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fellow was more than commonly We afterwards met with his ma. boisterous in his descriptions of the jesty at Oxford, where he recogni. allegories of victory, of prostrate sed us, and we left that city at the nations, &c. &c. exhibited by the same instant, his majesty for Gos. sculptor. But I lost all patience, field, and I, with my family, for Lonwhen, on departing, I saw him hold don. out his hand to the royal party, and On our route, I amused myself receive a fee of a guinea ! On this in projecting a plan for his restorasubject I remonstrated with him tion, which, for the sake of the peace again, but was toid, “ he did not get of Europe, I conceived, and still cona royal customer every day, and in- ceive, may be effected, by his pubstead of not paying at all, he thought lickly announcing to the French they ought to pay better than other people

1. A general amnesty. The profile of Louis XVIII. is 2. Property to remain as it is, or exactly that of the unhappy Louis as a life interest in the occupier; XVI. and I do not doubt but his and in disputable cases, to be referwhole contour is very like that of able to arbitration his brother. He is very fat; and wad. 3. Military, and other promotions dles or rolls ungracefully in his and preferments, to be respected se walk. He has a piercing black eye, far as regards rank and pay. and takes a great deal of snuff, his 4. A solemn pledge to be made to face and clothes being discoloured establish a constitution, in spirit like by it. Habitual good temper appears that of England, and to govern acto be the prevailing quality of his cording to laws made by a free lemind, and he bears no outward sign gislature. of anxiety to recover the fortunes of 5. The limits of France to be the his family. If he is not too easy, and great rivers and chains of mountains. too likely to be misled by favourites, 6. Equitable indemnities to fami. I should think him the very man un lies who have lost their estates or der whom a people might live hap- preferments. py under their laws, without distur. 7. Toleration in matters of reli. bance from his ill humour or ambi. gion. tion.

8. General risings to take place in short, Louis XVIII. carries in on fixed days. his appearance so much of the well Perhaps, however, such an extince fed citizen, or easy country gentle. tion of prejudices is expecting too man, that one of my sons, a little much of human nature; and Louis boy of seven years of age, who had and his courtiers may probably been used to see pictures of kings prefer exile, the spirit of revenge, with crowns on their heads, and ge- and the hopes of arbitrary power, to nerally dressed in armour, could a kingdom, with forgiveness of inju. with difficulty be persuaded that that ries, and concessions of civil liberty gentleman was a king; and he some to the people, times amuses us by stalking or waddling across the room, and exclaim

COMMON SENSE ing: “ I am a king!"


'Essai Historique sur Henri Saint John, &c.”-A Historical Essay relative to Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke. Imported by J. De Boffe, French bookseller, Nasa sau street, Soho.

IN a former article we gave the shire for the county of Wilts, an account of the lettres, histo- during the reigns of Charles II. riques, politiques, philosophiques, James II. and William III. He died &c. of this celebrated man. We seize at Battersea, near London, July 3, the present opportunity to complete 1708, at the age of eighty seven, our labours, by means of a life of one and was a man of considerable taof the most extraordinary men that lents. His son Henry, who also posEngland has ever produced.

sessed the reputation of abilities, The family of St. John, or more espoused lady Mary, daughter of properly speaking, St. Jean, was of Robert Rich, earl of Warwick. great antiquity in the dutchy of Nor. They had several children, the eldest mandy. One of its members occupie of whom, and the subject of the preed an employment of trust and con- sent memoir, was born* 1672, and sequence in the army of the con called Henry, after his father. Young queror, and distinguished himself St. John was at first educated under greatly during the battle of Hastings, the eyes of his parents, who afterwhich was fought on the 14th of wards sent him to Eton and Oxford, October, 1066, and in consequence in succession. He distinguished himof the events of that day, William self while there, we are told, by 1. was placed on the throne of En- great sagacity in point of undergland. Lands were bestowed by the standing, as well as by the astonish. victor on all his followers; and St. ing facility with which he learned John received such a portion, as is every thing. His memory was prosupposed, to have enabled him lo digious. make good his pretensions to the On his entrance into the world, heiress of the family of Portt, which

ich he rendered himself remarkable by was one of the most affluent, we are his handsome person; a certain notold, then existing in England.

ble and graceful aspect; an extraorTheir descendants formed still more

dinary fund of knowledge, together illustrious alliances; for the mother

with an agreeable mixture of wir of one of them, was also that of Hen

and learning. He also displayed an ry VII. who claimed the crown in

intimate acquaintance with the best virtue of his mother, Margueritte de

Greek and Roman authors, and Beaufort, daughter of John de So

could quote them in such a manner merset, of the house of Lancaster. This princess was daughter, by a

as not to savour of pedantry. Yet

* notwithstanding all these advanta. second marriage, of another Marga.

ges, his family was greatly alarmed ret, who, in consequence of the for

i by his ardent temperament and love mer one, had two sons, who formed

of the fair sex. two separate branches, the St. Johns of Bletsoe, and Tregoze.

But his attachment to his pleaWalter St. John, the grandfather sures never stified in him the love of the viscount, and descended from of literature, and a certain passion the latter of these, sat as knight of for publick affairs. In the midst of

• “On ignore même en Angleterre, le date precise de la naissance du lord Bo Timgbroke."


his follies, he was ever ready to ex. to his views; and accordingly, al- . claim with Horace:

though both his father and grandfa

ther had been whigs, he acted in Solve senes centcm, mature, sanus equum direct opposition to their system of Peccet ad extremum ridendus, et ilia du. government. In 1704, he was nomi. cat. El. i. v. 8 and 9. nated a member of the administra

tion, and became intimately connect. In the years 1698 and 1699, Mr. ed with the duke of Marlborough, St. John travelled on the continent, the first general of his age, who was with the view of completing his then at the head of the British areducation; and in the course of his mies. journey visited both France and Ita- “ Descended from a noble family, jy. During his youth, he formed an but without being illustrious, and at acquaintance with all the wits of his the same time destitute of fortune, time, particularly Dryden; and we the latter had now attained the highare assured that he not only esteem. est eminence which an individual ed this great poet, but when Wile could aspire to. A friendship beliain III. deprived him of his pen, tween him and St. John had been sion, he assisted him with his purse originally formed at the little court and credit, and never ceased to give of Anne, while princess of Denmark, him the most convincing proofs of and it is not at all unlikely that the his attachment. Pope, Swift, and credit of Churchill and his wife, other celebrated men of letters, contributed greatly to make him a were afterwards numbered among minister. It may be said of Marlbo. his friends.

rough that he had become a great In the beginning of the year 1700, warriour from instinct alone; for he the relations of Mr. St. John pre- had never either studied his art, or vailed on him to marry Miss Fran- read any of the celebrated treatises ces Winchescomb, a rich heiress, on it. Most assuredly he had never and he was nearly at the same time perused Xenophon, and perhaps nenominated representative for Wot- ver looked into the narrative of any ton Basset, in Wiltshire, in which modern war; but, during his youth, quality he sat during the fifth par. he had served under Turenne, and Jiament of William III. At this pe. was distinguished by his notice.” riod of his life he condemned the On the disgrace of this great treaty for the partition of the Spanish man, Bolingbroke, if he did not take monarchy.

part against his friend, at least sided On the accession of queen Anne, with the court, and became secretathe subject of this memoir began to ry of state for foreign affairs during distinguish himself by his eloquence. the administration of the celebrated Nature had conferred on him many Harley, earl of Oxford. On this ocof the properties of a great orator, casion, he had not only the manageand as the queen was sensible of his ment of continental business, and of parts she courted his attachment. As all the negotiations for peace, but a proof of the high degree of favour also of the house of commons, of then enjoyed by him, he was one of which his oratory, and still more, his the persons of quality selected soon influence, had rendered him the oraafter by her majesty, to accompany cle. He also was enabled, by means her to Bath.

of Mrs. Mastam, to keep up his inHe now joined that party which tercourse, and increase his favour, was so well known by the appella- with the queen; but a mutual jeation of the tories, the principles of lousy already subsisted between him which, if not correspondent to his and the first lord of the treasury, character, were at least favourable which it was never in the power of


Dr. Swift, the common friend of that the English had commenced a both, to eradicate; although, per negotiation for peace, than they haps, he might tend to moderate it. themselves wished to renew the con

A pacification was at this period ferences for a treaty; but their mi. the grand object of the new admi- nisters were repulsed, and obliged nistration, and for that purpose they to solicit a. participation in the diimmediately convoked a parliament plomatick engagements of England. more devoted to them, and less at. Meanwhile the queen was so well tached to the whigs, than the pre- pleased with the conduct of her mi. ceding one.“ St. John now publickly nisters, that Harley was created an declared, that the glory of taking earl, and nominated first lord of the cities, and gaining battles, ought to treasury, in addition to his former be measured by the degree of utili. office of chancellor of the exchety resulting from these splendid quer. Although St. John had been achievements, which at one and overlooked on this occasion, yet he the same time might reflect ho- determined to press the business of nour on the arms, and shame on peace, and accordingly sent Prior, the councils, of a nation; that the the poet, once more to the court of wisdom of a government consists Versailles, with a memorial, in which in regulating its projects by its he laid down the principles on interests and its strength, and in which it could alone be obtained. proportioning the means of execu. That gentleman accordingly repairtion to the object which i: proposes, ed to Fontainbleau at the latter end and the vigour it is to display. He of July, 1711, and, having ascertaine declared that England had lost sighted that Louis XIV. had received of those rules, and that motives of full powers from his grandson, selfishness and ambition had seduced Philip V. returned immediately the grand part of the alliance to with Monsieur Mesnager, to whom depart from the principles which the English secretary for foreign afhad been agreed upon. He added, fairs observed: “ We desire peace, that all ideas of conquering Spain and France stands in need of it; to ought to be renounced and relin- obtain this, all intrigue and finesse quished, as general Stanhope had must be banished. England will not just declared, that the people were either resume or renew the insupso attached to Philip V. and pro. portable pretensions maintained by fessed such a degree of aversion to the Dutch at the former confere the archduke, that the country might ences, but she expects a reasonable be overrun until the day of judy. compensation for herself on account ment,' without being conquered. of her expenses, and equitable adAs Spain was the object of the war, vantages for her allies; in fine, such and its subversion hopeless, it was, terms as may be required for their therefore, his opinion, that peace own security, and such, indeed, as ought to be instantly thought of.” the present situation of affairs enti

St. John perceiving that the new title them to. parliament was favourable to his A provisional negotiation was the views, sent over the abbé Gaultier consequence; and preliminaries of to Paris in 1711, and by means of peace between England and France bis agency, and that of Mr. Prior, were signed soon after, on the part he carried on a correspondence of St. John and the earl of Dartwith M. de Torcy, and signified to mouth on one side, and the French the French minister, that England envoy on the other. Next day Mes. would treat independently of, and nager was introduced to the queen, without the concurrence, of Hol- who received him in a private man: land.

ner at Windsor. No sooner did the Dutch learn On the 30th of November, the

2 N


secretary for foreign affairs notified majesty.” It is here also stated, that. to the different ministers at the her majesty's constitution was racourt of London, that negotiations dically sapped and ruined by the for peace were about to take place use of strong liquors. The editor is at Utrecht; and, notwithstanding the at some pains to insinuate, that her violent opposition that ensued on the majesty did not die a natural death; part of the count de Gallasch, the but for this suspicion there never Austrian minister, and the Baunde was any solid foundation whatsoBothmar, envoy from the court of ever. Hanover; nay, although the duke On the accession of George I. and dutchess of Marlborongh, with Bolingbroke addressed a letter of all the whigs, together with the congratulation to his majesty; but states general, resolutely opposed instead of being treated the better the measure, yet Anne and her for this mark of respect, his papers ministers, as is well known, suc- were sealed up, and he himself ceeded in the project for a peace. taught to expect the utmost severity

The services of St. John upon of royal enmity. The subject of this this occasion were not forgotten memoir, on perceiving the storm, and accordingly her majesty, on the retired for awhile into the country; 14th of July, 1712, was pleased to but on receiving secret intelligence create him a peer of England, by from the duke of Marlborough, that the style and title of baron of Ly. it was not in his power to protect dia Fregoze in the county of Wilts, him from the rage of the whigs, and viscount Bolinbroke. This re- who had determined to punish him ward was considered as his due, in as the author of the late pacificaconsequence of the basis of a new tion, he determined to fly. His lord. political balance established by him ship accordingly embarked private. in Europe, which subsisted during ly at Dover on the 7th of April, a period of about fourscore years; carrying with him property to the and, notwithstanding the frequent amount of about 500,000 francs, wars that intervened, was never which was intended to support him wholly changed until the late revo- during his exile. lution.

On his arrival at Paris, the visMeanwhile, a consequence of a count waited on the English ambasvariety of intrigues, the earl of Ox- sadour (the earl of Stair) and asa ford, who is here accused of keep- sured him that he did not intend to ing up a double correspondence enter into any connexion whatsowith the pretender and the house of ever with the jacobites; and he Hanover, at the same time, was wrote several letters to the same about to be disgraced, and his cne- purpose to general Stanhope, then my, Bolingbroke, to be elevated to secretary of state. Soon after this, the highest dignities in the state, his lordship retired to St. Clair, in when Anne died. This princess, ac. Dauphiny; and, during his residence cording to the editor, who obtained there, was accused, together with his information from the late Mrs. the earl of Oxford, of high treason. Mallet, was greatly beloved by Bo- The latter was accordingly sent to lingbroke, who exclaimed in her the tower; while against the forpresence: “ That the unfortunate mer, a bill of attainder was carried. queen was a model of all the vir. The tories in England, greatly tues; that the unhappy house of Stu- displeased at the conduct of the art had never produced a better so- whigs, who, in their turn, consider. vereign; and that no princess evered them all as suspected, now sent deserved so little to be cruelly be an agent to the continent, who had trayed, as was the case with her late an interview with the pretender at

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