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negotiation, on giving up the best half of the estate to the agents of the old proprietor, which was henceforth known as the province of East New Jersey ,—that retained by the Quakers being called from its geographical position West New Jersey. By these two names the provinces were known for many years. · Left free to act, the trustees began their operations by dividing the land into a hundred lots, ten of which were made over to John Fenwick in satisfaction of his claims. The other ninety lots were put up for sale, and the creditors being satisfied, Penn got power to carry out his own ideas in the work of settling a fundamental pact. As yet the mind of the legislator was itself in ferment. Harrington and the classic republicans still exercised a powerful influence over him; and it was not till some years later that his genius-aided by Algernon Sydney-found its highest expression in the laws and charters of the state which bears his name.
An outline of the new constitution for West New Jersey may be given in a few words :—the rights of free worship were secured-the legislative power was given in a great measure to the people-representatives were to be elected, not in the old way of acclamation, but by the ballot-boxevery man of mature age and free from crime was an elector and was eligible for electionthe executive power was vested in ten commissioners, to be appointed by the general assembly—the office of interpreting the law and pronouncing verdicts was confided to the juries, as Penn contended was the case in England by the ancient charters-and the judges, elected for two years, sat in the courts simply to assist the juries in arriving at a correct decision-the state was made to charge itself with
the education of all orphan children-no man was to be shut up in prison for debt. By these provisions and the laws which were to follow, Penn believed he was laying a foundation for those who came after him to understand their liberties as Christians and as men.
While he was toiling at the grounds of his Holy Experiment, Penn had the happiness to become a father. Guli bore him a son, whom Penn called Springett, after her heroic sire. As he was now a family man, he thought it right to have a house of his own, besides Shangarry Castle in county Cork; and after looking through the lovely southern shires, he fixed on Worminghurst in Sussex; as a high and healthy spot, seven miles from Shoreham, with noble timber in the park, and air kept fresh by breezes from the sea. For this esstate he paid four thousand five hundred pounds; and got a bargain in it, since the surplus wood was worth, as he supposed, two thousand pounds. Sydney had a place in the neighbourhood. On this noble Sussex down Penn nursed his first-born son, and perfected his frame of government for a Free State.
When this document was finished, the trustees met and resolved on its publication in the shape of a letter, which they signed. A brief description of the soil, air, climate, natural productions, and other features of West New Jersey followed ; and it is characteristic of Penn that he added a cautionary postscript to his countrymen against indulging without sufficient cause, in the thought of seeking for a new home-of leaving their native land either out of curiosity, from a love of change, or in the spirit of gain. Yet Worminghurst was soon besieged with applications for plots of land in the Free State. Two companies were formed to
establish trade and promote emigration, one in Yorkshire, and one in Middlesex. The members of the Yorkshire company were chiefly creditors of Billing; as a set-off to their claims they received from the trustees ten of the original hundred parts of land. By cancelling these debts the property was freed.
The purchasers of land at once made preparations for the voyage. Before there was yet a people in West New Jersey, Penn found it desirable to have an authority, legally constituted, to conduct the enterprise; and with this view he proposed to institute a provisional government-himself selecting some of its members, Fenwick's party and the two companies nominating the other members. Thomas Olive and Daniel Wills were appointed to act as commissioners by the London company; Joseph Helmsly and Robert Stacey by the Yorkshire proprietors; Richard Guy was named on behalf of the former emigrants; and to these were added Benjamin Scott, John Kinsey, and three others. These ten persons were to exercise the powers of the ten commissioners mentioned in the fundamental laws until such time as a popular government, chosen in a legal and orderly way, could be organised, on which their functions were to cease.
Penn organised the emigration, and engaged the good ship Kent, Gregory Marlow, master, to carry out the commissioners, their families and tenants, to the number of two hundred and thirty persons. The vessel was moored high up in the Thames; at the hour fixed for her departure the emigrants went on board accompanied by their friends; and the master was just on the point of weighing anchor, amid the tears and embraces of relatives about to part for ever, when a light and
gilded barge was seen to be gliding over the smooth waters towards them. Something in the appearance of the Kent had caught the attention of its occupants, for the boatmen, now seen to be attired in the royal livery, used their oars as if they had been ordered to come alongside. It was the King. He asked the name of the ship and whither it was bound. Being answered, he inquired if the emigrants were all Quakers, to which they answered Yes; on which he gave them his blessing, and pulled away.
Two other vessels followed the Kent; one of them sailed from Hull with a body of emigrants from Yorkshire, the other from London freighted with a hundred and fourteen persons from the southern counties. When the new-comers arrived at their destination, Andros, governor of New York, claimed jurisdiction over them and their territory, justifying his claim by reference to the feudal law and the colonial charter; but both parties fortunately were moderate in their tone, and while the question of rights was referred to the mother country, the Quakers entered into treaties with the natives for the purchase of land, and under a sail-cloth, set up in the forest of Burlington, began to assemble for public worship. The native tribes came from their hunting-grounds to confer with these peaceful strangers, who carried purses in their hands to pay for what they required, instead of muskets to seize on it by force. “You are our brothers,' said the Sachem chiefs, after hearing their proposals, “and we will live like brothers with you. We will have a broad path for you and us to walk in. If an Englishman falls asleep in this path, the Indian shall pass bim by and say-He is an Englishman; he is asleep; let him alone. The path shall be plain. There shall not be in it a stump to hurt the feet. Commenced under such auspices, West New Jersey prospered. Land was sold and cleared. The Sachems kept the peace. The population multiplied. Some letters written by the leaders of their party in England to these happy colonists are still extant; from these it would be inferred that in a very few years West New Jersey had become a new Arcadia—that the Holy Experiment was a safe success—that Penn had realised the State which Sydney had conceived and Harrington had dreamed.