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cred or carried off; and it was feared that the friendly Lenni Lenapé would be compelled to join the great confederacy of their tribes. In this event, the forests of Pennsylvania would afford no protection to the unarmed towns and villages scattered over the country; and devoted as he was to peace, Penn saw the folly of maintaining a passive attitude under a tomahawk and a scalping-knife. He promised the Council that as early as convenient he would repair to the colony in person; and in the meantime he undertook to supply money and men for the general defence. Markham was a soldier; there were men in the province who felt no scruple at bearing arms; and Penn had little fear of raising any contingent that the crown might fix. In case he met with opposition from the Assembly, he stipulated that he would then surrender the direction of affairs entirely to the King.

On the ninth of August, 1694–thirty months after the appointment of Colonel Fletcher-an Order in Council was made, restoring Penn to his government, revoking the military commission, and appointing eighty men and their complete equipment and charges as the contingent of Pennsylvania, to be maintained on either the frontiers or at New York, so long as war should last.

LAND OF PROMISE (1694–99).

With Guli dead and Springett dying, Penn was not in case to go in person to Philadelphia, and he therefore sent out a new commission to Colonel Markham as his deputy-governor. King William gave his sanction to this act.

Six years elapsed after the restitution of his charter ere he could set his foot again in the Promised Land. Two years he acted as a nurse to his dying boy; his almost constant companion by day and night. Everything that tender nurture, parental watchfulness, and medical skill, could do for him, was done. In spite of all, the youth grew worse and worse;—and fell asleep in his father's arms on the 2nd of April, 1696, in the twenty-first year of his age. Penn's other children still living - Mary and Hannah having died in infancy-were Letitia and William; the latter now his heir, and, as it seemed, the future lord proprietor of Pennsylvania. Springett had the virtues as well as the names of his joint ancestry; to his father's strong sense of political liberty, his fervour and devotion to a great cause, he added the grace and gentleness of his mother and grandmother. Of all the young people about her in her old age, he had been the favourite of Lady Springett; and it was for his use and instruction that she committed the memoirs of her early life to writing. But the younger boy was like his grandfather the Admiral; bold and self-willed ; quick in quarrel; full of pride and worldly ambition; sensuous in his tastes and scornful in his words. Yet he, too, had fine qualities :-he was generous even to a fault; he had a keen sense of honour; he had a turn and capacity for business; and he had in a high degree the courage of his race. From an early period he had shown dislike of the simple routine of his father's house; and sought in the world illicit pleasures which he could not find at home. Wild blood came out. He would have liked the old romps of his grandmother, Lady Penn, at the Navy Gardens, and would have joined with pleasure in the Admiral's suppers at the Three Cranes. With anxious feeling Penn looked forward to the day when he might have to yield the government of his colony to this rash and jovial youth.

Penn meant to settle in America, among the people he had planted in the Promised Land. To this end he must have a mother to his children and a keeper to his house. He fixed his eyes on Hannah, daughter of Thomas Callowhill of Bristol, a lady he had known for many years. Hannah accepted him with the understanding that their future home was to be at Pennsbury on the Delaware; and they were married in the city of Bristol in January, 1696. She was a woman of spirit, and made him an admirable manager and wife. They had issue, four sons-Dennis, Richard, Thomas, and John-and two daughters-Margaret and Hannah, the latter of whom died in infancy. It is from Thomas Penn that the present representatives of Penn descend.

With the peace of Ryswick the war ceased in America. As Markham discharged his function of lieutenant-governor with vigour, wisdom, and success, Penn lived in England with his young wife and her young children, varying the routine of his life by making religious tours and writing various works. His daughter Lettie, now growing up to

womanhood, was not inclined to go; nor was Hannah in a hurry to depart. The news which came with every post from the seat of government were not of a nature to overcome their feminine objections. Colonel Quarry, a revenue-officer, sent out to America by the crown, and a party to the policy of turning the proprietorial into imperial colonies, found out and courted every person of influence in the colony who fancied he had grievances; and of the information procured from these sources he made the most adroit and malicious use in his correspondence with the Board of Trade. He kept up intimate relations with the leaders of opposition, and by his rank and office gave importance to the local discontent.

When Sydney had counselled Penn to leave all power under his Charter of Liberties in the people's hands,-eyen power to resist the Governor and annul the Constitution,-he had himself but just returned from exile, and was suffering from the spite and jealousy of a court. Neither Penn nor Sydney had foreseen that, under the form in which they were about to try their great Experiment, two powers would be in presence,-probably in conflict. Republican as it was, the Charter had a foreign element in its author. Towards the settlers in his province, Penn was a feudal lord :the soil and government were his. Though he had given up many of his rights, enough remained to create strife and bitterness. It was sufficient that he traced his rights to an alien source, to rouse a settler's discontent. The settlers had acquired too much to be satisfied with less than all. Penn's difficulty existed in the nature of things. He had to govern a free people by hereditary right. The Assembly never could forget he was their master. Though he stood between them and the iron rule at home, his life was one great struggle with settlers who withheld his dues—who disobeyed his orders—who invaded and annulled his rights. A democratic party rose, which led him into trouble in the colony, and even joined his English enemies in their efforts to procure a forfeiture of his grant. Though Fletcher's government was more galling to them than the proprietor's, yet to him they passed and paid a war-tax. A salary they would not grant; and the crown was compelled to allow its servant half this war-tax for his personal use. No governor, from first to last, could work with the Assembly :-nor did the constitution of Pennsylvania get into a state of free action till the feudal element was cast away.

During this interval, Penn became acquainted with the young Czar, Peter of Russia, then working in the dockyard at Deptford as a carpenter and ship-builder. With that passion for converting great people which led their brethren to Rome, to Adrianople, and to Versailles, in search of royal proselytes, Thomas Story and another Friend, hearing that the ruler of Muscovy was at Deptford, went to him for the purpose of delivering the new gospel. Peter knew no Latin; they were ignorant of German; it was impossible to converse without an interpreter. The Friends were charmed with their reception, and immediately reported to Penn who spoke High German, that a field was opening in the imperial mind. Penn went down to York Buildings, where the Czar resided, with Prince Menzikoff, and there he saw the object of his visit. As a man who had lived in courts and seen the world, -as the son also of a famous admiral,- Penn got on much better with Peter than the simple-hearted Story. With the practical turn which distinguished him, Peter

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