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ndcai, p. 135; Strangford, Letters and Papers, p. 149).

Newby, in Co. Down, stands for Irish 'es lubhar, i.e. an lubhar, "the yewtree," the name commemorating a yew planted there by St. Patrick (Joyce, i. 494). From the same word comes Newrath, in Leinster, formerly spelt Newragh, and, without the article, Uragh.

Newt, formed by agglutination of the article from an eivt, old Eng. ewte, for euete or evete, A. Sax. efeta, an eff (Skeat), which has been equated with Sansk. apada (footless), a reptile, from a, privative, and pad, a foot (Kuhn, Wedgwood). The Sussex word is

wte, wyrme, Lacertus.—Prompt. Pan).

Nickname, that is, an eke-name (or gnome), misunderstood as a nekename. See above, p. 255.

Nidoet, part of a plough in Kent (Wright), the same word as idget in Sussex, a horse-hoe, called also a nidget or edget (Parish).

Nidiot, a common word for an idiot in old and provincial English.

"He's such a idiot as I nivver seed afore" (Lincolnshire, Peacock).

A verye nodypoll nydyote myglit be a shamed to say it.—Sir Thomas Jiiore, Works, p. 709 (1557).

Compare Niddywit, p. 256.

Nigaud, A fop, nidget, ideot.—Cotgrave.

Nibb, the name of a river in Waterford, is properly N'ier, "the grey" friver], where n is merely the article Joyce, Irish Names of Places, ii. 279).

Niespe (old Fr.), an Aspen tree (Cotgrave), a borrowed word, evidently a misunderstanding for une espe, old Eng. espe, asp.

Ninch, a place in co. Meath, is Ir. an inch, "the island." Similarly Naan, an island in Lough Erne, is for Ir. an ain, ". the ring;" Nart, in Monaghan, for Ir. an f heart," the grave;" Nuenna, a river in Kilkenny, for Ir. an uaithne, "the green river " (Joyce, i. 24).

Nombbil (Fr.) is formed by agglutination of the article (for un ombril, due perhaps to 1'omJn^il) from old Fr. otnlrril

(for omllil), from a Lat.umbiliculttg, em- bilious; whence also Cat. Llombrigol (Scheler). Similarly nomble (as if un omble) came to be substituted for lomble (from Lat. lumbulus), understood as I'omble; and niveau, old Fr. nivel (understood as an ivcau or swivel), for livel (as if Vivel), from Lat. libella.

Nonce, in the phrase "for the nonce," old Eng. "for the nones," for the occasion, was originally "for then ones," for the once, where then is the dative of the, and anes, an adverbial form used as a noun (Skeat).

This was a thrifty tale for the nones!

Chaucer, Prolog, to Shipmans Tale, 1165.

"For the nones" occurs instead of for \wn cenes or for pam cents, for that alone, for the purpose, in Old Eng. Homilies, 2nd Ser. p. 87.

For the nonys, Idcirco, ex proposito.— Prompt. Parv, p. 173.

He delayeth the matter for the nonys, de industrial.—Honnnn.

Compare the surnames Nokes for atten-oaks (Simme atte noke.Piers Plowman, A. v. 115); Nash for attenash; Nalder for atten-alder; Norchard for atten-orchard, &c. (Bardsley, Our Eng Surnames, p. 86; Skeat, Notes to P. Plowman, p. 118).

Nope, an old name for the bullfinch used by Drayton (Wright), is a corrupt form for an ope, otherwise spelt aupe, olp, or alpe (Prompt.Paru.). See Hoop, p. 176.

Fraiilesillo, a bird with blade feathers on the head, like linget, called of some an Owpe. Minsheu, Spam Diet. 1623.

Chochepierre, a kinde of Nowpe or Bullfinch.—Cotgrave.

Nares quotes from Merrett, "Eubicilla, a bull-finch, a hoop, and bull spink, a nope." In Lancashire the word appears as maulp or map (Olossary, E.D.S. 190).

Noeation, a provincial word for a report or rumour, norating, chattering (Wright), is evidently a misapprehension of an oration as a noration. In Cleveland it means a row or uproar (Atkinson).

Out of notation has been evolved in the broken German-English of America the verb to norate.

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Und elier I norate furder, I dink it only fair,
Ye shouldtoonderetand each oder, prezackly,
chunk and square.
Breitmann Ballads, p. 145 (ed. 1871).

In Sussex both oration and notation are in use, with the meaning of an unnecessary fuss; and to norate is to talk officiously and fussily about other people's business (Parish). Compare with this the Mid-Yorkshire use oipis'U (i.e. epistle),for a tirade or rigmarole. "She went naggering on with a long pis'le that it would have tired a horse to stand and listen to" (Robinson, E.D.S.); and Lancashire nominy, a long tiresome speech (E. D. Soc), which seems to stand for a nomily or an homily.

Normous, a Lincolnshire form of enormous (Peacock).

Norwood, a Leicestershire word for a nickname or by-word (Wright), was most probably originally &n-o'erword, in the sense of over-, or additional-, name, an eke-name (see Nickname). Compare the Scotch ourword, owencord, a word or expression frequently repeated, the burden of a song.

And aye the o'erword o' the spring
Was Irvine's bairns are bonie a'.
Burns, Works, p. 133 (Globe ed.).

Similarly nayword, a bye-word (Twelfth Night, ii. 3), is an ayword in the old copies (Dyce, Observations, p. 75).

Nosille, an old word for a blackbird (Wright), evidently stands for an oosel or ousel.

Nover, a Sussex word for high land above a precipitous bank, is for an over. Mid. Eng. ouer, a bank, A. Sax. ofer (Skeat, Notes to P. Plowman, p. 393).

Nugget, a lump of metal, is the modern form of niggot (North's Plutarch), which is probably a corruption of a ningot, standing for an ingot (A. Sax. in + goten, "poured into" a mould.—Skeat). Curiously enough the same word has suffered from agglutination in French, where lingot should properly be Vingot, borrowed from the English.

Numbles, the inward parts of a deer, formerly considered a delicacy, Fr. nombles, generally used in the plural, but originally in the singular also, viz.

nomble, a portion cut from between the thighs of the deer (Roquefort), ani numbile, humble (Ducange). The word being derived from Lat. umbilicus, the navel, must originally have been wr>iH>, the initial n being afterwards transferred to it from the article, an utnlit. UmblfS is the ordinary form in later English. See Humble-pie supra, p. 183.

Numpost, a provincial corruption (Wright) of an imposthume, for animpost.

Nura, 1 (Irish), last year, stand Nuridh, / for an ura, an iiiridh, which are the Erse forms, the latter part equated with Lat. hora, Greek oipa, Sansk. vara (Pictet, Orig. IndcEurop. ii. 606).

Nubsrow, a Staffordshire word for the shrew-mouse, is properly an ersrotc, ordered, or earth-shrew. Compare Hardshrew, p. 163.

Nusse, "fisshe."—Prompt. Parralorum. This word has apparently originated from an huss,—huss being an O. Eng. word for the dogfish. "Huste, a fysshe, rousette."—Palsgrave. Compare "Hushe, fyshe, Squamus."Prompt. Parv.


Oidhche (Ir.), night, stands for noidhche, and Ir. uimhir, number, for nuimhir, the initial n having been lost by confusion with n of the article an (Graves). The same is the case with Ir. eascu, an eel, old Ir. st and Ir. eas, a weasel, old Ir. ness (Joyce, i. 26). Compare old Ir. gilla naneach (for nan each), "servant of th' horses" (Stokes, Irish Glosses, p. 112); Ir. 'noir, from the east, for an oir; 'niar, from the west, for an iar, and Manx neectr, for yn eear, "the west." So in Manx yn oie for yn noie, "the night"; noash for yn cash, "the custom."

Omelette (Fr.),our "omelet," owes its initial vowel to the a of old Ft. amelette, which that word has stolen from the article la. AmeMt-e (for Al, matte, alametie) was originally la leitiefte or la lamette, a thin flat cake, the same as lemclle, lamelle (Lat. laminula.), a

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diminutive of lame (Lat. lamina). La lamette by a mistake became Valemette (Littre, Skeat), and then Vamclette.

Obanoe. Etymologically we should say, instead of " an orange," a norange or narenge. See above, p. 264.

Obbacca (It.), a laurel berry, for lorbacca, from Lat. lauri bacca. So Cotgrave has aureole and laureole, a small laurel.

Ordure, from Fr. ordure, old Fr. ord, filthy, foul, ugly, It. orders and ordo, filthy. Skeat, Scheler, and Diez incorrectly deduce these words from Lat. horrides, as if that which excites horror, and so is disgusting, repulsive. There is little doubt, however, that ordure was originally lordure, which was afterwards understood as Vordure. Compare old It. lordura, lordezza, ordure, filthiness, lordare, to foul or sully, lordo (not ordo), foul, filthy (Florio), and these are from Lat. luridus, discoloured, livid, darkened, and so sullied, dirty (so Wedgwood); in later Latin used in the sense of foul, rotten. Hence also Fr. lourd (Prov. lori), unhandsome, sottish, clownish (Scheler), lourdaud, a lout or boor, also lordault (Cotgrave); It. lordone, a filthy sloven. Compare Swed. hrt, dirt, dung; lorta, to dirty; loriig, dirty.

Obma (It.), "a rule or direction, . . . a customer, vse, fashion" (Florio), is a mutilated form of Lat. norma.

Orse (Fr.), a sea-term, is a misunderstanding, as Vorse, of an original lane, n Netherland. parts, left, according to Scheler.

Otteb might seem at first sight to have originated from Fr. loulre (mistaken for Voutre), which is from Lat. luira, Greek enudris, the water-animal, the otter, Sp. nutria (Stevens, 1706). It is, however, an independent word, A. Sax. oter (Dut. otter, Icel. otr, Swed. utter), corresponding to Greek hudra, a water-snake or hydra (Skeat), with which Pictet equates Sansk. and Zend udra, the water-animal. Compare also its names, Welsh dufrgi, i.e. dvfr-ci, "water-dog" (Stokes), and Irish dollar- cu, "water-dog" (O'Keilly).

Ottone (It.), brass, stands for lottone, laltone (Florio), the initial I being mis

taken for the article; Sp. laton, Fr. laiton, Eng. latten.

Ouch or ouche, an old word for a gem, or the socket in which it is set (A. V.Ex. xxviii.), is a misunderstanding, an ouch for a nouch, from old Fr. nouche, nosche, a buckle, O. H. Ger. nusca, Low Lat. nueca (Eastwood and Wright, Bible Word-Book,s.Y.; Skeat), sometimes found in the forms, L. Lat. mueca, Fr. mouche, as if a fly-shaped ornament (Atkinson, Vie de St. Auban, p. 65).

Noicche, monile.—Prompt. Parv.
An ouche of gold.

Chaucer, C. Tales, 6325.
Ful of nowches gret and smale.

Id. 8258. Adornd with gemmes and owches wondrous fay re. Spenser, F. Q. I. x. 31.

A robe d'or batiie e nusches de aesmal. Vie de St. Auban, 1. 20. He gave her an ouche touched with pearlys and precious stones. —Herman.

Ouche for a bonnet, afficquet.Palsgrave.

So Fr. oche, the nick, nock, or notch, of an arrow (Cotgrave), also loclie (Palsgrave), seems to be formed from Eng. notch (q. d. un noche, un 'oche).—Vid. Way, Prompt. Parv. s.v. Nokke.

Ouohaval, the name of several parishes in Ireland, has lost an initial n, and should be Noughaval (Ir. Nuachongbhail, "new habitation "). The n was detached in consequence of being mistaken for the article 'n, an, "the." Compare Breton Ormandifor Normandy (Joyce, i. 25-26).

Ought, often used popularly for a nought or cypher in arithmetic, e.g. "carry ought."

Ounce, the beast so called, a kind of lynx, Fr. once, Sp. onza, Portg. onca. We took the word from the French, where once stands for old Fr. lonce (Cotgrave), mistaken for Ponce, It. lonza (also onza), which seems to be from Lat. lynx, Greek XvyK (Diez); but Skeat compares Pers. yuz, a panther.

Outhobne, in the Percy Folio MS., for a nouthorn or neat's horn (nowt cattle).

There was many an outhorne in Carlile was blown*, & the bells backward did ringe.

vol. iii. p. 89,1.315.

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Paper in the last analysis is found to contain a latent article agglutinated to a substantive. It is the same word as Fr. papier, Lat. papyrus, Greek pdpwros, the Egyptian rush that yields paper. Compare Welsh pabir, rushes. All these words are from the ancient Egyptian pa arm (orpuapu), "theapu," or paper-reed (Cyperus antiquvrum), mentioned in Isaiah xix. 7 (Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, voL ii. pp. 120,179, ed. Birch). Similarly, the city Pitliom (Ex. i. 11) is probably for pi-Thoum, "the Thoum" (Gesenius); pyramid, Greek pyramis, for pi-ram, "the high" (Birch, in Bunsen s Egypt, vol. v.); pirumis (Herodotus, ii. 14'2) for jn-romt, "the man ; " Pi-bcseth (Ezek. xxx. 17), "the (city) Bast"

Farritob, a Lincoktshire form of apparitor, a bishop's officer; Lancashire paritor, a verger, and so Shakesspeare, Love's L. Lost. iii. 1, 188.

Passions, and Patience, scientific Lat. Patientia, names for a species of dock, are perhaps from the Italian name under which it was introduced from the south, lapazio (in Florio lampasszo and lapato), Lat. lapnihiim, mistaken for la passio, the passion of Christ (Prior, Pop. Names of Brit. Plants). Lancashire payshun-dock (E. D. Soc. Glossary, 210).

Gathering . . paushun-dock and "greenRauce " to put in their broth.— H'uugA, Lane. Sketches, p. 50.

Peal, the loud continuous sounding of bells, guns, 4c., is a corrupt form of appeal, old Eng. apele, apel, evidently misunderstood as a pele; old Fr. appel, apel,tm appeal, from appeller, Lat. appettare, to call or summon.

A-pele of belle ryngynge (al. upeltof bellis). Classicum.—Prompt. Pan.

Pocalyps, a common form in old documents of apocalypse, doubtless understood as a pocalypse, like pistle for epistle, as if a pistle.

With the Pocalypi of Jon
The PowluB Pystotui everychon.
Sir Degrevant, 1. 1438 ( Thnrnton
Romance!', p. 237).

- Poixbttk, an old form of epauleti-:, understood as a paulette.

"Postyme, sekenesse. Apostema."Prompt. Parvulorum.

Potecary, a very common form of apothecary in old writer8.(e.ff. Latimerl, and so pistle for epistle (Vision of P. Plowman, A. x. 106), and pottle for apostle, popularly understood no donbt by the ignorant as "a pothecary," "• pistle," "a postle." Compare jrrentiv: for apprentice; penthouse for apptniii; old Eng. collet for acolyte; compliet for accomplice; sumcyon for assumption (Brand, Pop. Antiq. ii. 4); n po!i<j? for apology (Register of Stationfrt, Shaks. Soc.i.47); brygementfoi abridjrtnent (Id. p. 112); suranee for aeturance (Tit. Andronicus, v. 2) ; say, tri»l (Jonson), for unsay; postume for apottume.

Prele (Fr.), the plant horse-tail, formerly spelt la presle, is an incorrect form of old Fr. I'agprelle (mistaken for la presle), It. asprella,, dimin. of Lat. asper, rough, so called from its rough stalk (Scheler).

Prentj K. an old corruption of apprentice, one put to learn or "apprehend " a trade, no doubt understood as a prentice.

Apparayleden him as a prratis Jie Peple for to serue.

Viiim of P. Plowman, A. ii. 190.

Querby, A, an old form of equerry, the initial vowel being probably confounded with the indefinite article. "Querries [of Ecuries, Fr. Stables] the Grooms of the King's Stables;" "A gentleman of the Querry [Eevyer F.] a Gentleman whose office is to hold the King's Stirrup when he mounts on Horseback."—Bailey. Compare tpinff, formerly espinette (Pepys), old Fr.

(It.) Maestro di Italia, a maister of the quant, a gentleman of the horse.

Stalla, any kind of stable or fmri* for horses.—Florio.

As skilful! ijnirry that commands the stable. Sylvetter, Du Bartas, p. 1-J5 (1641).

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Rabyte, an old Eng. word for a war horse, is said to be for Arabite, an Arab horse. See Rebesk below. Sir Guy bestrode a Iiabyte That was mickle and nought light, That Sir Beves in Paynim londe Hadde wounnen with his honde.

Sir Bevis of liamptoivn.

Raccoon has lost an initial a, which was doubtless mistaken for the article, as was probable in the case of a foreign word, the earlier form being arahacoune (Haldeman, On American Dietionarieg). In a glossary of N. American Indian words, about 1610, it is given as arathkone (Skeat, Etym. Bid. p. 798). Similarly American 'possum is opossum, perhaps understood as a possum; and caiman from Caribbean acayuman, a crocodile (Scheler).

An Eagle from Russia; a Posown from Hispaniola.— Broadsheet temp. Q. Anne [AWfcy, Bartholoinew Fair, ch. xx. J.

Rack, an old popular form of arrack (Nares), formerly spelt arack (Arab. araq). Compare Sp. raque, arrack; Mod. Greek T6 paxi (brandy), for ri appaiei.

The 9 Dec'. [1616] we ... . sold them two quoines of Rice with some few Hennes, & racke.Journal of Master Nathaniel Court' hop (Sussei Archaolog. Coll. xxvii. p. 187).

Raiment, in Spenser rayment, stands for arraimtni, old Eng. araiment, araymerit, which was probably mistaken for a raiment. So old Eng. ray for array; and 'parel (Lear) for apparel; rainment (Fox) for arraignment; sumcyon for assumption; bitterment for arbitrement.

Arayment, Paramentum.—Prompt. Parv.

They put themselues in battell ray & went to meet them.—North, Plutarch, 1595, p. 229.

And all the damzels of that towne in ray Come dauncing forth, and joyous carrols song. Spenser, Faerie Queene, V. xi. 34.

Rame, Italian word for copper or brass. The initial vowel, seen in Wallach. arame, Fr. airain, Sp. arambre, Eat. avramina (Festus), has probably been swallowed up by the article.

Ranny, aNorfolk word for the shrewmouse, stands for aranny or eranny,

old Eng. ereyne (Capgrave), Lat. amneus, whence also It. ragno.

Rebesk, an old art term for arabesque, ornamentation of the Arabic type (in Skinner, 1671).

Arabesque, Rebesk worke.—Cotgrave.


My god-phere was a Pabian or a Jew. B. Jonson, Tate of a Tub, iv. 2.

Reklas is given by Dickinson as a Cumberland word for the auricula. Probably reklas is a corruption of auriculas, rekla being for auricula understood as a 'ricula.

Rest-harrow. The name of the weed so caLed is for arrcst-liarrow, other names for it being remora aratri (delay plough), L. Lat. aresta bovis, Fr. areste boeuf (Gerarde, Herball).

Rigogolo, It. for a rook, daw, or chough (Florio), according to Diez is from a Latin aurlgalgulus, galgulus, whence Sp. galgulo, a goldfinch.

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Sample, an old corruption of old Eng. asaumph (Ancren Biwle), another form of esaumple, old Fr. essemple, from Lat. exemplum (see Skeat).

Say, a trial, test, or examination, is a frequent form in old authors (Nares) of assay (old Fr. essai), understood perhaps as a say. Shirley has a saymaster for assay-master.

To take A say of venison, or stale fowl, by your nose, Which is a solecism at another's table.

Massinger, The Unnatural Combat, iii. 1.

Scallion, for ascalonian (sc. onion), old Fr. escalogne, Lat. ascalonia, named from the city of Ascalon. Of the same origin is Fr. echalote, old Fr. eschalote, Eng. "a shallot."

Of onions the Greeks hnue devised sundry kinds, to wit, the Sardian, Samothracian, Alsiden, Setanian, Schista, and Ascalonia [i. little onions or Scutinns] taking that name of Ascalon a city in Jury.—Holland, Ptinu, 1631, torn. ii. p. 20.

Sessment, a rate or assessment, N. W. Lincolnshire (Peacock).

Size stands for old Eng. assize or assise (probably mistaken for a size), an

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