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everlasting things ; as of God's favor, remission of sins, and life everlasting, through faith in Jesus Christ. Now, the fathers had not only outward or earthly, but spiritual and heavenly promises in Christ. For the Apostle Peter says that the prophets, which prophesied of the grace that should come to us, have searched and inquired of his salvation' (1 Pet. i. 10). Whereupon the Apostle Paul also says, tható the Gospel of God was promised before by the prophets of God in the Holy Scriptures' (Rom. i. 2). Hereby, then, it appears evidently that the fathers were not altogether destitute of all the Gospel.

And althongh, after this manner, our fathers had the Gospel in the writings of the prophets, by which they attained salvation in Christ through faith, yet the Gospel is properly called 'glad and happy tidings;' wherein, first by John Baptist, then by Christ the Lord himself, and afterwards by the apostles and their successors, is preached to us in the world, that God has now performed that which he promised from the beginning of the world, and has sent, yea, and even given unto iis, his only Son, and, in him, reconciliation with the Father, lemission of sins, all fullness, and everlasting life. The history, therefore, set down by the four evangelists, declaring how these things were done or fulfilled in Christ, and what lie taught and did, and that they who believe in him have all fullness-this, I say, is truly called the Gospel. The preaching, also, and Scripture of the apostles, in which they expound unto us how the Son was given us of the Father, and, in him, all things pertaining to life and salvation, is truly called the doctrine of the Gospel ; so as even at this day it loses not that worthy name, if it be sincere.

The saine preaching of the Gospel is by the apostle termed the Spirit, and the ministry of the Spirit'(2 Cor. iii. 8): because it lives and works through faith in the ears, yea, in the hearts, of the faithful, through the illumination of the Holy Spirit. For the letter, which is opposed unto the Spirit, does indeed signify every outward thing, but more especially the doctrine of the law, which, withont the Spirit and faith, works wrath, and stirs np sin in the minds of them that do not truly believe. For whicli cause it is called by the apostle the ministry of death' (2 Cor. iii. 7); for hitherto pertains that saying of the apostle, “the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life' (ver. 6). The false apostles preached the Gospel, corrupted by mingling of the law therewith; as though Christ could not save withont the law. Such, also, were the Ebionites said to be, who came of Ebion the heretic; and the Nazarites, who beforetime were called Mineans. All whom we do condemn, sincerely preaching the word, and teaching that believers are justified through the Spirit (or Christ) only, and not through the law. But of this matter there shall follow a fuller exposition, under the title of justification.

And although the doctrine of the Gospel, compared with the Pharisees' doctrine of the law, might seem (when it was first preached by Christ) to be a new doctrine (which thing also Jeremiah prophesied of the New Testament); yet, indeed, it not only was, and as yet is (though the papists call it new, in regard of popish doctrine, which has of long time been received), an ancient doctrine, but also the most ancient in the world. For God from all eternity foreordained to save the world by Christ, and this his predestination and eternal counsel has he opened to the world by the Gospel (2 Tim. i. 9, 10). Whereby it appears that the evangelical doctrine and religion was the most ancient of all that ever were or are; wherefore we say, that all they (the papists) err foully, and speak things unworthy the eternal counsel of God, who term the evangelical doctrine and religion a newly concocted faith, scarce thirty years old : to whom that saying of Isaiah does very well agree—'Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter'(v. 20).

CHAPTER XIV.—OF REPENTANCE, AND THE CONVERSION OF MAN. The Gospel has the doctrine of repentance joined with it; for so said the Lord in the Gospel, “In my name must repentance and remission of sins be preached among all nations' (Luke xxiv. 47).

By repentance we understand the change of the mind in a sinful man stirred up by the preaching of the Gospel through the Holy Spirit, and received by a true faith: by which a sinful man does acknowledge his natural corruption, and all his sins, seeing them convinced by the Word of God, and is heartily grieved for them; and does not only bewail and freely confess them before God with shame, but also does loathe and abhor them with indignation, thinking seriously of present amendinent, and of a continual care of ineverlasting things; as of God's favor, remission of sins, and life everlasting, through faith in Jesus Christ. Now, the fathers had not only outward or earthly, but spiritual and heavenly promises in Christ. For the Apostle Peter says that the prophets, which prophesied of the grace that should come to us, have searched and inquired of his salvation’ (1 Pet. i. 10). Whereupon the Apostle Paul also says, that the Gospel of God was promised before by the prophets of God in the Holy Scriptures' (Rom. i. 2). Hereby, then, it appears evidently that the fathers were not altogether destitute of all the Gospel.

And althongh, after this manner, our fathers had the Gospel in the writings of the prophets, by which they attained salvation in Christ through faith, yet the Gospel is properly called 'glad and happy tidings;' wherein, first by John Baptist, then by Christ the Lord himself, and afterwards by the apostles and their successors, is preached to us in the world, that God has now performed that which he promised from the beginning of the world, and has sent, yea, and even given unto iis, his only Son, and, in him, reconciliation with the Father, remission of sins, all fullness, and everlasting life. The history, therefore, set down by the four evangelists, declaring how these things were done or fulfilled in Christ, and what he taught and did, and that they who believe in him have all fullness—this, I say, is truly called the Gospel. The preaching, also, and Scripture of the apostles, in which they expound unto us how the Son was given us of the Father, and, in him, all things pertaining to life and salvation, is truly called the doctrine of the Gospel; so as even at this day it loses not that worthy name, if it be sincere.

The same preaching of the Gospel is by the apostle termed the Spirit, and 'the ministry of the Spirit'(2 Cor. iii. 8): because it lives and works through faith in the ears, yea, in the hearts, of the faithful, through the illumination of the Holy Spirit. For the letter, which is opposed unto the Spirit, does indeed signify every outward thing, but more especially the doctrine of the law, which, withont the Spirit and faith, works wrath, and stirs up sin in the minds of them that do not truly believe. For which cause it is called by the apostle 'the ministry of death' (2 Cor. iii. 7); for hitherto pertains that saying of the apostle, “the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life' (ver. 6). The false apostles preached the Gospel, corrupted by mingling of the law therewith; as though Christ could not save without the law. Such, also, were the Ebionites said to be, who came of Ebion the heretic; and the Nazarites, who beforetime were called Mineans. All whom we do condemn, sincerely preaching the word, and teaching that believers are justified through the Spirit (or Christ) only, and not throngh the law. But of this matter there shall follow a fuller exposition, under the title of justification.

And although the doctrine of the Gospel, compared with the Pharisees' doctrine of the law, might seem (when it was first preached by Christ) to be a new doctrine (which thing also Jeremiah prophesied of the New Testament); yet, indeed, it not only was, and as yet is (though the papists call it new, in regard of popish doctrine, which has of long time been received), an ancient doctrine, but also the most ancient in the world. For God from all eternity foreordained to sare the world by Christ, and this his predestination and eternal counsel has he opened to the world by the Gospel (2 Tim. i. 9, 10). Whereby it appears that the evangelical doctrine and religion was the most ancient of all that ever were or are; wherefore we say, that all they (the papists] err fonlly, and speak things unworthy the eternal counsel of God, who term the evangelical doctrine and religion a newly concocted faith, scarce thirty years old: to whom that saying of Isaiah does very well agree— Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter'(v. 20).

CHAPTER XIV.—OF REPENTANCE, AND THE CONVERSION OF MAN. The Gospel has the doctrine of repentance joined with it; for so said the Lord in the Gospel, “In my name must repentance and remission of sins be preached among all nations' (Luke xxiv. 47).

By repentance we understand the change of the mind in a sinful man stirred up by the preaching of the Gospel through the Holy Spirit, and received by a true faith: by which a sinful man does acknowledge his natural corruption, and all his sins, seeing them convinced by the Word of God, and is heartily grieved for them; and does not only bewail and freely confess them before God with shame, but also does loathe and abhor them with indignation, thinking seriously of present amendment, and of a continual care of innocency and virtue, wherein to exercise himself holily all the rest of his life.

And surely this is true repentance—namely, an unfeigned turning uuto God and to all goodness, and a serious return from the devil and from all evil. Now we do expressly say, that this repentance is the mere gift of God, and not the work of our own strength. For the apostle directs the faithful minister diligently to 'instruct those who oppose the truth, if so be at any time the Lord may give them repentance, that they may acknowledge the truth' (2 Tim. ii. 25). Also the sinful woman in the Gospel, who washed Christ's feet with her tears; and Peter, who bitterly wept and bewailed his denial of his Master—do manifestly show what mind the penitent man should have, to wit, very earnestly lamenting his sins committed. Moreover, the prodigal son, and the publican in the Gospel, that is compared with the Pharisee, do set forth unto us a most fit pattern of confessing our sins to God. The prodigal son said, 'Father, I have sinned against heaven, and against thee: I am not worthy to be called thy son; make me as one of thy hired servants? (Luke xv. 18, 19). The publican, also, not daring to lift up his eyes to heaven, but smiting his breast, cried, "God be merciful unto me a sinner' (Luke xviii. 13). And we doubt not but the Lord received them to mercy. For John the apostle says, “If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and purge us from all iniquity. If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us’ (1 John i. 9, 10).

We believe that this sincere confession, which is made to God alone, either privately between God and the sinner, or openly in the church, where that general confession of sins is rehearsed, is sufficient; and that it is not necessary for the obtaining of remission of sins that any man should confess his sins nnto the priest, whispering them into his ears, that, the priest laying his hands on his head, he might receive absolution: because we find no commandment nor example thereof in the Holy Scripture. David protests and says, 'I made my fault known to thee, and my unrighteousness did I not hide from thee. I said, I will confess my wickedness to the Lord against myself, and thou hast forgiven the heinousness of my sin' (Psa. xxxii. 5). Yea, and the Lord, teaching us to pray, and also to confess our sins, said, 'So shall ye pray: Our Father which art in heaven, forgive us our debts, even as

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