reference to the folds of the material used to cover the eyes, compare the

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