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vomito. Forests of liquid ambár, near Za- merly it surrounded the city, which lapa, announce, by the freshness of their

was approached only by causeways, verdure, that this is the elevation at which constructed in the water. But, at the clouds, suspended over the ocean, come in contact with the basaltick sum: present, the extent of this lake is mits of the Cordillera. A little higher, diminished, and the city is now on near la Banderilla, the nutritive fruit of the land, at some distance from the the banana tree comes no longer to matıl water's edge. The circumference of rity. In this foggy and cold region, there. the valley is 67 leagues. fore, want spurs on the Indian to labour, and excites his industry. At the height of San Miguel, pines begin to mingle with finest cities ever built by Europeans in

“Mexico is undoubtedly one of the the oaks, which are found by the traveller as high as the elevated plains of Perote,

either hemisphere. With the exception of fields sown with wheat

. Eight hundred does not exist a city of the same extent, where he beholds the delightful aspect of Petersburgh, Berlin, Philadelphia, and

some quarters of Westminster, there metres higher, the coldness of the climate will no longer admit of the vegetation of

which can be compared to the capital of oaks; and pines alone there cover the

New Spain, for the uniform level of the rocks, whose summits enter the zone of ground on which it stands, for the regu. eternal snow. Thus, in a few hours, the larity and breadth of the streets, and the naturalist, in this miraculous country, as.

extent of the publick places. The archi. cends the whole scale of vegetation, from

tecture is generally of a very pure style, the heliconia and the banana plant, whose

and there are even edifices of very beau. glossy leaves swell out into extraordinary titul structure. The exteriour of the dimensions, to the stunted parenchyma of houses is not loaded with ornaments. the resinous trees !”

“The balustrades and gates are all of

Biscay iron, ornamented with bronze, and While the coast, exposed to the like those in Italy, and other southern

the houses, instead of rooss, have terraces violent effect of the solar heat, was, countries. as it continues to be, the seat of dis “ Mexico has been very much embel. ease, we cannot wonder that the lished, since the residence of the abbé higher regions were preferred as Chappe there in 1769. The edifice destin. abodes by the old population of ed to the School of Mines, for which the Mexico, and by their successours.

richest individuals of the country fur.

nished a sum of more than three millions Whatever this situation may want of francs," would adorn the principal of luxuries, is compensated by se- places of Paris or London. Two great pacurity. The Spanish conquerors, as laces [hotels] were recently construcied they ascended to the table-land, by Mexican artists, pupils of the academy found the villages more numerous,

of fine arts of the capital. One of these pa. closer together, better peopled, their laces, in the quarter della Traspana, esii.

bited in the interiour of a court a very inhabitants more polished, the fields beautiful, oval peristyle of coupled codivided into smaller portions; with lumns. The traveller justly admires a vast other signs of superiour industry. circumference, paved with porphyry flags, The valley in which the city of and enclosed with an iron railing, richly Mexico stands, is upwards of 6500 ornamented with bronze, containing an feet above the level of the sea. It is equestrian statues of king Charles the of an oval form, encompassed on all marble, in the midst of the Plaza Major

fourth, placed on a pedestal of Mexican sides by mountains. It contains se

of Mexico, opposite the cathedral, and veral lakes. The largest is salt. For- the viceroy's palace. However, it must be

* 124,8001. sterling.

† This colossal statue was executed at the expense of the marquis de Branciforte, formerly viceroy of Mexico, brother in law of the prince of peace. It weiglis 450 quintals, and was modelled, founded, and placed by the same artist, M. Tolsa, whose name deserves a distinguished place in the history of Spanish sculpture. The merits of this man of genius can only be appreciated by Wiose who know the difficulties with which the exccution of these great works of art, arc attended even in civilized Europe,

agreed, that notwithstanding the progress preserved by their magnitude; and of the arts, within these last thirty years, they manifest the exertions of proit is much less, from the grandeur and beauty of the monuments, than from the

digious labour and perseverance, breadth and straightness of the streets, commanded by despotism, under and much less from its edifices, than from the influence of superstition. In fact, its uniform regularity, its extent and po. the Mexicans were invaders of the sition, that the capital of New Spain at country they inhabited, and they tracts the admiration of Europeans. treated the people whom they had

"Nothing can present a more rich and varicd appearance, than the valley, when, continued original enmity.

conquered, with a harshness which

The in a fine, summer morning, the sky without à cloud, and of that deep azure which whole surrounding territories wil. is peculiar to the dry and rarefied air of lingly lent the assistance of their pohigh mountains, we transport ourselves to pulation, when they understood that the top of one of the towers of the cathe. Mexico, then besieged by Cortez, dral of Mexico, or ascend the hill of Chapoltepeck. A beautiful vegetation sur.

was to be demolished. The simi. rounds this hill. Old, cypress trunks, of larity discovered by M. de Hummore than 15 and 16 metres in circumfe. boldt, in the remains of the Mexi. rence, raise their naked leads above those can temples, with those of the old of the schinus, which resemble, in their world, is striking. The pyramid is appearance, the weeping willows of the the form of their sacred edifices; east. From the centre of this solitude, the and the construction of it is nearly, summit of the porphyritical rock of Chapoltepeck, the eye sweeps over a vast

or altogether, the same as that of plain of carefully cultivated fields, which those still extant in Egypt. Certainextend to the very feet of the colossal ly the Mexicans had arrived at a mountains covered with perpetual snow. state of civilisation, and of art, highThe city appears as if washed by the ly creditable to their policy. They waters of the lake of Tezeuco, whose basin, surrounded with villages and ham.

even possessed some advantages in lets, brings to mind the most beautiful science over the Greek, and the Rolakes of the mountains of Switzerland. man nations, which are honoured Large avenues of elms and poplars lead, in among us with the name of clasevery direction, to the capital; and two sicks. aqueducts, constructed over arches of very great elevation, cross the plain, and Mexicans, painted on stag skins

The hieroglyphical pictures of the exhibit an appearance equally agreeable and interesting. The magnificent convent dressed, on cotton cloth, and on of Nuestra Sonora de Guadaloupe, appears leaves of the agave, a plant, prejoined to the mountains of Tepeyacack, pared as the Egyptians prepared among ravines, which shelter a few date their papyrus, are monuments of and young yucca trees. Towards the south, literary skill, and valuable as pubthe whole tract between San Angel, Ta- lick records. Such, perhaps, were cabaya, and San Augustin de las Cuevas, the national archives of their ancesappears an immense garden of orange, peach, apple, cherry, and other European tors, at the period when they fruit trees. This beautiful cultivation branched off from the main body of forms a singular contrast with the wild their parent state. appearance of the naked mountains which enclose the valley, among which the fa.

The present population of Mexi.

co is estimated at 135 to 140,000 mous volcanos of La Puebla, Popocatepetl, and Iztaccicichuatl are the most dis. individuals. It probably consists of tinguished. The first of these forms an enor. mous cone, of which the crater, continu. 2,500 white Europeans. ally inflamed, and throwing up smoke 65,000 white Creoles. and ashes, opens in the midst of eternal 33,000 indigenous [copper-coloured.] snows."

26,500 Mesitzoes, mixture of whites

and Indians. There still remain several very 10,000 Mulattoes. curious antiquities in the neighbourhood of this city. They have been 137,000 inhabitants, VOL. V.

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There are, consequently, in Mexico caste, which attributes to colour and 69,500 men of colour, and 67,500 whites;

race the distinction due only to virbut a great number of the Mesitzoes are almost as white as the Europeans and

tue, appears to be the bane of soSpanish Creoles !

cial life in Mexico, and in all the .: In the twenty three male convents Spanish colonies. Pride exalts itself, which the capital contains, there are without constraint, in the whites; afnearly 1200 individuals, of whom 580 are fects a very close equality in those priests and choristers. In the fifteen fe- but one degree polluted in blood; male convents there are 2100 individuals, and discems, in every shade and of whom nearly 900 are professed relimixture, as it deepens, a

cause gieuses.

for a distinct appellation, and a proThe clergy of the city of Mexico portionate degree of diminished reis extremely numerous, though less spect. The copper coloured Indian numerous by one fourth than at Ma. is the lowest on the list. This never drid. It is under 2,500 persons. And

was the intention of the great Fa. without including lay brothers and ther of all. novices, scarcely exceeds 2000. The As we must resume our report archbishop of Mexico possesses a

on these volumes, we close the prerevenue of 18,4201. The

consump

sent article by the following general tion of wine has greatly increased, remarks of this intelligent observer: since the Brunonian theory has been known to the Mexican physi Among the colonies subject to the cians. That invigorating liquor, how. king of Spain, Mexico occupies, at present, ever, can only be procured by the

the first rank, both on account of its terrich; being 'imported from old ritorial wealth, and on account of its farich; being imported from Old vourable position for commerce with Eu. Spain. The Indians, Mestizoes, Mu- rope and Asia. We speak here merely of lattoes, and the greater number of the political value of the country, considerwhite Crooles, prefer the fermented ing it in its actual state of civilisation, juice of the agave, called pulque; which is very superiour to that of the other and every morning carts go about Spanish possessions. Many branches of the streets of the capital to pick up higher degree of perfection in the province

agriculture have undoubtedly attained a the drunken. Such is the weakness of Caraccas than in New Spain. The fewer of man, savage or civilized! Yet the mines a colony has, the more the industry present state of Mexico, as a city, of the inhabitants is turned towards the is very respectable. There are insti: productions of the vegetable kingdom. tutions in almost every branch of in. The fertility of the soil is greater in the struction; botany, geography, mili- and Venezuela; and it is greater on the

provinces of Cumana, of New Barcelona, tary arts, natural history, &c. The banks of the Lower Orinoco, and in the polite arts also are studied. There northern part of New Granada, than in the is an academy for that purpose fur- kingdom of Mexico, of which several renished with the best models, casts gions are barren, destitute of water, and from the antique, living subjects, incapable of vegetation. But on considering &c. and M. de H describes the un

the greatness of the population of Mexico,

the number of considerable cities in the happy bigotry of caste as suspended proximity of one another; the enormous by this pursuit. The white, the value of the metallick produce, and its brown, the copper coloured, all meet influence on the commerce of Europe and on a level, and sit by the side of each Asia; in short, on examining the imperfect other, insensible to the feelings of

state of cultivation observable in the rest pride, while excited by the spur of of Spanish America, we are tempted to

justify the preference which the court of emulation.

Madrid bas long manifested for Mexico, That evil spirit, the principle of above its other colonies."

FROM THE UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE.

Memoirs of Robert Cary, earl of Monmouth. Written by himself. And Fragmenta Re

galia; being a History of Queen Elizabeth's Favourites. By Sir Robert Naunton. With Explanatory Annotations.

THIS is a republication of no or tice, they aid the studies of the antiquary dinary importance; and we should and the moral philosopher. While, therethink ill of the state of publick taste, fore, it is to be regretted, that the reserif it were coldly received. We could deterred our soldiers and statesmen fron

ved temper of our nation has generally wish, indeed, it had been printed recording their own story, an attempt to with a little more economy of paper preserve, explain, or render more geneand type. All works of real value rally accessible, the works which we posand importance should be given to sess of this nature, seems to have some the literary world as cheaply as pos

claim upon publick favour." sible. It is a hard tax, in these hard times, upon a poor scholar, that he tains some interesting, historical re

The preface to this volume conmust either starve his body or bis mind. If he buys books, he must elucidate the memoirs, and the ex

marks, which tend considerably to want his muiton: if he buys his

planatory notes, by the present edi. mutton, he must want books.

The following advertisement will tor, judiciously supply the omissions explain the origin and republication of the former one.

The memoirs themselves are emi. of this work:

nently amusing. They exhibit a “ The memoirs of sir Robert Cary were

fresh and faithful picture of the first published from the original ŃS. by court of Elizabeth, and of herself, the earl of Corke and Orrery. They con whom they sometimes display in a tain an interesting account of some im- light not very amiable, though writportant passages in Elizabeth's reign, ten by a man who deemed highly of and throw peculiar light upon the person, her, and crouched beneath her imal character of the queen. The original edition having now become very scarce, perious sway. The author relates it is presumed that a new impression will nothing but what he saw, and he be acceptable to the publick. Several ad was engaged in many of the most ditions have been made to the earl of important events of her reign. Corke's explanatory notes, particularly Among the extracts which we to such as refer to Border matters. These additions are distinguished by the lete propose to make from this volume, ter E.

it would be unpardonable to omit “ As a suitable companion to Cary's the following account of the destrucMemoirs, the Fragmenta Regalia, a

tion of that numerous feet which source from which our historians have Spain equipped for our destruction: drawn the most authentick account of the Spain, that country for whom we court of the virgin queen, have also been reprinted. The author, sir Robert Naun

are now fighting, on her own shores! ton, lived in the element of a court, and Strange mutability of human events! had experienced all its Auctuations. His characters of statesmen and warriours are “ The next year (1588] the king of drawn with such spirit, as leaves us only Spain's great armado came upon our coast, to regret their brevity, and the obscurity thinking to devour us all. Upon the in which he sometimes thinks it prudent to news sent to court from Plymouth of their involve them. To lessen this inconveni. certain arrival, my lord Cumberland and ence, a few explanatory notes have been myself took post-horse, and rode straight added.

to Portsmouth, where we found a frigate Memoirs are the materials, and often that carried us to sca; and having sought the touchstone of history, and even where for the fleets a whole day, the night after they desceird to incidents beneath her ro we fell amongst them; where it with our

fortune to light first on the Spanish fleet; new fight with them o a farewell; but by and finding ourselves in the wrong, we two in the morning, there was a flag of tacked about, and in some short time got to council hung out in our vice-admiral, when our own feet, which was not far from the it was found that in the whole fleet there other. At our coming aboard our admiral, was not munition sufficient to make half & we stayed there a while; but finding the fight; and therefore it was there conclu. ship pestered, and scant of cabins, we left ded, that we should let them pass, and our the admiral, and went aboard captain Rey. fleet to return to the Downs. That night man, where we stayed, and were very we parted with them, we had a mighty welcome, and much made of. It was on storm. Our fleet cast anchor, and endured Thursday that we came to the fleet. All it; but the Spanish fleet, wanting their an. that day we followedl close the Spanish chors, were many of them cast ashore on armado, and nothing was attempted the west of Ireland, where they had all on either side; the same course we held their throats cut by the kernes;* and all Friday and Saturday, by which time some of them on Scotland, where they the Spanish fleet cast anchor just before were no better used; and the rest, with Calais. We likewise did the same, a very much ado, got into Spain again. Thus did small distance behind them, and so conti- God bless us, and gave victory over this niled till Monday morning about two of the invincible navy; the sca calmed, and all 'clock; in which time our council of war our ships came to the Downs on Friday in had provided six old hulks, and stuffed safety." them full of every combustible matter fit for burning, and on Monday, at two in the Elizabeth wished to monopolize morning, they were let loose, with each of the affection of all her courtiers. them a man in her to direct them. The She was jealous of every step they tide serving, they brought them very near the Spanish feet, so that they could not took, if without her permission.-miss to come amongst the midst of them: When our author married, it gave then they set fire on them, and came off her high offence, and the manner themselves, having each of them a little in which he calmeil her anger, boat to bring him off. The ships set on fire shows him to have been an acute came so directly to the Spanish fleet, as they had no way to avoid them, but to cut

politician, and Elizabeth, a woman all their halsers, and so escape; and their whose vanity grossly blinded her haste was such, that they left one of their judgment. four great galeasses on ground before Ca. lais, which our men took and had the spoil “ Having ended my business, I meant of, where many of the Spaniards were to return to Carlisle again. My father slain, with the governour thereof, but wrote to me from Windsor, that the queen most of them were saved with wading meant to have a great triumph there on ashore to Calais. They being in this disor. her coronation day, 1593, and that there der, we made ready to follow them, where was great preparation making for the began a cruel fight, and we had such ad. course of the field and tourney.t He gave vantage both of wind and tide, as we had me notice of the queen's anger for my a glorious day of them; continuing fight marriage; and said it may be, I being so from four o'clock in the morning till almost near, and to return without honouring her five or six at night, where they lost a do day as I ever before had done, might be zen or fourteen of their best ships, some a cause of her further dislike, but left it sunk, and the rest ran ashore in diverse to myself to do what I thought best. My parts to keep themselves from sinking. business of law, therefore, being ended, After God had given us this great victory, I came to court, and lodged there very they made all the haste they could away, privately; only I made myself known to and we followed them Tuesday and Wed. my father and some few friends besides. nesmy, by which time they were gotten I here took order, and sent to London to as far as Flamborough-head. It was resol. provide me things necessary for the trived on Wednesday at night, that, by four umph: I prepared a present for her mao'clock on Thursday, we should have a jesty, which, with my caparisons, cost

• Irish banditti.-E.

† Plays, masks, triumphs, and tournaments, which the author calls tourneys, were small branches of those many spreading allurements which Elizabeth made use of, to draw to herself the affections and tne ariniration of her subjects. She appeared at them with dignity, ease, grace, and affability:

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