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his follies, he was ever ready to ex to his vicws; and accordingly, alclaim with Horace:

though both his father and grandfa

ther had been whigs, he acted in Solve senes centcm, mature, sanus equum direct opposition to their system of Peccet ad extremum ridendus, et ilia du- government. In 1704, he was nomiEp. i. v. 8 and 9.

nated a member of the administra

tion, and became intimately connecte In the years 1698 and 1699, Mr. ed with the duke of Marlborough, St. John travelled on the continent, the first general of his age, who was with the view of completing his then at the head of the British ar. education; and in the course of his mies. journey visited both France and Ita « Descended from a noble family, ly. During his youth, he formed an but without being illustrious, and at acquaintance with all the wits of his the same time destitute of fortune, time, particularly Dryden; and we the latter had now attained the highare assured that he not only esteem- est eminence which an individual ed this great poet, but when Wil. could aspire to. A friendship beliain III. deprived him of his pen, tween him and St. John had been sion, he assisted him with his purse originally formed at the little court and credit, and never ceased to give of Anne, while princess of Denmark, him the most convincing proofs of and it is not at all unlikely that the his attachment. Pope, Swift, and credit of Churchill and his wife, other celebrated men of letters, contributed greatly to make him a were afterwards numbered among minister. It may be said of Marlbo. his friends.

rough that he had become a great In the beginning of the year 1700, warriour from instinct alone; for he the relations of Mr. St. John pre- had never either studied his art, or vailed on him to marry Miss Fran- read any of the celebrated treatises ces Winchescomb, a rich heiress, on it. Most assuredly he had never and he was nearly at the same time perused Xenophon, and perhaps ncnominated representative for Wot- ver looked into the narrative of any ton Basset, in Wiltshire, in which modern war; but, during his youth, quality he sat during the fifth par. he had served under Turenne, and liament of William Ill. At this pe was distinguished by his notice.” riod of his life he condemned the On the disgrace of this great treaty for the partition of the Spanish man, Bolingbroke, if he did not take monarchy.

part against his friend, at least sided On the accession of queen Anne, with the court, and became secretathe subject of this memoir began to ry of state for foreign affairs during distinguish himself by his eloquence. the administration of the celebrated Nature had conferred on hini many Harley, earl of Oxford. On this ocof the properties of a great orator, casion, he had not only the manageand as the queen was sensible of his ment of continental business, and of parts she courted his attachment. As all the negotiations for peace, but a proof of the high degree of favour also of the house of commons, of then enjoyed by him, he was one of which his oratory, and still more, his the persons of quality selected soon influence, had rendered him the oraafter by her majesty, to accompany cle. He also was enabled, by means her to Bath.

of Mrs. Mastam, to keep up his inHe now joined that party which tercourse, and increase his favour, was so well known by the appella. with the queen; but a mutual jeation of the tories, the principles of lousy already subsisted between him which, if not correspondent to his

and the first lord of the treasury, character, were at least favourable which it was never in the power of

Dr. Swift, the common friend of that the English had commenced a both, to eradicate; although, per negotiation for peace, than they haps, he might tend to moderate it. themselves wished to renew the con

A pacification was at this period ferences for a treaty; but their mi. the grand object of the new admi- nisters were repulsed, and obliged nistration, and for that purpose they to solicit a. participation in the diimmediately convoked a parliament plomatick engagements of England. more devoted to them, and less at Meanwhile the queen was so well tached to the whigs, than the pre- pleased with the conduct of her mi. ceding one. “ St. John now publickly nisters, that Harley was created an declared, that the glory of taking earl, and nominated first lord of the cities, and gaining battles, ought to treasury, in addition to his former be measured by the degree of utili- office of chancellor of the exchety resulting from these splendid quer. Although St. John had been achievements, which at one and overlooked on this occasion, yet he the same time might reflect ho- determined to press the business of nour on the arms, and shame on

peace, and accordingly sent Prior, the councils, of a nation; that the the poet, once more to the court of wisdom of a government consists Versailles, with a memorial, in which in règulating its projects by its he laid down the principles on interests and its strength, and in which it could alone be obtained. proportioning the means of execu- That gentleman accordingly repairtion to the object which i: proposes, ed to Fontainbleau at the latter end and the vigour it is to display. He of July, 1711, and, having ascertaindeclared that England had lost sighted that Louis XIV. had received of those rules, and that motives of full powers from his grandson, selfishness and ambition had seduced Philip V. returned immediately the grand part of the alliance to with Monsieur Mesnager, to whom depart from the principles which the English secretary for foreign afhad been agreed upon. He added, fairs observed: “ We desire peace, that all ideas of conquering Spain and France stands in need of it; to ought to be renounced and relin- obtain this, all intrigue and finesse quished, as general Stanhope had must be banished. England will not just declared, that the people were either resume or renew the insupso attached to Philip V. and pro- portable pretensions maintained by fessed such a degree of aversion to the Dutch at the former confer. the archduke, that the country might ences, but she expects a reasonable be overrun until the day of judg. compensation for herself on account ment,' without being conquered. of her expenses, and equitable adAs Spain was the object of the war, vantages for her allies; in fine, such and its subversion hopeless, it was, terms as may be required for their therefore, his opinion, that peace own security, and such, indeed, as ought to be instantly thought of." the present situation of affairs enti.

St. John perceiving that the new title them to. parliament was favourable to his A provisional negotiation was the views, sent over the abbé Gaultier consequence; and preliminaries of to Paris in 1711, and by means of peace between England and France his agency, and that of Mr. Prior, were signed soon after, on the part be carried a correspondence of St. John and the earl of Dartwith M. de Torcy, and signified to mouth on one side, and the French the French minister, that England envoy on the other. Next day Mes. would treat independently of, and nager was introduced to the queen, without the concurrence, of Hol- who received him in a private manland.

ner at Windsor. No sooner did the Dutch learn On the 30th of November, the Vol.


2 N

secretary for foreign affairs notified majesty." It is here also stated, that to the different ministers at the her majesty's constitution was racourt of London, that negotiations dically sapped and ruined by the for peace were about to take place use of strong liquors. The editor is at Utrecht; and, notwithstanding the at some pains to insinuate, that her violent opposition that ensued on the majesty did not die a natural death; part of the count de Gallasch, the but for this suspicion there never Austrian minister, and the Baunde was any solid foundation whatsoBothmar, envoy from the court of ever. Hanover; nay, although the duke On the accession of George 1. and dutchess of Marlborongh, with Bolingbroke addressed a letter of all the whigs, together with the congratulation to his majesty; but states general, resolutely opposed instead of being treated the better the measure, yet Anne and her for this mark of respect, his papers ministers, as is well known, suc were sealed up, and he himself ceeded in the project for a peace. taught to expect the utmost severity

The services of St. John upon of royal enmity. The subject of this this occasion were not forgotten memoir, on perceiving ihe storm, and accordingly her majesty, on the retired for awhile into the country; 14th of July, 1712, was pleased to but on receiving secret intelligence create him a peer of England, by from the duke of Marlborough, that the style and title of baron of Ly- it was not in his power to protect dia Fregoze in the county of Wilts, him from the rage of the whigs, and viscount Bolinbroke. This re who had determined to punish him ward was considered as his due, in as the author of the late pacificaconsequence of the basis of a new tion, he determined to fly. His lordpolitical balance established by him ship accordingly embarked privatein Europe, which subsisted during ly at Dover on the 7th of April, a period of about fourscore years; carrying with him property to the and, notwithstanding the frequent amount of about 500,000 francs, wars that intervened, was which was intended to support him wholly changed until the late revo- during his exile. lution.

On his arrival at Paris, the visMeanwhile, a consequence of a count waited on the English ambasvariety of intrigues, the earl of Ox- sadour (the earl of Stair and asford, who is here accused of keep- sured him that he did not intend to ing up a double correspondence enter into any connexion whatsowith the pretender and the house of ever with the jacobites; and he Hanover, at the same time, was wrote several letters to the same about to be disgraced, and his ene- purpose to general Stanhope, then my, Bolingbroke, to be elevated to secretary of state. Soon after this, the highest dignities in the state, his lordship retired to St. Clair, in when Anne died. This princess, ac- Dauphiny; and, during his residence cording to the editor, who obtained there, was accused, together with his information from the late Mrs. the earl of Oxford, of high treason. Mallet, was greatly beloved by Bo- The latter was accordingly sent to lingbroke, who exclaimed in her the tower; while against the forpresence: “ That the unfortunate mer, a bill of attainder was carried. queen was a model of all the vir

The tories in England, greatly tues; that the unhappy house of Stu- displeased at the conduct of the art had never produced a better so- whigs, who, in their turn, consider. vereign; and that no princess ever ed them all as suspected, now sent deserved so little to be cruelly be an agent to the continent, who had trayed, as was the case with her late an interview with the pretender at


Commerci, whence he repaired to that the prince just alluded to, had St. Clair, with a letter signed James neither plans nor views, and that the III. containing an invitation to Bo- tories themselves did not seem to lingbroke to assist at his councils. act with more sagacity. He also This once more awakened the am- perceived, too, that although the bition of the viscount, who set out pretender lived in daily expectafor Commerci, although in a bad tion of repairing either to England state of health, and thus threw an or Scotland, yet efficacious means air of duplicity over his character, had not as yet been taken for the from which, notwithstanding his countenance and support of France, 'splendid talents, it could never after without the aid of which, in respect entirely recover.

both to arms and money, all his fu“ He was convinced,” we ture enterprises must prove protold, “ soon after his first interview, blematicaj.





Of rags and rusty iron, a monstrous load,

And eke a beggar's brat on either side, ON THE AMELIORATION OF THE

Forth from a greasy bag their long SPECIES.

necks throwing, [By Dr. Trotter.]

Just like two well-fed geese to marPOOR ass! it joys me much to see thee

ket going; glad,

Gabbling and gulping down from And with that saddle new upon thy

wooden dish, back;

Sour curds and leeks, or mess of stink. No longer dost thou look demure and sad,

ing fish. For thou hast been of late a fav’rite

Yet meek wert thou beneath the load, hack.

Gentle as when you bore a God, Yet humbly still thou tread'st the

While all around Hosannas loud did ring, ground,

And bade the impious Jews behold their Thy modest front with riband bound,

Shaking thy silver bit along:

But įthough despised of man, and mocked Smooth is thy hide as any down,

to scorn, Not cudgeled now by lusty clown,

Just like thy master, he of Bethlehem Or by a dusky tinker's thong.

born. 'oor brute ! so lately doomed to fag, Still bounteous Nature had a mind,

To toil and sweat from day to day; Thy fortune was not all unkind, 'hy life near Famine's hut to drag, Some cause you had to be content. On stones thy wearied trunk to lay. Thou ne'er hast heard the din of arms,

What lucky star has changed thy lot? Thy breast no trumpet's sound alarms, Are all those rugged times forgot? A peaceful drudge thy days were spent. From misery's rub!

Go weigh the charger's fate with tbine, Nor trudging down the dusty street, Drest and caparisoned so fine; Nibbling each dirty weed you meet, Now to martial musick dancing, In pools or dub.

Snorting, rearing, bounding, prancing,

Now the field of glory treading, have I met thee waddling on the road, Lame and legless, fainting, bleeding: lending beneath thy panniers, stuffed Ah! I have seen him horn beyond tlie and tied,


the wave,

an ass.

ger flew;

in store,

Each toil forgotten and each danger Nor glory seek beside the slaughtered braved,

horse. On foreign shores by free-born Britons slain,

But while I hail thee on this glad promo. Starved and destroyed by those his va tion, lour saved.

Still let me just advise thee as a friend; Yes, where yon towering cape divides Perhaps you donkies have not learn'd the

notion, Where bled the noblest host of loyal That happy hours and flowering seasons Gauls,

end, And where yon tides two humbler islands We mortals find while skies are smil. lave,

ing, Inglorious there, the English charger Some sullen cloud our hopes beguil. falls.

ing; Then curse with me this age of steel, Above our heads the thunders burst, Till W-'s heart shall own and

That lay us level with the dust. feel;

What if they tax thy bit and saddle, And should one sigh his bosom pass, Thou must again with beggars wad. Go thank thy stars that thou wert doomed dle;

Be beat till every rib is sore,

And beg thy scrip from door to door. Once I beheld thee by the stable door, Alas! thon oft mayest want a bit of grass,

And down thy face the showers of hun. Nor pity find from any human ass. While the stalled horse had oats and hay Yes, trust me, I delight to see thee gay,

And lovely Laura seated on thy back! A thistle's top was all thou hadst to

She, like the forest's queen in flowery May, chew.

The envy thou of every other back. Harsh was the bite, the prickles sting

And while you pace to Laura's song, ing,

Or drag your little car along,
The blood at every gnash was spring

May fear and shame o'erspread the

face, ing; There thou like Laz'rus, he like Dives

That dares t'insult thy honest race: stood

Erskine himself shall nobly rise,
Cramming his pampered maw with

Again a listening senate charm,
dainty food.

Teach mankind how to sympathize,

And half creation's wrath disarm:t But cease thou gentle ass to fret and whine, Thou too shalt rise in being's scale, Nor envious be to view the well-fed And pity for the ass o'er all the world steed;

prevail. Though grooms attend him clad in liväries fine,

RETROSPECTION. And man records with pride his noble [From Elton's Tales of Romance.] breed;

IS there who, when long years have past Go turn to Talavera's plain,

away, And see the mighty warriour slain,

Revisits, in his manhood's prime, the spot Covered with dust and blood on life's last brink,

Where strayed his careless boyhood, not in

trance He calls a Spanish ass to bring him drink. Of recollection lost, feels silent joy So Dives laid in hell, 'midst torments dire,

Flow in upon his beart? Whatever cares Cried: “Water, Laz’rus, for I burn with The gale upon his cheek, that whispering

Enthral bis weary spirit, let him feel fire !" Then tell thy kind, their case might still the well-known tuft of trees, and dimples be worse,



• A short time after the massacre of the army of French loyalists at cape Quiberon, in 1795, a body of cavaly amounting to 1200, were sent out, but with only three months' provender in the transports. Not being able to effect a junction with the roval army, the greater part died of hunger on board: and 300 were carried on shore to the little islands Hedick and Houat, where they were killed oft by musketry.

† Alluding to his bill in the peers, to prevent cruelty to domestick animals.

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