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are placed on old fashioned, iron dogs. A debauch when they go to market with wooden crane supports the large kettle of their commodities. I have seen in the Upsoup, which is for ever on the fire. per Town market-place, at Quebeck, a

“Their chief article of food is pork, as father and his son both drunk, The young fat as they can procure it. They all keep one, however, was not so bad but that a great number of swine, which they fat. he was sensible of the impropriety: so he ten to their liking. Peas-soup, with a small tumbled the old man out of the spirit shop, quantity of pork boiled in it, constitutes into the street, and endeavoured to force their breakfast, dinner, and supper, day him into the berlin, to carry him hoine. after day, with very little alteration, ex. The old fellow, however, pulled his son cept what is occasioned by a few sausa. down by the hair, and began to belabour ges, and puddings made of the entrails, him with his fist, uttering ten thousand when a hog is killed; or during lent, when sacrés and burs upon his undutiful fish and vegetables only will suffice. They head. The young man could not extricate are extremely fond of thick, sour milk, himself, and being pretty much in that and will often treat themselves with a state which is called crying drunk,' he dish of it, after their pork. Milk, soup, began to weep, calling out at the same and other spoon meat, are eaten out of a tine: “Ah my father, you do not knowo me! general dish, each taking a spoonful after "My God you do not know me'! The tears the other. Knives and forks are seldom in ran down his cheeks, though as much, request.

most likely, from the blows, and tugs of ** The old people will sometimes treat the hair which he received, as from the themselves with tea or coffee; in which idea of his father not knowing him. His case, they generally have to boil their exclamations, however, caused the old water in the fryingpan; for it rarely hap. man to weep with him, and the scene be. pens that they have a teakettle in the came truly ludicrous; for the old fellow house. An anecdote is related of a gentle. would not let go his holid, but continued man, who was travelling on the road to his curses, his blows, and his tears, until Montreal several years ago, when tea was the son was assisted by some other Habialmost unknown to the Habitans, and tans, who forced the father into the berlin; when accommodation on the road was upon which the young man got in, and even worse than it is now; he carried with drove him home. ! him his provisions, and, among the rest, “ Very few of the country people who he had a pound of tea. On his arrival at frequent the markets in the towns, return one of the post houses in the evening, he home sober, and in wintertime, when there told the mistress of the house, to make is not room for more than one cariole on the him some tea, and gave her the parcel for road, without plunging the horse four or that purpose. In the mean time, the wo five feet deep in snow, these people, haman spread out her plates and dishes, ving lost their usual politeness by intoxiknives, and forks, upon the table, and the cation, do not feel inclined to make way gentleman took bis meat and loaf out of for the gentry in carioles, and will often the basket (for tea, without something run their sleighs aboard, and upset them." more substantial, is poor fare when travel. P. 158. ling, and I always found, in such cases, that a beefsteak, or a slice of cold meat, The following anecdotes are relawas a considerable iniprovement to the ted at p. 388 and p. 424. tea-table.) After waiting a longer time than the gentleman thought necessary to

“Our guide, a Cree, whose spirits had make a cup of tea, the woman came into visibly begun to droop ever since we en: the room; but how shall I describe his as. tered the defiles of the mountains, was last tonishment, when he beheld the whole night presented by Mr. - with some pound of tea nicely boiled, and spread out rum, to keep him hearty in the cause. on a dish, with a lump of butier in the Upon this he made shift to get drunk with middle ! the good woman had boiled it all his wife. This morning he complained in the chauderon, and was placing it on the that his head and stomach were out of ortable as a fine dish of greens, to accompany der, and asked for a little medicine, which the gentleman's cold beef.

was given him; but finding it did him nein "Milk and water is the usual drink of ther good nor harm, he called his wife to the females and younger part of the fami- him, where he was sitting amidst vis at a ly. Rum is, however, the cordial balm large fire we had made to warm ourselves. which relieves the men from their cares She readily came: he asked her if shelia and anxieties. They are passionately fond a sharp ilint; and upon her replying stic of this pernicious liquor, and often have a had not, he broke ou, and made avancet VOL. V.

of it, with which he opened a vein in his dered about among the shrubs and under. wife's arm, she assisting him with great wood of the forest, wringing their hands, good will. Having drawn about a pint of and crying most bitterly at their melanblood from her, in a wooden bowl, to our choly situation. Their clothes were nearly astonishment, he applied it to his mouth, torn off their backs; their hair hung in a quite warm, and drank it off: then he dishevelled manner upon their necks; and mixed the blood that adhered to the ves. the fruit which in the morning they had sel, with water, by way of cleansing the picked with rapture, they now loathed and bowl, and also drank that off. While I was detested. In this wretched condition they considering the savageness of this action, wandered till nearly dark, when they one of our men, with indignation, ex- came up to a small hut; their hearts beat claimed to our guide: “I have eaten and high at the sight; but it was empty! They smoked with thee, but henceforward thou were, however, glad to take refuge in it and I shall not smoke and eat together. for the night, to shelter them from the What, drink warm from the vein, the heavy dews of the forest, which were blood of thy wife!'-'Oh, my friend,' then rising. They collected a quantity of said the Indian, have I done wrong? leaves, with which they made a bed, and when I find my stomach out of order, the lay down: but they could not sleep; and warm blood of my wife, in good health, spent the night in unavailing tears and rerefreshes the whole of my body, and puts proaches at their own carelessness. They me to rights: in return, when she is not however at times endeavoured to console well, I draw blond from my arm; she each other with the hope that people drinks it; and it gives her life: all our na. would be despatched by Mr. Montour, in tion do the same, and they all know it to search of them. The next morning, therebe a good medicine.' P. 388.

fore, they wisely kept within the hut, or “ It is a dangerous experiment to wan- went out only to gather fruit to satisfy the der carelessly in the woods in Canada, cravings of appetite; and that which the without a guide, or a sufficient acquaint- evening before they had loathed as the ance with the paths; and instances have cause of their misfortune, now became the occurred, of people perishing even within means of preserving their lives. Towards a small distance of their own habitations. the close of the day, they heard the InA few years ago, two young ladies who dian yell in the woods, but were afraid were on a visit at the house of Mr. Nicho. to call out, or stir from the hut, not knowlas Montour, formerly of the North west ing whether they might be sent in search Company, and who then resided at Point of them, or were a party of strange Indu Lac, near Three Rivers, strolled into dians, into whose hands they did not like the woods at the back of the house, one to trust themselves. morning after breakfast, for the purpose “ A second night was passed in the of regaling themselves with the strawber same forlorn state; though singular as it ries and other fruit which grew abundant. may appear, one of them became more ly there, and were then in great perfec. composed, and, in some measure, even tion. One of them had an amusing no reconciled to her situation; which, deplovel in her hand, which she read to the rable as it was, and uncertain when they other; and so interested were they with might be relieved from it, she regarded the story, and the scenery around them, as a romantick adventure, and the followthat they never thought of returning to ing morning, with great composure, staid dinner. In this manner they strolled de- in the hut, and read her novel: the other lightfully along, sometimes wrapt up in gave herself up to despair, and sat upon the charms of the novel, and at other the bed of leaves, crying and bewailing times stopping to gather the fruit which her unhappy fate. In this state they were lay luxuriantly scattered beneath their discovered about noon, by a party of Infeet, or hung in clusters over their heads; dians, who had been sent out after them, when the declining sun at length warned and whose yell had been heard by the them that it was late in the afternoon. young ladies the preceding evening. Their They now began to think of returning, joy at being relieved from such an alarmbut unfortunately they had wandered from ing situation, may be more easily corr the path, and knew not which way to go. ceived than described, and was only The sun, which, an hour before might equalled by the pleasure which their rehave afforded them some assistance, was turn gave to Mr Montour and his family, now obscured by the lofty trees of the who had almost given them up as lost, forest; and as the evening closed in, they having been absent nearly three days, found themselves yet more bewildered. and wandered several miles from the

“ In the most distracted state they wan- house." P. 423.

Our extracts from the first vo- following April, what a contrast was prelume having been rather copious, sented to my view, and how shall I dewe must restrain ourselves in the scribe the melancholy dejection that was two which succeed, but the descrip

painted upon the countenances of the

people, who seemed to have taken leave tion of the effect of the embargo at of all their former gayety and cheerful. New York, as detailed in the second, ness. The coffeehouse slip, the wharfs, is too interesting to be omitted. and quays along South street, presented

no longer the bustle and activity that had " When I arrived at New York, in No. prevailed there five months before The vember, the port was filled with shipping,

port, indeed, was full of shipping, but

port, indeed, was, and the wharfs were crowded with com.

they were dismantled, and laid up. Their modities of every description. Bales of decks were cleared, their hatches fastencotton, wools, and merchandise; barrels of ed down, and scarcely a sailor was to be potash, rice, flower, and salt provisions; seen on board. Not a box, bale, cask, hogsheads of sugar, ches of tea, pun.

barrel, or package, was to be seen upon cheons of rum, and pipes of wine; boxes,

the wharfs. Many of the counting houses cases, packs and packages of all sizes

were shut up, or advertised to be let; and and denominations, were strowed upon

the few solitary merchants, clerks, por. the wharfs and landing places, or upon

ters and labourers, that were to be seen, the decks of the shipping. All was noise

were walking about with their hands in and bustle. The carters were driving in

their pockets. Instead of sixty or one every direction; and the sailors and la.

hundred carts that used to stand in the bourers upon the wharfs, and on board

street for hire, scarcely a dozen appeared, the vessels, were moving their ponderous

and they were unemployed; a few coast. burthens from place to place. The mer.

ing sloops and schooners, which were chants and their clerks were busily en.

clearing out for some of the ports in the gaged in their counting housesor upon the

United States, were all that remained of piers. The Tontine coffeehouse was filled

that immense business which was carried with underwriters, brokers, merchants,

on a few months before. The coffechouse traders and politicians;selling,purchasing,

was almost empty; or if there happened trafficking, or ensuring; some reading,

to be a few people in it, it was merely to others eagerly inquiring the news. The

pass away the time which hung heavy on steps and balcony of the coffeehouse were

their hands, or to inquire anxiously after crowded with people bidding, or listening

news from Europe, and from Washingto the several auctioneers, who had ele. ton; or perhaps to purchase a few bills, vated themselves upon a hogshead of sue that were selling at ten or twelve per gar, a puncheon of rum, or a bale of cot. cent. above par. In fact, every thing pre. ton; and with Stentorian voices were ex. sented a melancholy appearance. The claiming: ' Once, twice,'Once, twice' streets near the water side were almost • Another cent." "Thank ve. gentlemen' deserted, the grass had begin to grow or were knocking down the goods which upon the wharfs, and the minds of the took up one side of the streer to the best people were tortured by the vague and purchaser. The coffeehouse slip. and the idle rumours that were set afloat upon the corners of Wall and Pearl streets, were arrival of every letter from England, or jammed up with carts, drays, and wheel. from the seat of government. In short, the barrows: horses and men were huddled scene was so gloomy and forlorn, that had promiscuously together, leaving little or it been the month of September instead no room for passengers to pass. Such was of April, I should verily bave thought the appearance of this part of the town

that a malignant fever was raging in the when I arrived. Every thing was in mo.

place. So desolating were the effects of tion; all was life, bustle, and activity.

the embargo, which in the short space - The people were scampering in all direc.

of five months, had deprived the first tions to trade with each other, and to

commercial city in the states, of all its ship off their purchases for the European,

life, bustle, and activity. Caused above Asian, African, and West-Indian markets.

one hundred and twenty bankruptcies; Every thought, word, look, and action of and completely annihilated its foreign the multitude, seemed to be absorbed by commerce." p. 152. commerce; the welkin rang with its busy hum, and all were eager in the pursuit

The Essays from the Salmagundi, of its riches.

a periodical work in extensive cir“ But on my return to New York the culation at New York, are well

enough, and amusing in themselves, ed prints, introduced by way of embut are out of place here, and seem bellishment, are very trifing and unintroduced to eke out the volumes. satisfactory, but the map which is The same object seems to have been prefixed to the first volume is of neat had in view in the third volume execution. We are altogether pleaalso, and indeed if the work had sed with the performance, and labeen comprised in two, instead of ment the disappointment of the three volumes, it would have been author in a commercial view. His more entitled to respect, and better description of the difficulties which qualified to have asserted its claim he and his relative had to encounter to a distinguished place in geogra- on their arrival at Quebeck; his rephical collections.

marks on the causes which here In this volume, however, it is but prevented the successful culture of justice to allow that the description hemp in Canada, are related with of Charleston is written with parti- much temper and great good sense, cular vivacity; and is altogether the and appear to merit the considerabest account of this place we re- tion of government. member to have seen. The colour


Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain. By Alexander de Humboldt. With

Physical Sections and Maps. Translated from the original French. By John Black. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 455, 531. Price 11. 18s. London. 1811.

SPANISH America is an object who foresaw that the result would which, of late, has come forward be destructive to that politick powrapidly on the liorizon of European er; though none, we believe, anticipoliticks. Before the voyage of An- pated the extent to which that deson, little known, even geographic struction has proceeded. M. de cally, beyond the confines of its Vergennes, who had perfected what parent state, and almost every docu. the duc de Choiseul begun, was, on ment relating to it, classed in the his death-bed, fully convinced of the archives of old Spain, among the distresses advancing with rapid Arcana Imperii, the literary world strides, eventually to overwhelm his equally with the political, was country. Neckar, who, equally with obliged to remain satisfied with De Vergennes, had been deceived shreds and patches of information; in his estimate of British power and or with gleanings, obtained by acci- spirit, lived to see, what he deemed dent or by stealth. Suspicion or con- a triumph, end in despair. When jecture, was the extent to which the Spain was over-persuaded against beldest speculator ventured; and her conviction, to become a party to what were the capabilities of the the war in favour of the now United country, was rather inferred than States, all who had obtained that inaffirmed, by the best informed stu formation, limited as it was, which dent in statisticks.

was then extant, inferred that the When France, in direct opposition example of North America would to her own interest, interfered to soon be followed in the south; and give liberty to North America, that Spain might prepare herself to there were some among us (we bid an everlasting farewell to her speak from personal knowledge) transatlantick possessions. The spirit of independence has been active, habitants; and, generally, to whatever more or less openly, in South Ame- interests the geographer, the naturica from that day to this: and the ralist, the philosopher, the moralist, propositions made to British officers or the statesman. from Buenos Ayres and other places, Nothing could be better timed to are so many vouchers for the truth answer the demands of the inquisi. of what we affirm. As the disposition tive, than this publication of the toward independence was fomented baron de Humboldt. Many a long in North America, by French agents year has he travelled in the Spanish under the direction of Choiseul; and colonies; many a hazardous journey so far had they proceeded, that has he taken; many a laborious opeLouis XVI. though anticipating evil ration has he performed. With spefrom the machination, yet could not cimens of his acquisitions, the world stop it; so, it may be, that French has already been favoured in various agents were also employed in en- shapes; and the present work adds lightening the Spanish Americans, to our obligations received from this and that Buonaparte, like Louis, adventurous disciple of science, wishes the progress of these enlight- New Spain is more commonly enings to be stayed. That he really known among us as the government did desire to hold the Spanish colo- of Mexico; because the chief city, nies in dependence on Spain, and to from various causes, has been more render them tributary to France, familiar in our general course of admits of no doubt; that his scheme reading. All the world has heard of has failed, and that they will esta- the commuest of Mexico by Cortez; blish their independence, we consi- and the wealth of the Mexican der as certain; and this new charac- mines has become proverbial. Lit. ter under which they are about to tle care has been taken, generally appear, increases greatly that im- speaking, to distinguish the proportance, which attaches to the vinces in which these mines are si. knowledge of their actual state and tuated; they have been uniformly condition. In proportion as South attributed to Mexico; and that has America rises in importance, North been sufficient. It will be our own America declines. It was not for fault if this, or any other incorrectthemselves only, that the Americans ness, be longer continued among us. took off so great a quantity of Bri- M. de Humboldt, gives a particular tish goods, as they did some time account of the divisions of this exago: it was to export them to thcir tensive viceroyalty, and takes pains southern neighbours of the same to obtain a precision, which, while continent. During the American it may possibly be superseded by embargo, those goods went direct recent events, nevertheless bears from Britain; and thus Britain ob- testimony to his industry, and re. tained an immediate intercourse searches. with her real customers, which she The order adopted by the baron, will do well to cultivate, and extend after a geographical introduction, is, to the utmost of her power. Seeing that ofi-general considerations on then, that we are low opening an the extent and physical aspect of avowed and authorized commerce New Spain. On the climate, agri. with the Spanish Americans, instead culture, commerce, and military of a clandestine and almost furtive defence of the country. To these, traflick, we cannot but desire to ob- succeed-the population, the distain all possible intelligence relative tinctions among the inhabitants, their to the country; 10 the bounties of numbers, maladies, languages, &c. nature distributed therein; to the The provinces into which New disposition and character of the in- Spain is divided, the state of culti

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