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P. 36.

corn on the foot, for an angnail, which N.

is the Cumberland word, i.e. an agnaile,

which formerly denoted a “little corne Nabsy, a Northampton word for an

upon a toe" (vid. Cotgrave, s.v. Corret). abscess (Wright), which by a twofold

In N. W. Lincolnshire nangnail is an blunder was turned into a nabscess, and

agnail and a corn (Peacock). In Lancathat, being mistaken for a plural, into shire it appears as a nagnail (Glossary, a supposed singular form, a nabsy.

Nodal and Milner, E.D.S.), with an Similarly, the wife of a Middlesex là

imagined reference probably to nag, to bourer once informed me that her hus.

torment or irritate. band was suffering from a hapo (singular NARROW-WRIGGLE, see p. 252. of abscess!) under his arm. Cf. AxEY,

NASPO (It.), a reel, for un aspo (Sp.

aspa). So nastro, a star (Florio), for NACKENDOLE, a Lancashire word for

un astro (Lat. astrum); ninferno for ina weight of eight pounds, stands for an ferno ; nabisso for un abisso. aghendole, old Eng. eygtyndele, mesure


nape (Prompt. Parv.), the eighth part of a

(Prompt. Parvulorum), has arisen from coom or half quarter, Dutch achtendeel.

an haterelle. She should yearely have one aghen-dole of meale.-Pott, Discoverie of Witches, p. 23 [in

Occipicium, þe haterelle of þe hede.—Me

dulla. E. D. Soc. Lancashire Glossary, p. 154, where the origin is quite mistaken).

An haterelle, cervix, cervicula, vertex.

Cath. Ang NADS. Tusser uses a nads for an

Old Fr. haterel, hasterel, the nape of the adze.

neck. An ax and a nads to make troffe for thy hogs.

NATTER-JACK, a prov. Eng. name for Fiue Hundred Pointes, E. D. Soc. ed. a kind of toad, is probably for an atter

jack, from A. Sax. atter, poison. NAGLET, for an aglet, the tag of a lace, aygulet (Spenser), Fr. aguillette, Naul, the name of a village near and aiguillette.

Balbriggan, co. Dublin, is the Irish an Thou mayest buy as much love for a naglet aill ('n aill), “ the rock” (Joyce, i. 24). in the middle of Scotland, as thou shalt winne by thy complaints.Dux Grammati- Naunt, an aunt (Beaumont and

Fletcher, Pilgrim, iv. 1; Dryden, Compare “my nagget cupp (The Plays, vol. iv. p. 304), originated in Unton Inventories, p. 32) for “mine

mine aunt being mistaken for my naunt. agate cup."

Lancashire noan, an aunt (E. D. Soc.).

So nuncle (Lear, iii. 2) for mine uncle, NALE, in old authors is used for an

Worcestershire my nunkle (Kennett); ale-house, especially in the expression "at the nale" (Chaucer, C. Tales,

neam or neme, uncle, for old Eng.

mine eam ; ningle, a favourite, for mine 6931), or “atte nale." The original

ingle ; my sweet ningle(Dekker). form was atten ale for at then ale, where

Compare Wallon mon mononk, my then is the dative of the. At the nende

uncle (i.e. mon mon-oncle), el nonk, the is similarly found for at then end

uncle, and Fr. tante, aunt, either for ta (Skeat, Notes to P. Plowman, p. 8).

ante (tua amita), (Littré), or for ma-tAnd rather then they wyll not be as fine, ante, mine aunt (Scheler). Compare As who is finest, yea, as smooth and

also ma mie for m'amie ; and mamour, slicke, And after sit uppermost at the wine,

mourette, in Le Roux, Dict. Comique. Or nale, to make hard shift they wyll not

Nowne is also found arising from mine sticke.


Be his nowne white sonne.”F. Thynn, Debate between Pride and Lowliness Roister Doister, i. 1 (Shaks. Soc.). The (ab. 1568), p. 53 (Shaks. Soc.).

“ his nain, nawn, or NANBERRY, a N. W. Lincolnshire nyawn”(Jamieson); Mid-Yorks. “thou word for an anberry (which see, p. 7), nown bairn” (Robinson, E.D.S.). a wen, A. Sax. ampre.

NAVAN, in Ireland, stands for nEamNANG-NAIL, a Cleveland word for a huin, te

buin, “the neck

cus, 1633

Scottish say


is :

NAVIRON ( 582 )

NESS brooch,” fabled to have its name from Bold ocean foames with spight, his reb-tida the golden brooch of the Princess Macha (Joyce, i. 85).

Historie of Albino and Bellama. NAVIRON, a Wallon form of Fr. un

NEDDANS, a parish in Tipperary, is aviron, an oar (old Eng. MSS. a nore).

Ir. na feadáin, “the brooks” (Joyce, i. The word was perhaps assimilated to

24). another word naviron, meaning a float NEDDY, a fool, for an eddy. See p. (Scheler).

253, where the quotation referred to Nawl, a frequent form of awl (A. Sax. él) in old English (Beaumont Non immerito secundum vestratum usurpsand Fletcher), nal (Wycliffe, Ex. xxi. 6), tionem qui stultum vocant Edwinum, reputarer nall (Tusser), from a misunderstanding

Eadwinus.-J. C. Robertson, Hist, of T, of an awl as a nawl.

Becket, vol. i. Canst thou bore his chaftes through

How comes it (Youth) to pass, that you with a nule?- Bible, 1551, Job xli. 1.

Who all the Deities subdue, Lance de S. Crespin, A shoomakers naule.

And at thy Pleasure canst make Neddies - Cotgrave.

Of every God, and every Goddess,
Poincte, a bodkin or naule.-10.

Nay even me dost so intiame.
Beware also to spurne againe a nall.

Cotton, Burlesque upon Burlesque, p. 25. Good Counsuil of Chaucer. NENAGH, in Tipperary, is the Irish Hole bridle and saddle, whit lether and nall. 'n Aenach (an Aenach), “the fair Tusser, Fiue Hundred Pointes, 1580

(Joyce, i. 197). Similarly, the Irish (E. D. Soc. ed. p. 36).

place-name Nurney is for an Urnaidhe, NAYWORD, a provincial word for a “the oratory” (Id. p. 309) ; Nooun for by-word or proverb, seems to stand for n-uamhainn, "the cave" (Id. p. 426). an aye-word, a word or expression always or perpetually used Gentle

NEDIRCOP, a spider (Wright), an old man's Magazine, July, 1777). The same

corruption of an addircop (Palsgrave),

or attyrcoppe (Prompt. Parv.), X. Sai. writer quotes as sometimes found a

atter-coppa, “poison-cup." narrow for an arrow; a nogler, a commercial traveller, probably originally a

NEMONY. Skinner gives a nemony as nagler for an hagler ; a nailbourn, a apparently the common form of aretorrent sometimes dry (Kent), for an mone in his day, Greek anemone, the ailbourn or eylebourn.

wind-flower(Etymologicon, 1671). Ane. Nuyword, a bye-word, a laughing-stock.- mone is sometimes popularly resolved Forby, Vocabulary of East Anglia.

into an enemy, see p. 111. In any case have a nay-word, that you may Neminies, the wind-flower. Lancashire know one another's mind.-Merry Ilives of Glossary, E. D. Soc. Windsor, ii. 2. It is doubtless a corrupted form, a

NERANE, a prov. Eng. word for a

spider, stands for an orain (Northampt.) nayword for an ayword, the latter occur

aran (Yorks.), old Eng. arayne, ring in

elfth Night, ii. 3 : "gull him into an ayword(fol.). Ayword is pro

aranye, from Lat. araneus (Philolog.

Soc. Trans. 1859, p. 220). bably from ay, always, A. Sax. á, also customary, common; cf. cé, common

Nerane, aranea.—MS. Vocab. [in Way).

Erane.-Cath. Ang. law.

Eranye, or spyder, or spynnare, Aranea.NEAVING, yeast or barm (Worlidge, Prompt. Purv. Dict. Rusticum, 1681), is a corruption Compare "a nykle" (Medulla MS.) for of an heaving (Skeat). Compare HEAPS. an ikyl, an ic-icle (Prompt. Parv. p. NEB-TIDE, an old form of an ebb-tide,

259). quoted in Nares (ed. Halliwell and Ness, the name of the Scottish loch, Wright), where it is confused with is Gaelic na (the article) + ais, waterneap-tide, with which it has no con- fall, just as Loch Nell, near Oban, is na nexion, although Bosworth gives ép. + Eala, swan. Compare Nnồà in Crete flód, as well as nép-flod, on the authority for (žuç) Tàv'ldà; Stamboul for orarrólix, of Lye.

i.e. {Tiv Tółw (Blackie, Horce Helle.



NEWRY ( 583 ) NORATION nicos, p. 135; Strangford, Letters and (for omblil), from a Lat. umbiliculus, umPapers, p. 149).

bilicus ; whence also Cat. Llombrigol NEwry, in co. Down, stands for Irish

(Scheler). Similarly nomble (as if un 'n Iubhar, i.e. an Iubhar, “the yew

omble) came to be substituted for lomble tree," the name commemorating a yew

(from Lat. lumbulus), understood as

l'omble ; and niveau, old Fr. nivel (unplanted there by St. Patrick (Joyce, i. 494). From the same word comes

derstood as un iveau or ivel), for livel Newrath, in Leinster, formerly spelt

(as if l'ivel), from Lat. libella. Newragh, and, without the article,

Nonce, in the phrase " for the Uragh.

nonce," old Eng. “for the nones," for Newt, formed by agglutination of the the occasion, was originally" for then article from an ewt, old Eng. ewte, for anes,' for the once, where then is the euete or evete, A. Sax. efeta, an eft dative of the, and anes, an adverbial (Skeat), which has been equated with form used as a noun (Skeat). Sansk. apâda (footless), a reptile, from

This was a thrifty tale for the nones! a, privative, and pàd, a foot (Kühn,

Chaucer, Prolog. to Shipmans Tule, 1165. Wedgwood) The Sussex word is

For the nones

occurs instead of effet.

for þan cones or for þam wnes, for that Newte or ewte, wyrme, Lacertus.- Prompt.

alone, for the purpose, in Old Eng. Parv.

Homilies, 2nd Ser. p. 87. NICKNAME, that is, an eke-name (or

For the nonys, Idcirco, ex proposito.agnomen), misunderstood as a neke

Prompt. Parv. p. 173.
See above, p. 255.

He' delayeth the matter for the nonys, de NIDGET, part of a plough in Kent

industria.--Horman. (Wright), the same word as idget in Compare the surnames Nokes for Sussex, a horse-hoe, called also a nidget atten-oaks (Simme atte noke.- Piers or edget (Parish).

Plowman, A. v. 115); Nash for attenNIDIOT, a common word for an idiot ash ; Nalder for atten-alder ; Norchard in old and provincial English.

for atten-orchard, &c. (Bardsley, Our “He's such a nidiot as I nivver Eng. Surnames, p. 86 ; Skeat, Notes to seed afore” (Lincolnshire, Peacock).

P. Plowman, p. 118). A verye nodypoll nydyote myght be a NOPE, an old name for the bullfinch shamed to say it.—Sir Thomas More, Works, used by Drayton (Wright), is a corrupt p. 709 (1557).

form for an ope, otherwise spelt aupe, Compare NIDDYWIT, p. 256.

olp, or alpe (Prompt. Parv.). See Hoop, Nigaud, A fop, nidget, ideot.-Cotgrave.

NIER, the name of a river in Water- Fraylezillo, a bird with blacke feathers on ford, is properly N’ier, “the grey

the head, like linget, called of some un Oupe. (river), where n is merely the article -Minsheu, Span. Dict. 1623. (Joyce, Irish Names of Places, ii. 279).

Chochepierre, a kinde of Nowpe or Bull

finch.-Cotgrave. NIESPE (old Fr.), an Aspen tree (Cot- Nares quotes from Merrett,

“ Rubigrave), a borrowed word, evidently a cilla, a bull-finch, a hoop, and bull misunderstanding for une espe, old Eng. spink, a nope.” In Lancashire the espe, asp.

word appears as maulp or mawp (GlosNINCH, a place in co. Meath, is Ir. sary, E.D.S. 190). an inch, “the island." Similarly Naan, an island in Lough Erne, is for Ir. an

NORATION, a provincial word for a ain, " the ring;Nart, in Monaghan,

report or rumour, norating, chattering for Ir. an fheart, “the grave;” Nuenna, (Wright), is evidently a misapprehena river in Kilkenny, for Ir. an uaithne,

sion of an oration as a noration. In

Cleveland it means a row or uproar "the green river” (Joyce, i. 24).

(Atkinson). NOMBRIL (Fr.) is formed by aggluti- Out of noration has been evolved in nation of the article (for un ombril, due the broken German-English of America perhaps to l'ombril) from old Fr.ombril the verb to norate.

p. 176.

NORMOUS (584) OMELETTE Und eber I norate furder, I dink it only fair, nomble, a portion cut from between the Ve shouldt oonderstand each oder, prezackly, thighs of the deer (Roquefort), ari cbunk and square.

numbile, numble (Ducange). The word Breitmann Ballads, p. 145 (ed. 1871).

being derived from Lat. umbilicus, the In Sussex both oration and noration

navel, must originally have been unike, are in use, with the meaning of an un- the initial n being afterwards transnecessary fuss; and to norate is to talk ferred to it from the article, an umte. officiously and fussily about other peo- Umbles is the ordinary form in lata ple's business (Parish). Compare with English. See HUMBLE-PIE supra, p. this the Mid-Yorkshire use of pis'le (i.e. 183. epistle), for a tirade or rigmarole. “She

NUMPOST, a provincial corruption went naggering on with a long pis'le

(Wright) of an imposthume, for aw that it would have tired a horse to stand

impost. and listen to” (Robinson, E.D.S.); and Lancashire nominy, a long tiresome

NURA, (Irish), last year, stand speech (E. D. Soc.), which seems to

NURIDH, | foran ura,

an uirida, stand for a nomily or an homily.

which are the Erse forms, the latter

part equated with Lat. hora, Greek NORMOUS, a Lincolnshire form of

öpa, Sansk. vâra (Pictet, Orig. I vidioenormous (Peacock).

Europ. ï. 606). Norwood, a Leicestershire word for

NURSROW, a Staffordshire word for a nickname or by-word (Wright), was

the shrew-mouse, is properly an erstatt, most probably originally an-o'eruord,

erd-shrew, or earth-shrew. Compare in the sense of over-, or additional.,



163. name, an eke-name (see NICKNAME). Compare the Scotch ourword, oweruord,

NUSSE, “fisshe.”—Prompt. Patru. a word or expression frequently re

lorum. This word has apparently oripeated, the burden of a song.

ginated from an huss,-huss being an

0. Eng. word for the dogfish. Husse, And aye

the o'eruord o' the spring Was Irvine's bairns are bonie a'.

a fysshe, rousette.”—Palsgrave. Com. Burns, Works, p. 153 (Globe ed.).

pare "Huske, fyshe, Squamus." Similarly mayrord, a bye-word

Prompt. Parv. (Twelfth Night, ii. 3), is an ayword in the old copies (Dyce, Observations, p.

0. 75).

NOSILLE, an old word for a blackbird OIDHCHE (Ir.), night, stands for (Wright), evidently stands for an 00sel noidhche, and Ir. uimhir, number, for or ousel.

nuimhir, the initial n having been lost Nover, a Sussex word for high land

by confusion with n of the article an above a precipitous bank, is for an over,

(Graves). The same is the case with Mid. Eng. ouer, a bank, A. Sax. ofer

Ir. eascu, an eel, old Ir. naiscu, and Ir. (Skeat, Notes to P. Plowman, p. 393).

eus, a weasel, old Ir. ness (Joyce, i. 26).

Compare old Ir. gilla naneach (for nan NUGGET, a lump of metal, is the each), “servant of th' horses” (Stokes, modern form of niggot (North’s Plu- Irish Glosses, p. 112); Ir. 'noir, from tarch), which is probably a corruption the east, for an oir ; 'niar, from the of a ningot, standing for an ingot west, for an iur, and Manx necar, for (A. Sax. in + goten, poured into” a yn eear, “ the west.” So in Manx yu mould.-Skeat). Curiously enough the oie for yn noie, " the night”; noush for same word has suffered from agglutina- yn oash, the custom." tion in French, where lingot should

OMELETTE (Fr.), our "omelet," owes properly be l'ingot, borrowed from the

its initial vowel to the a of old Fr. English.

amelette, which that word has stolen NUMBLES, the inward parts of a deer, from the article la. Amelette (for ale. formerly considered a delicacy, Fr. mette, alamette) was originally la lemette nombles, generally used in the plural, or la lamette, a thin flat cake, the same but originally in the singular also, viz. as lemelle, lamelle (Lat. laminula), a

p. 65).


ORANGE (585) OUTHORNE diminutive of lame (Lat. lamina). La taken for the article; Sp. laton, Fr. lamette by a mistake became l'alemuette laiton, Eng. latten. (Littré, Skeat), and then l'amclette.

Ouch or ouche, an old word for a ORANGE. Etymologically we should

gem, or the socket in which it is set say, instead of “an orange,”. a norange (A. V. Ex. xxviii.), is a misunderstandor narenge. See above, p. 264.

ing, an ouch for a nouch, from old Fr. ORBACCA (It.), a laurel berry, for lor.

nouche, nosche, a buckle, O. H. Ger. bacca, from Lat. lauri bacca, So Cot- nusca, Low Lat. nusca (Eastwood and grave has aureole and laureole, a small Wright, Bible Word-Book, s.v.; Skeat), laurel.

sometimes found in the forms, L. Lat.

musca, Fr. mouche, as if a fly-shaped ORDURE, from Fr. ordure, old Fr. ord,

ornament (Atkinson, Vie de St. Auban, filthy, foul, ugly, It, ordura and ordo, filthy. Skeat, Scheler, and Diez incorrectly deduce these words from Lat. hor.

Nowche, monile.- Prompt. Parv. ridus, as if that which excites horror,

An ouche of gold.

Chaucer, C. Tales, 6325. and so is disgusting, repulsive. There is little doubt, however, that ordure

Ful of nowches gret and smale.

Id. 8258. was originally lordure, which was afterwards understood as l'ordure. Compare

Adornd with gemmes and owches wondrous

fayre. Spenser, F. Q. I. x. 31. old It. lordura, lordezza, ordure, filthi

À robe d'or batüe e nusches de aesmal. ness, lordare, to foul or sully, lordo

Vie de St. Auban, 1. 20. (not ordo), foul, filthy (Florio), and these are from Lat. luridus, discoloured,

He gave her an ouche couched with pearlys livid, darkened, and so sullied, dirty

and precious stonys.Horman.

Qúche for a bonnet, afficquet.-Palsgrave. (so Wedgwood); in later Latin used in

So Fr. oche, the nick, nock, or notch, the sense of foul, rotten. Hence also Fr. lourd (Prov. lort), unhandsome,

of an arrow (Cotgrave), also loche (Palssottish, clownish (Scheler), lourdaud,

grave), seems to be formed from Eng. a lout or boor, also lordault (Cotgrave);

notch (q. d. un noche, un 'oche).–Vid. It. lordone, a filthy sloven. Compare

Way, Prompt. Parv. s.v. Nokke. Swed. lort, dirt, dung; lorta, to dirty; OUGHAVAL, the name of several lortig, dirty.

parishes in Ireland, has lost an initial ORMA (It.), “a rule or direction,

n, and should be Noughaval (Ir. a custome, vse, fashion” (Florio), is a

Nuachongbhail, “new habitation"). mutilated form of Lat. norma.

The n was detached in consequence of

being mistaken for the article 'n, an, ORSE (Fr.), a sea-term, is a misunder

" the."

Compare Breton Ormandi for standing, as l'orse, of an original lorse, =

Normandy (Joyce, i. 25-26).
Netherland. hurts, left, according to

Ought, often used popularly for a

nought or cypher in arithmetic, e.g. OTTER might seem at first sight to

carry ought.” have originated from Fr. loutre (mistaken for l'outre), which is from Lat.

OUNCE, the beast so called, a kind of lutra, Greek énudris, the water-animal,

lynx, Fr. once, Sp. onza, Portg. onça. the otter, Sp. nutria (Stevens, 1706).

We took the word from the French, It is, however, an independent word,

where once stands for old Fr. lonce (CotA. Sax. oter (Dut. otter, Icel. otr, Swed.

grave), mistaken for l’once, It. Ionza utter), corresponding to Greek húdra, a

(also onza), which seems to be from Lat. water-snake or hydra (Skeat), with

lynx, Greek Núyž (Diez); but Skeat comwhich Pictet equates Sansk. and Zend

pares Pers.yúz, a panther. udra, the water-animal. Compare also OUTHORNE, in the Percy Folio MS., its names, Welsh dufrgi, i.e. dufr-ci, for a nouthorn or neat's horn (nowt "water-dog" (Stokes), and Irish dohar- cattle). cu, “water-dog" (O'Reilly).

There was many an outhorne in Carlile was

blowne, OTTONE (It.), brass, stands for lottone, & the bells backward did ringe. lattone (Florio), the initial l being mis

vol. iii. p. 89, 1. 315.


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