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dependent upon the multiplication, stone can be easily cut, and takes a and consequent wide dispersion, of good polish. These stones may thus copies in particular. We, therefore, be compared to the copper plates, or in order to facilitate the improve. wooden blocks, for which they are, ment to which we have alluded, feel indeed, substituted. They ought to great pleasure in inserting the fol. be from two inches to two inches lowing account of the elementary and a half thick, and of a size proprinciples of the art of printing with portioned to that of the work which stone, in order to introduce, or super- it is meant to engrave upon them. induce, disquisition, which, in the When the stone is dried and well efforts of ingenuity, has been deem- polished, the next operation is, to ed the portal that leads to perfec- draw the design, notes, or letters, tion.
that are intended to be printed upon
it with a pencil, and afterwards re. Tge art of printing from stone, trace the pencil marks with an ink originally discovered in Germany, made of the solution of gum lac, in about nine years ago, and which has pot-ash, coloured with lamp-black, since been successfully practised in produced from burning wax. In Italy and France, appears till lately about two hours, the letters, or muto have been but little used, or even sical notes, impregnated with the known, in this country, though me. ink, will be dry, when there is pas. riting, from its simplicity, its expe. sed over them nitrick acid (aqua for. dition, and its economy, to rank tis] more or less diluted, according ligh among modern discoveries, to the relief or hollow which it is de. and offering some real and impor- sired to form upon the stone. The acid tant advantage to the arts. Its in- attacking all parts of the stone, but ventor was, as already stated, Aloys those which have been impregnated Senefelder, a native of Prague, in with the resinous ink only, the notes Bohemia, who first obtained, in or drawing remain untouched. The 1801, an exclusive privilege for the slab of marble is then washed with exercise of it from the then elector of clean water, and a printer's ball is Bavaria: and, in 1803, a like privi. charged with an ink analagous to lege from the emperour of Germany. that used in other kinds of printing, Senefelder, in consequence, esta and being pressed by the hand only, blished stone printing houses at Mu. the letters or notes take the ink nich and at Vienna: and, under his from the ball, so that they are found directions, similar establishments to be properly coloured. After this, have been formed in France and a sheet of paper being put in a Italy. It is at Munich, however, that frame, the latter is lowered, and an the art has been brought to the impression is obtained by a brass greatest perfection.
cylinder being passed over the paThere are three different methods per; or a copper plate press may be of printing with stone, namely, the used. At each proof it is necessary method in relief (most generally to wash the plate with water. When used) and particularly adapted for the intended number of copies are musick; the hollow method, prefe- printed, and there is no further use sable for engravings; and the flat for the work, the stone is polished method, which is neither hollow nor again; and thus the same slab will, in relief, but which is very useful according to its thickness, serve for for the imitation of chalk and other thirty or forty different works. . drawings. To print or engrave ac. The hollow method does not difcording to this process, a slab offer greatly from the method in reinverrated marble, or any other cal- lief, except that the nitrick acid is careous stone, is used, provided the made to act stronger upon the stone, so that the letters are more relieved, the same space of time, two thous and the stone itself much hollower: sand impressions. An engraved cop. stronger and heavier rollers are like- per plate will seldom yield 1000 im. wise requisite.
pressions; but the stone slab will The fiat method requires less ni. yield several thousand, and the last trick acid than either of the other will be every whit as good as the two; and great care must be taken, first. It has been tried in the stone. that the stone prepared for this pur- printing office at Vienna to take off pose is quite flat.
thirty-thousand impressions of the The kinds of work that are engra- same design; and even then the last ved on stone are the following: imi- impression was nearly as handsome tations of wood cuts, imitations of as the first. * They have even car. the dot manner, drawings, musical ried this number of copies to a works, all kinds of writing, geogra- greater extent in printing bank phical maps, and engravings in notes.t The most industrious and mezzotinto.
most skilful engraver of musick can The advantages resulting from hardly engrave four pages of musick the manner of printing or engraving, on pewter in a day, while the endescribed above, are, that it has a graver on stone may engrave twice peculiar character, which cannot be as many in the same time. Every imitated by the other methods of kind of work which artists engrave printing, and that it can easily imi. upon copper or pewter, and which tate any of the former. But its the printer executes with movable greatest advantage is, the quickness types, may also be performed by with which it may be performed. A using stone. Our limits will not design which an artist could not fi permit us to enter into all the de. nish upon copper in the space of five tails of the cost of this method of or six days, may be engraved upon printing; but experience has shown, stone in one or two. While the cope that it may be performed with a sa. per plate printer draws off six or ving of one third of the expense, inseven hundred impressions, the comparison of the printing upon printer from stone, can take off, in copper or pewter. I
PRESENTIMENT OF DANGER AND DEATH. AT the siege of the Havanna, people was effected every midnight, in 1762, the Namur and Valiant to save from the observation of the took it day and day about to fight a Spanish garrison one party's apsap battery; and the relief of the proach and the other's retreat. We
If this art could be in some degree refined, and its productions adapted to periodi. cal publications, for instance, its explanatory advantages must be incalculable.
† The facility of printing these in this country, we are of opinion, need not be increased.
# Contemplating the rise of engraving, and particularly adverting to the wood-cuts of Albert Durer (who was the first that practised the art in that manner) which we erst have frequently considered with attention, as we have those of M. Antonio, we cannot help congratulating this age upon the very great improvement that has been made in the art of engraving upon wood. The two celebrated artists whom we bave mentioned, though correct, perhaps too correct, in their outlines and their muscular delineations, are, in their general designs, stiff, barsh, and tasteless; which leads us to observe, that the wood cuts that embellish the works of modern times, the Life of Leo X. for instance, exbibit such traits of improvement, indeed of excellence, that we are induced to hope stone engraving, which, as we have said, seems to promise still greater advantages, will be as sedulously pursued.
had marched forty in number, a lieu amongst these, Moor, being the fore. tenant leading, and myself (a mid. most upon his legs, was the first shipman 7 bringing up the rear, to re- person killed. From whence had lieve the Valiant's, when Moor, one of Moor this fore-knowledge? He quotour men made frequent calls to stop; ed no dream. In 1778, to come these at last became quite frivolous, nearer the recollection of survivors, and my distance had got so long at the taking of Pondicherry, capfrom the lieutenant, that the party tain John Fletcher, captain Demor. was halted to close the line. In the gan, and lieutenant Bosanquet, each interim, Moor fairly owned he had distinctly foretold his own death on DO stomach for the battery that the morning of their fates. right, knowing he should be killed. L'Oriflame, a well appointed 40 Our officer, a hard-headed Scotch- gun French ship, had been taken by man. steady and regular as old time, our Isis of 50. Captain Wheeler, began sharp upon me: my excuse immediately prior to close action, was the man's tardiness, and I re sent for Mr. Deans, surgeon of the ported his words. “ Killed, indeed, Isis, and intrusted him in certain par. and cheat the sheriff of his thir. ticular injunctions about family conteener and a baubee ! No, no, Pad. cerns. The doctor attempted to par. dy: trust to fate and the family ho- ry funeral ideas, but was bluntly nour of the O Moors for all that. told: “ I know full well this day's Come, sir, bring him along: point work: Cunningham will soon be your sword in his stern.post.” Moor, your commander. All the great cir. of course, made no reply, but under cumstances of my life have been a visible corporeal effort and a rou- shown in dreams: my last hour is sed indignation, stepped into the now come.” He was killed early in line: our whole party moved on the fight; and lieutenant CunningNow this Moor was seldom out of ham managed so well in the dea quarrel on board ship, and having volved command, that admiral Saunsome knowledge of the fistycuffs. ders made him a post captain into art, he reigned pretty much as cock L'Oriflame in Gibraltar bay. This of the walk on the lower gun-deck. fore-knowledge of things at hand is When we had relieved the battery, a subject many profess themselves and the Valiant had gone silently off, positive about their 'strong arguall the guns were manned. There ment is experience, and all who remained on the parapet only one have not been so favoured, may reaheavy piece of ordnance, and our sonably enough doubt, stopping short very first discharge dismounted it. of contradiction. Certain instances Elated with that success, up jumped then afloat in the navy, I may take all hands upon the platform, and the liberty to produce, anticipating, gave three cheers, when a little de. however, an adventure of some such vil of a gun took us in a line, and kind, never in my power to comknocked down five men. Sure enough prehend.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR-Permit me to relate an anec. Some years ago, having occasion dote of one of the brute species, to reside for some time at a farm. which, perhaps, would never have house in the country, I was much appeared before the publick, had alarmed, one morning, by the unu. not the relation of one partly similar, sual bellowing of a cow under the in the present work, revived the cir- window of the apartment wherein I cumstance in my memory.
was sitting. Looking out I perceived VOL. y.
her to be one belonging to a herd, dates for precedence, before the which I previously understood were business can be amicably adjusted; enclosed in a field near a mile dis. for it is very observable, they always tant. Alarmed at her appearance I walk in lineal procession, preceded went out in order to take her back; by a chieftain, or leader, which is but as soon as I left the house, she unanimously acknowledged by the ran before me apparently in the whole herd. The rest follow in order, greatest concern, frequently looking according to their contested deci. back to see if I was following. In sions, each being most tenacious of this manner she continued across her allotted station; which did not several fields till she brought me escape that accurate delineator of to the brink of a deep and danger. nature, Bloomfield, who, in his bus morass; where, to my great «Farmer's Boy," makes the followsurprise, I beheld one of her asso- ing beautiful allusion: ciates nearly enveloped in the swamp “The right of conquest all the law they underneath. The distressed animal, know: after much difficulty, was extricated Subordinate, they one by one succeed; from its perilous situation to the no And one among them always takes the small satisfaction of the other, which
lead: seemed to caress and lick it, as if it
:: Is ever foremost, wheresoe'er they stray,
Allowed precedence undisputed sway; had been one of her own offspring. With jealous pride her station is main. Every observer of the animal cre.
tained, tion must be aware, what a regular for many a broil that post of honour degree of subordination exists a gained." mong herds of cattle that have been But a tacit responsibility seems to long accustomed to ruminate to. devolve on their leader, for the care gether. The instinct of the cow, in and welfare of the wbole, which has this respect, is by no means the been fully exemplified in the preceleast predominant. When a farmer, ing anecdote: the concerned cow makes his first selection, he, of being the premier of the herd. course, bas a great variety of the To account for this wonderful same species, and (if we may pre- degree of instinct, in this part of the sume to judge from analogy) endued animal species, is beyond my pene. with a diversity of dispositions; tration; I leave the subject for hence, for some time it is entertaine matured philosophy to investigate. ing to behold the many disputed
Your's, &c. points that arise among the candi
ON THE UTILITY OF COAL GAS LIGHT. THE following details, relative to Balton and Watt, was fitted up at An. the coal gas light, one of the great- derston the latter end of the summer est improvements of which modern of 1809, and Mr. Gillespie's works times can boast, are taken from an were illuminated in this manner at interesting Memoir read before the the beginning of November. Since Philosophical Society of Glasgow, that time some great improvements by Mr. Richard Gillespie, by whose have been made and the whole now publick spirit, and at whose works, constitutes a very pleasing exhibithis great experiment of perma- tion. Two iron retorts, of a seminently lighting an extensive manu. cylindrical form; each capable of con. factory by gas, was first undertaken taining about one cwt. of coal, yield in Scotland. The apparatus, made by at every charge 750 cubick feet of gas, which, after being washed, so any particular flame may be kindled is to deprive it of any disagreeable immediately, and no trimming or smell, is conducted into a large snuffing is required; neither are any cubical plate-iron gasometer, of a sparks thrown off, as from a burning Capacity equal to 1120 cubick feet. wick: 1 1-3 cubick feet of gas yield The gas evolved by the regular the same quantity of light as a process of carbonization, during the moulded candle of six in the pound, day, is here stored up for use. From which is found, on the average, to this magazine, which floats in a last 2 1-2 hours. The contents of water cistern, a main pipe issues, the gasometer are, therefore, equal which afterwards branches into in. to 900 such candles. To fill it re. numerable ramifications, some of quires three cwt. of coals, value at them extending several hundred 6d. each cwt. 18 6d. coal for heatfeet under ground; thence to emerge ing the retorts during the composidiffusing over a multitude of apart. tion, 1s. Hence, for 28. 6d. a quantity ments a kind of artificial day: so of light is procurable from coal gas, vivid is the illumination. The flame, which obtained from candles would however, though exceedingly bright, cost about 102. But from the above is very soft and steady, and free from charge for coal, we must deduct that dazzling glare which has been the whole expense of what goes into so greatly complained of in the other the retort, for this acquires additional wise beautiful light of the Argand value by being charred; and is lamps. No trouble attends this mode eagerly bought up by the ironof illumination; the occasional at- founders. A large quantity of tar is tendance of one man in the gas- also obtained in the condensing pit, house, to charge the retorts, and as well as ammoniacal liquor, from mend the fire, being all that is ne. both of which considerable returas cessary. On turning a stop-cock, may be reasonably expected.
PRESERVATIVE PLASTER PARIS. A report has been made to the A committee has been busily em.. French National Institute, on a me, ployed in examining a process of moir by M. Tarry, relative to the the late M. Bachelier, for the comcomposition of writing ink. The position of a PRESERVATIVE PLASauthor has succeeded in making an TER OF PARIS. Houses built of INK which cannot be destroyed by stone, are quickly covered with an the acids or alkalies, and which has earthy coating, of a dirty gray coonly the slight inconvenience of al- lour; and this first change is the lowing its colouring matter to be cause of the deterioration which deposited rather too easily. “The they soon afterwards undergo. A discovery of M. Tarry," says the small kind of spider fixes his web reporter, « promises a great benefit in the hollows on the surface of the to society; viz. the introduction of an stone. These webs accumulate, and, ink, which, not being susceptible of with the dust which they collect, being obliterated by the chymical form the earthy crust just mentionagents at present known, will put an ed, in which lichens sometimes tako end to the falsification of writings, root, and which naturally retain a which is but too common."
constant humidity at the surface of