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Thyrce,vrykkjd spyryto, Ducius.—Prompt. Parv.

Thykke theese as a thwrae, and thikkere in the hanche.

Morte Arthitre, 1. 1100.

Stedefast to-genes god and men, alse lob was, be wan wij J>« nurse.Old Eng. Homilies, 2nd Ser. p. 187 (ed. Morris).

[Stedfast towards Uod aud men, as Job was that fought against the devil.]

Neddre .-muhgis di3eliche, swo doS be went,Id. p. 191.

[The adder creepeth secretly, so doth the devil.J

Wycliffe has worst for the devil,

Quenche alle the firi dartis of the worst.Kph. vi. 16.

Wurse survives in a slightly altered form in Dorset oose (and ooser), a mask with opening jaws to frighten folk (Barnes, Glossary, p. 73). The loss of initial w occurs similarly in ooze, for old Eng. tvose (A. Sax. ivos, N. Eng. tveeze); old Eng. oof (Prompt. Parv.), for woof; oothe, mad (Id.), for woode; orchard for wort/yard; and oad for wood, e.g.

The stains of sin I see
Are oaded all, or dy'd in grain.
Quartet, School of the Heart, ode xvii.


Yallow-plastee, a vulgar corruption of alabaster, as if "yellow-plaster," yallow being the Lincolnshire and common Irish pronunciation of yellow (cf. All-plaister). Alablaster is the Lincolnshire form of the word (Peacock, Brogden), which is found also in old writers, e.g.

Poire de Serteau, the Allahlaster Pear.— Cotgrave.

\ t ys nuwe frest and gyld, and ys armcs tryltt, with the pyctur all in alehtiister lyung in ys armur gyltt.—Machyn, Diary, 1562, p. 285 (Camden Soc.).

Yahk-bod, a Lincolnshire name for the plant scnecio, as if jerk-rod, yark being the form of "jerk" in that dialect, is apparently a corruption (by metathesis) of its ordinary name ragzcort. Yack-yar, in the same county, the name of a plant, seems to be for ac-yarb, "oak-herb."

Yellow-hammer has been supposed

to have its name from its hammerlike

Beating for ever on one key
Pleased with his own monotony.
F. W. Paber, for example, thus de-
cribes the bird :—

Away he goes, and hammers still
Without a rule but his free will,

A little gaudy Elf!
And there Tie is within the rain,
And beats and beats his tune again,
Quite happy in himself.

Poems, 2nd ed. p. 454.

It is said to be a corruption of yellowanvmer, in German signifying a bunting. Compare A. Sax. amora, a bird-name (Ettmiiller, p. 10).

Yellows. This, when used as synonymous v/ith jealousy (Wright), is perhaps only a conscious and playful perversion of that word. Yelloio, as vulgarly, and perhaps anciently, pronounced yallow, differs but slightly from the French jaloux, jealous, and y often interchanges with j. Compare jade, and Scot, yade, 0. Eng. yawd; jerk, Scot, and O. Eng. yerk; yeomen, O. Eng. jemen (Bailey); yawl and jollyboat; yoke, Qer, joch; young, Ger. jung, &c.

But for his yellows Let me but lye with you, and let him know it, His jealousy is gone.

Bronte's Antipodes [in Narea].

Shakespeare similarly uses yellowness for jealousy:—

I will possess him with yellowness, for the revolt of mien is dangerous.—Merry Wives oj' Windsor, i. 3.

Civil as an orange, and something of that jealous complexion.—Much Ado about Nothing, i. 1.

Jealous would appear to have been at one time pronounced as a French word. Thus Sylvester asks— What should 1 doo with such a wanton wife, Which night and day would cruciate my life With Ietom pangs?

Du BarVis, p. 498 (1621).

In W. Cornwall jallishy and jailer are used for yellow (M. A. Courtney, E.D. Soc).

Hating all schollers for his sake, till at length he began to suspect, and turne a little yellow, as well he might; tor it was his owne fault; and if men be jealous in such cases (as oft it falls out) the mends is in their owne hands. — Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, HI. ill. 1, 2.

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The undiscreet carriage of some lascivious gallant .... may make a breach, and by his over familiarity, if he be inclined to yellowness, colour him quite out.—Burton, Anatomy oj Melancholy, ill. iii. 1, 2.

In earnest to as jealous piques;
Which th'ancients wisely signify'd
By th'yellow mantuas of the bride.

Butler, Hudibras, pt. iii. canto 1.

'Monfjst all colours,

No yellow m't, lest she suspect, as he does,
Her children not her husband's.

Shakespeare, The Winter t late, act ii.
sc. iiL 1. 107.

Hence "to wear yellow breeches" was an old phrase for " to be jealous."

If 1 were,

The duke (I freely must confess my weakness, I should wear yellow breeches.

Maainger, The Duke of Milan, iv. 1.

If thy wife will be so bad,

That in such false coine she'lie pay thee,

Why therefore

Shuuld'st thou deplore,
Or weare stockings that are yellow?

Roxburgh Balladt, ii. 61 [Davies].

Yeoman, a free born Englishman living on his own land, old Eng. yoman, yttman, ieman, an able-bodied man (compare "yeoman's service"), has been variously regarded as a derivative of Frisian gxman, a villager or countryin an (Wedgwood), =Goth.<7<j«ji,country (old Fris. go, go, Dut. gate, goo, Ger. gau) + manna, man; as a contraction of yongman, youngman; or as another form of old Eng. German, gemen, a commoner (Verstegan, Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1634, p. 221), A. Sax. gemcene ( — Lat. communis), Goth, gamains, common. Mr. Oliphant identifies it with Scandinavian gmimaZr, an able-bodied fellow (Early and Mid. English, p. 417), mafcr =: man.

May it not be the same word as goman, a married man, a householder (Verstegan, p. 223), A. Sax. gum-mann (Beowulf), a compound of guma, a man? See Groom. Grimm connects it with A. Sax. gemana, company, fellowship, Goth, ga-man, a fellow-man, comrade, companion. Compare old Eng. ymone, together, in concert.

If Verstegan's suggestion were correct, the word would be no compound of man, and should make its plural yeomans. See Mussulmen, where it

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A yeman of fe crowne, Sargeaunt of

with mace, A herrowd of Armes as greta dygnte has

J. Russell, Boke of Nurture, 1. lilcjj.

He made me fymane at Sole, and g«fe me GET gyftes.

Morte Arthure, 1. gofg.

Sir S. D. Scott quotes an instance of yeortmn being con verted into yongenu*, youngeman:

Any servantes, commonly called wxftmen [yeomen in original] or groomes.— Statutes, as lien. Vlll. c. x. s. 6.

(See History of British Army, vol. i. pp. 504-507.)

In the Constitutions of King Canute concerning Forests, he orders four " « mediocribus hominibus, quos Anfli Lespegend [read lee-legend, less thane> nuncupant, Dani vero yoong mm recant," to have the care of the vert and venery (Spelman, Glossariiim, 1C26, p. 289).

Robyn commaunded his wyght yong men,
Under the grene wood tre,

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They shall lay in that same sorte;
That the Sheryf myghte them se.
Lytelt Geste of Robyn Hade, Thyrde Fytte,
1. 208 (ed. Kitson).

[Copland's edition throughout this ballad reads yeomen.~\

Juniorea pro ingenuis quos yeomen dicimus.—Spelman, Archa-nlogus, 1626, p. 397.

Yet, in the following passage of Shakespeare—

Though the yesty waves Confound and swallow navigation up.

Macbeth, iv. 1, 54—

has been generally regarded as meaning "foaming," frothing like yeast or yeast (A. Sax. gist, froth, spume, Ger. giischt) when it works in beer; as elsewhere he speaks of a ship "swallowed with yest and froth" (Winter's Tale, iii. 3). It is really, no doubt, the same word as Prov. Eng. yeasty, gusty, stormy.

A little rain would do us good, but we doint want it too oudacious yeasty.W. D. Paristt, Sussex glossary, p. 131.

This yeasty is the A. Sax. Pig, stormy (somber), from A. Sax. yst, a storm (Ettmiiller, p. 72), which seems to be akin to gust, geysir, gush, Icel. gjdsa, to gush, gjosta, a gust, Prov. Swed. who, to blow.

And house wares mvcel list windes geworden. —A. Sax. Vers. Mark iv. 37.

[There was a great storm of wind arisen. ]

Yew-log, a popular misunderstanding of the woidy ule-log (Skeat, in Peacock's Glossary of Manley, Ac.). Wright gives yeio-game, a frolic, for "yulegame."

Yokel, a country bumpkin, a stupid fellow, a simpleton, so spelt as if it had something to do with a yoke of oxen, and so meant a plough-boy, a rustic. It seems really to be a North country word, and of Scandinavian origin. Compare Banff, yochel (and yoclio), a stupid awkward person (Gregor), which is probably the same word as Shetland yuggle, an owl (Edmondston), Dan. ugh, Swed. ugla, Icel. ugla, an owl (A. Sax. He).

The owl, on account of its unspeculative eyes and portentously solemn demeanour, has often been made a byword for stupidity. Compare Goff, Goff, a simpleton, old Eng. gofish, stupid (" Beware of gofisshe peoples speech." — Chaucer, Tro. and Cres. iii. 585), Fr.

goffe, dull, Scottish, It. gofo, gufo, guffo, "F owle, also a simple foole or grossepated gull, a ninnie patch."—Florio (? Pers. kuf, an owl). Also Sp. loco, stupid, It. locco, a fool, alocco, (1) an owl, (2) a simple gull (Florio), from Lat. ulucus, an owl.

"This wasn't done by a yokel, eh, Duff?" .... "And translating the word yokel for the benefit of the ladies, I apprehend your meaning to be that this attempt was not made by a countryman r" said Mr. Losberne, with a smile.—Dickens, Oliver Twist, ch. xxxi.

Thou art not altogether the clumsy yokel and the clock I took thee for.—Blackmore, Lorna Doone, ch. ll. [Davies].

Youngster, the familiar and somewhat contemptuous designation of a young person, so spelt from a mistaken analogy with such words as tapster, punster, spinster, is no doubt a corrupt form of younker, ■=. Ger.junker, from jung-herr, young-sir (originally a title of honour), Belg. jonker, jonklieer, from jong and heer.

I have met with oldster, a fictitious correlative, in the Quarterly Review.

Einjuncherr unde ein ritter sol,
hie an sich ouch behiieten wol.

Thomasin, Der Welsche Gujt(1216), in
M. Muller, Ger. Classics, i. 204.

[A younker and a knight shall
Be careful in this too.]

Juniores, liberi domini, Junckheren.Spelman, Aichteotogus, 1626, p. 3U7.

The King was in an advantageous Posture to give audience for there was a Parliament then at Rheinsburgh, where all the Younkert mpt.—Howell, Fam. Letters, bk. i. vi. 4.

Syr, if there be any Yonkers troubled with idelnesse and loytryng, hauyng neither learning, nor willyng handes to labour.— W. Bulteyn, Books of Simples, p. xxvii. verso.

Now lusty younkers, look within the glass,
And tell me if you can discern your sires.

R. Greene, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay,
1594 (p. 175).

A knot of yongkers tooke a nap in the fields: one of them late snorting with his mouth gaping as though he would have caught flies-. Stanihurst, Description of Ireland, p. 1.3 (Holinslied, vol. i. 1587).

Pagget, a school-boy, got a sword, and then He vow'd destruction both to birch and men: Who wo'd not think this yonker fierce to fight?

Herrick, Hesperides, Poems, p. 67 ted. Hazlitt).

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Aal-beere, "eel-berry," a German name for the black-currant (Johannisbeers), is a popular corruption oialanibeere, so called because its flavour resembles that of alant or elecampane (Grimm, Deutsches Worterbuch, s.v.).

Aalracpe, the German name of the barbot fish, as if from aal, eel, and raupe, caterpillar, stands for aalrvppe, where the latter part of the word is Mid. High Ger. rvppe, Lat. rubella, and the former probably dl for add (Andresen, Volhsetymohgie).

Abat-tou, the word for a lean-to or penthouse in the French patois of Liege, as if compounded with tou, a roof, is the same word as Fr. abatuc, the spring of an arch, in Wallon a penthouse (Sigart,.Did. du Wallon de Hone, p. 55).

Abdecker (a flayer), a popular corruption in German of apotheker, an apothecary (Andresen).

Abendtheuer, a form of Ger. abenfowrsometimesfound, as if compounded of abend, evening, and theuer, dear, expensive. The word in both forms is corrupted from Mid. High Ger. aventiure, Fr. aventure, our "adventure," all derived from Mid. Lat. adventura, for the classical evcntura (Andresen).

Abebqlaube, Ger. word for superstition, seems to be the corruption of ueberglaube.

Abourseb, in the Wallon patois, to

form an abscess, as if from bowse, a purse, a bag, is probably a corruption of the Liege abose, from abcis, of the same meaning.

Abseite, "off-side," a German term for the wing of a building, Low Gor. dfsit, is formed from Mid. High Ger. ac (used only of churches), which is derived from Mid. Lat. absida, which again is from Lat. apsis, Gk. hapsis, an "apse" (Andresen).

Accipiter, the Latin name for the hawk, as if from accipere, to take or seize, is, according to Pott, a naturalized form in that language of Sansk. aciipatra, =: Gk. okuptcros, "swiftwinged."

Compare Sansk. patrin, the falcon, lit. "the winged," from patra, a wing (Pictet, Origines Indo-Europ. tom, i. p. 465).

Acetum, vinegar, a name very inappositely given by Pliny (Natural History, bk. xi. ch. 15) to virgin honey, which of itself flows from the combs without pressing, is for acceton, a corruption of Gk. akoiton, virgin, applied also to honey. (See Forcellini, s.v.)

Another reading M acedon.

The best hony ia that, which runneth of it selfe as new Wine and Oile; and called it is Acedon, as a man would say, gotten without care & trauell" [as if from Gk. akedes, uncared for). —Holland, Pliny, tom. i. p. 317.

Acheron, the Greek name of one of the rivers of Hell, as if iichea reon, the stream of woe, just as kokutos, another infernal river, was from kukud, to la

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