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nd sagen, to say, is a corruption of ». H. Ger. wl&igo, A. Sax. wttigci, a rophot, " wizanl," "witch," Icel. vitki, , -wizard.

"WiLDSCHUB, a German word for a ill-red garment, as if compounded of vilcl, wild, and schur, a shearing, and o the "fur of a wild-beast," is a coruption of the Slavonic word teiZczvra, L -wolfs-skin coat (Andresen). The vord undergoes a further disguise in Fr- vitchourra.

\vindbbaus, "Wind-bluster," a Tirolese corruption of Ger. Windtbraut [q. v.).—Andreseu.

\videbthon, the German name of the plant maiden-hair or Venus' hair, as if from wider, against, and titan, clay, is a corruption of the older forms ti-cdertam, widertat, of uncertain origin. Another popular corruption of the same is widcrtod, as if from tod, death (Andresen).

Wiedehopf, "withe-hopper," the Gorman name of the hoopoe, Mid. High Ger. tmtehopfe, as if the " woodliopper," from O. H. Ger. witu ~ Eug. ii-ood, and hiipfrn. It is probably a corruption of Lat. upupa, Gk. upops, Fr. Jiuppe (Andresen).

Wildbket, a German word for game, as if wild, game, dressed for the table, ln-ct, is a modern and incorrect form of w!ldbraien, from Itratcn, to roast, Mid. High Ger. wiltpracle.

Windhund, \ German words for the Windspiel, ) greyhound and coursing, as if denoting swift as the wind. The first part of the word, however, Mid. High Ger. mint, itself denotes the greyhound, and the compound windImnd is a pleonastic uniting of the species with the genus, as in mrtnlfscl, mule-ass, walfisch, whalefish (Andresen).

Windsbb\ut, " Wind's-bride," aGerman word for a squall or gust of wind, Mid. High Ger. wimlesbruf, is from wndes sprout, from spiwnccn ( = spriilicn), spargrre (Andresen).

Witthum, a German word for a dowry, so spelt as if of a common origin with witwc, a widow, witffrait, a widow-woman, wittmann, a widower (just as "dower," Fr. doumre, is con

nected with "dowager "). Wifwf, however, is from Lat. v?Wua, while witthum is another form of widum, from widem, a jointure (Andresen).

Wolfsbohne, i.e. Wolf s-becin, the German word for the lupine plant, seems to have originated in a misunderstanding of Lat. liipinus as being a derivative of lupus, a wolf. However, as Pictet points out, the Russian volcii bobu, T[\<yi 6oi, are synonymous with the German word Indo-Europ. i. 286).

Wuthende Heeb (Ger.), "the wild host," wild huntsman, as if from icuihvn, to be mad (old Eng. u-ood), is a corruption of Wuotanes lifr, i.e. Wodnn's or Odin's army, as shown by the Swabian expression for an approaching storm, "'s Wuotes Heer kommt" (Andresen).

Wodan was originally a storm-god, his name akin to Sansk. wala, the wind. (See Kelly, Indo-Europ. Trad. p. 267; Pictet, ii. 685; Carlyle, Heroes, Lect. i.)

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Zander, the German name of the fish we call pike, as if so called from its formidable teeth, Prov. and Mid. High Ger. zand, a tooth, Ger. zuhn, is otherwise written sandcr, as if from gand, sand.

Zeehond (Dut.), "sea-dog," the seal, looks like a corruption of Dan. 8mlhund, "seal-hound," Swed. sji'd-hund (Icel. selr, 0. H. Ger. aclah, A. Sax. eeol, the seal).

Eng. seal was formerly regarded as a contraction of "sea-veal," a sea-calf.

The sea Calfe, in like maner, which our country me tor breuitie sake call a Seele, other more largely name a Sea Vele, maketh a spoyle of fish«>8 betweene rocken and banckes, but it in not accounted in the catalogue or niiber of our !•.••• I • lie dogges, notwithstanding we call it by the name of a Sea dogge or a sea Calfe.—A. Fleming, Cuint nj' Kh*. Dofgex, 1576, p. 19 (repr. 1880).

Zettovabio (It.), an Indian plant with a bitter medicinal root, so spelt as if compounded with vario, variegated, is a corrupt form of zedoaria, Sp. xcdoaria, Portg. zeduaria, Fr. zedonire, all from Arab-Pers. zedwdr, or jedwar (Devic).


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Zieh-book, a West Prussian word for the tube of a pipe (as if from zirfirn, to draw, and lock, a buck), is a curious corruption of the Slavonic tschilvl; a chiliMiquc (Andreseu). or, more correctly, of Turkish tehilniij, or tclmluii, a pipe (Device).

Ziehjabn, a popular German corruption of cigarrc, as if from ziehcn, to draw.

ZITHER, the German name of a stringed instrument so called, as if connected with sitter, to shake or quiver, from the tremulous sound of the chords, is the same word as Lat. citlmra.

Zwergkase, "dwarf-cheese," a German word for whey-cheese, as if called

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Abbe Heureux, a Fr. place-name, is a popular corruption of Abeowou (L. Larchey, Diet, des Nommes).

Abbey' s surname, is probably identical with Abo (in Domesday), old Ger. Abbi, Abbo, Ibba, Frisian Abbe, Dan. Ebb?, Ebba, A. Sax. Ibbe, all perhaps from aba, a man (R. Ferguson, English Surnames, p. 340).

Abel, Tomb Of, 15 miles N. of Damascus, shown by the Arabs, is probably the mere misunderstanding of the name of the ancient city of Abila, the ruins of which are close at hand (Porter, Giant Cities of Biuslum, p. 353).

Abebhill, in the county of Kinross, is an English corruption of the Gaelic Abhir-thuiU, which means "The influence of the holes or pools " (Robertson, J. A., Gaelic Topography of Scotland, p. 72).

Aberlady, in the county of Haddington, is a corruption of the old spelling Aberlwdy, Gal Abhir-liobh-aite," The confluence of the smooth place" (Robertson, Gaelic Topography of Scotland, p. 94).

Abermilk, in the county of Dumfries, is a corruption of the old name Aber-mrlc or Aber-n>ilc,Gae\ic Abhir-milleach, "The confluence of the flowery sweet grass" (Robertson, Gaelic Topography of Scotland, p. 75).

Abersky, in Forfarshire, a corrupt form of the Gaelic Abhir-uisge, "The confluence of the water or stream" (Robertson, p. 96).

Ahlewhite, an Eng. surname, is another form of the name Itcbbleiehite, Hrbllneaite, or Uebbltthtmute, originally of local signification, the thwaite, or clearing, of one Hebble or Hebel (Ferguson, 342).

Aboo-seer, the modern Arabic name of the ancient s (perhaps =: Egyptian Pa-hesar, "the [abode ?J of Osiris"), corrupted into a new meaning (Smith, Bible Diet. vol. ii. p. 578).

Achterstrasse, the name of a street in Bonn, as if "Back-street," was origiually Akerstrasse, or Acherstrasse, the street that leads to Achen (Andresen).

Acre, in St. Jean d'Acre, is evidently a corruption of its ancient name in Hebrew 'Hahho (or Acclio, Judges, i. 31), Egyptian 'Hahkti, meaning "Hot Sand," now Akka.

Acutcs. Verstegan mentions that there was to be seen in Florence the monument and epitaph of an English knight Joannes Acuius, and some, he says,

Have wondered what Iohn Sharp this might bee, seeing in England they never heard of any such; his name rightly written being indeed Sir iohn tlanhiood, but by omitting the h in Latin as frivolous, and the h and w as

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unusual!, he is heere from Jlaukwood turned unto Aciitiin, and from Acutits returned in English ngnine unto Sharp.Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 16.H, p. 308.

Some account of this Sir John Hawkwood, who died in 1394, and also had a tomb in Sible Heveningham Church, Essex, is given by Weaver, who says :—

The Florentines in testimony of his surpassing valour, and singular faithful! service to their state, adorned him with the statue of a man of armes, and a sumptuous Monument, wherein his ashes remaine honoured at this present day. — Fitneratt Monuments, 1&J1, p. 623.

Addebville, a place-name in Donegal, is a corruption of Ir. Eadar bailey, "central town," Middleton (Joyce, Irish Names of Places, 2nd Ser. p. 417).

Addlehead, a surname, seems to be corrupted from 0. Sax. and O. H. Ger. Adelheid' s), whence the Christian name Adelaide (Ferguson, 263).

Addle Street, near the Guildhall, London, is believed to owe its name to a royal residence of Athel-stane, whicli once stood there (Taylor, 284).

'adelphoi, "Brothers," is the form that the ancient Delphi has assumed in modern Greek.

Adelschlao, the name of a Bavarian village, as if "Nob e Blow," was originally Adaloltcshh (Andresen).

Adiabene, a Greek river-name, as if the "impassable," from a, not, and dialminfi, to cross, is said to be a perversion of its proper name Ailiafi or Zah (Philohg. Woe. Proc. v. 142).

Aeneas, a personal name in Ireland, isacorruption,under classical influence, of Ir. Arnyus (from rtfn, single, and (jus, strength), Angus (O'Donovan). In Scotland it stands for Aonghns (excellent valour), in Wales for Einiairn (just).—Youge, Christian Names, i. 176.

Ague, a surname, is supposed to be the same as old Ger. Aigua, Ageuits (Ferguson, 376).

Air, \ Eng. surnames, are probably

Airy, ) from old Ger. names Aro,

Ara, Icel. Ari, a common propernamc,

from Icel. art, an eagle, O. H. Ger. two,

Goth. ara.

Aibsome, a place-name in the Cleveland district, Yorkshire, is a corrupted

form of the ancient Ant***", A**\

Danish Aarhuus in S. Jutlar j

Aibsome, a surname in Yorkshire- a corruption of the old name At* (Aarhuu<i).—N. $• Q. 4th S. ii. fij.


bwh, the Anglo-Saxon name of ID as if the aching man's, or in^acity, seems to be due to a mifc:standing of its old Roman name i (Taylor, Words and Plaffs. in I p. 465). Compare Ger. Aaftit* r Aix la Chapelle), of similar origin

Akenside, an Eng. surname, 'l" to have been originally a local Ec the side or possession of AHci* •• pare Icel. name Aki, and Ad' Domesday (Ferguson, 192).

Ale, an Eng. surname, prot* corresponds to old Ger. AOf, J Agilo; Mod. Ger. Eyl -, A. Sax. &. Icel. Egil (Ferguson, B74).

Aleman, a surname, is a corra form of old Eng. AlnMi'ne or Alan >•• a German (Bardsley, Romance of I don Directory, p. 116). Hence A. Allman.

Alexia, a Latinized form of '•-• name of Alice, found in meiliEpvilii-'"'nients, stands for Adelicia, AdtJ-. and are variants of Adelaide. FranAdallifil, "noble cheer" (Yonge, t'kNames, ii. 398).

Alkimos, "valiant," the Greek Mi:' of a Jewish priest (1 Mace. vii. 14 the Grecixod form of J'liaicim iHElyakim), "God hath set up."

Allcock, a surname, probablyswci for Hal-cock, "little Harry,"likea cock, little Hans or John, Jff-tf'. little Jeffrey, Bat-cock, little bat Bartholomew, Glas-cock (for Clas-c.<-> little Nicholas Shntock. little Sim: Luckock, little Luke, Wilcock, little William.

Allcorn, an Eng. surname, is»c.»ruption of the original local Cl Alchorne (Lower).

Allee Blanche, a Fr. perversion La Lay?. JllancJic, "white milk." t> name of a glacier on Mont Blanc d. Larchey, Diet, dcs Nominee).

Almond, the name of three rivers 3 Scotland, is a corruption of the i>U

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.me Aivmon, Gaelic Abhuinn, a river .obertsou, Gaelic Topography of Scotnd, p. 123).

Almond, an Eng. surname, is proLi >ly from A. Sax. name Alhmund. ;el. Amundr, from mund, protection* ''erguson, 195). Tliis classical looking tme of a place in Limerick is an Anicized way of writing Ir. AU-a'-bhile, The glen-side of the old tree" (Joyce, i-!ah Names of Places, vol. i. p. 374).

Altmuhl, a German place-name, as "old-mill," Mid. High Ger. altmule,

. High Ger. altmuna, are from the

.eltic Alcmona (Andresen).

AMAz6N (Greek), "the breastless," le name given to the female warriors rlio were fabled to have destroyed the ight breast that it might not impede loir use of the bow, as if from a, not, nd indzos, the breast, is said to have een a corruption of an Asiatic word, meaning a lunary deity (Tcherkes, •fiizu, the moon).—Itistelhuber, in levue Politiqiie, 2nd S. v. 712.

The legend of a tribe of Northern or kingdom of women is supmsed to have originated in a confusion ictweeu the word Qvoens, the name ;iven by the Finns to themselves, and 5 wed. quinna, a woman or "<mean" Taylor, 395).

Amazonenbero, the form which mapn;tkers have given to Mat zonaberg Audresen).

Anna or Hannah in Ireland is often i representative of the native Aine(jny). —Yonge, History of Christian Names, i. 103.

Annabella, the name of a place near Mallow, is a c irruption of Ir. Ecmach-W^, "The marsh of the old tree" (Joyce, i. 440).

Anna Pkbenna, as if from annus aud purennis, the bestower of fruitful seasons, is probably a corruption of the Sanscrit Apnti-purna (the food giver), Apna containing the root up (aqua), nourishment by water, and rurnii the stem ofpario (toproduce).—Cox, Aryan Myth. i. 484.

Anterivo, the Italian name of the town Altrei, in Tirol, as if "before the

river." Its original name was "Alltreu," conferred on it by Henry, Duke of Bohemia (Busk, Valleys of Tirol, p. 375).

Anthenai, "The Flowery," is the modern Greek name of Aihtnui, Athens (Sayce, Principles of Comp. Philology, p. 362). This, however, is only a recurrence to the primitive meaning, if they be right who regard Ath,'nf as meaning Florentm, "The Blooming," from a root ath, whence also anthos, a flower (Curtius, Griechischen Etymologic, vol. i. p. 216, vol. ii. p. 316).

Antwerp, originally, no doubt, the town which sprang up " at the wharf" (Taylor, p. 393; compare Dut. ruin, at, and wcrf, wharf), has long been popularly regarded as having had its name "of hands being there cut off and cast into the river of Skeld" (Verstegan, IlestUutionof Dc ca yedlnfelligc nee, 1634, p. 209), owing to its approximation in sound to Flemish handt wcrpcn, hand throwing. A giant named Antigonus cut off the right hands of strangers who withheld their toll and threw them into the river; hence the two "couped" hands in the heraldic cognizance of the city (Illust. London News, May 25, 1872).

Aphrodite, the Greek name for Venus, so called as if for the reason that she sprang from the foam, uphros, of the sea. It is supposed that the Pho3nician name of the goddess, Ashton'tli, would by Grecian lips lie pronounced AphtorftltJ, and that this was altered so as to give a Greek sense.

Appleby, a place-name in Westmoreland, appears to have been formed from the Komau Aballaba (Ferguson, 194).

Applecross, in the county of Boss, is a corruption of the older name Abercroisean, Gaelic Abhlr-croisean, "The confluence of troubles" (Bobertson, J. A., Gaelic Topography of Scotland, p. 98).

Skene gives the Gaelic name in the form Aplrorcrosan.

Archipelago, as if the " chief sea," is said to be a corruption of its Greek name Aigaion pclagos, the /Egean Sea.

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