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FOR MARCH, 1811,
FROM THE QUARTERLY REVIEW.
Observador Portuguez, Historico e Politico, de Lisboa, desde o dia 27 de Novembro
do Anno de 1807, em que embarcou para o Brazil o Principe Regente Nosso Senhor e toda a Real Familia, por Motivo da Invasam dos Francezes neste Reino, &c. Contém todos os Editaes, Ordens publicas e particulares, Decretos, Successos fataes e desconhecidos nas Historias do Mundo; todas as Batalhas, Roubos e Usur. pacoens, até o dia 15 de Setembro de 1808, cm que foram expulsos, depois de ba. tidos, os Francezes. Lisboa. 1809.
THE tyranny which was exer lished for the love of reputation. cised over the press in Portugal, Their sonnets and pastorals, and produced a race of authors in that glosas, easily past the various boards country more resembling in their of censure, which presented an inframe of mind, the writers of the superable barrier to all the works middle ages, than those of modern that tended, in the slightest degree, times. The people sunk into an in- to expose the errours and abuses kellectual torpor, under the paralyz. of the existing government. For the ing despotism of church and state; last century, scarcely any book of and the number of readers was in history or of travels appeared in consequence so small, that litera. Portugal. So greatly indeed have pre never became a trade. There authors been deterre.l from publica.. was, therefore, no occupation for tion, by the obstacles which the that execrable race, who, either in boards of censure presented, and so their own naked character, as libel- little has there been to tempt them lers, or under the assumed title of in the rewards or applause which satirists or criticks, acquire noto- the publick could bestow, that a riety by pandering to envy or ma very large proportion of Portuguese lice; and as little scope was there literature exists at this day in manufor political adventurers, who hope script. Men were always found, who to rise in the world by tying them- delighted in acquiring knowledge selves to the tail of a party-kite. for its own sake, who amused them. No man became an author for the selves in composing works for their sake of gain, or for the hope of pre own instruction, and that of their ferment; and, except a few young friends, contented with self-applause, poets, there were none who pub- and with the thought that they were VOL. v.
preparing materials, for which fu- abre st of the city, and there, seTume hisiorials would be grateful conded by the indignant populace,
The author of the Portuguese Ob- dispute every inch of the ground seiver is a man of this description. with the invader. Lisbon, he said, During the tyranny of Junot, he was surely as defensible as Buenos coilected every edict which was Ayres. It was well for Junot, that issi.ed, kept a faithful journal of the this resolution was not effected. erents passing within his own know The first division of the French leuge, and procured accounts, on army, consisting of 10,000 men, which he couid rely, from other reached the villages adjoining Lis. parts of the kingdom. When this bon, on the 29th of November, while melancholy task was begun, there the prince and his faithful followers covic bave been no other feeling 10 were sailing out of the river. They alleviate it, than the desire of leav. arrived without baggage, having only ing to posterity a faithfui detaii of their knapsacks, and a half gourd an aggression, at that time unparal- slung from their girdle as a drinkleled for injustice and cruelty, in the ing cup; their muskets were rusty, annals of Europe. On the deliver- and many of them out of repair; the ance of his country, he was enabled were mostly bare foot, founto publish as much of this journal as dered with their march, and almost prudence would permit; much, he fainting from fatigue and want of confesses, has been withheld, be- food. The very women of Lisbon cause the times required it; that is might have knocked them on the to say, he has been unwilling to make head. On the following day, the himself obnoxious, by exposing the royal guard of police went out to misconduct of individuals; and there mcet Junot, and he made his enis as yet no liberty of the press in trance into the city. A proclamation Lisbon. But though he admits that had previously been circulated, in it has not been possible for him to which the general added to his relate the whole truth, his book other titles, that of Great Cross of contains nothing but the truth; this the Order of Christ, an honour conhe solemnly aftirmis; it is corrobo- ferred on him by that very prince rated by the testimony of persons whom he came io entrap and debest acquainted with the transactions stroy. “ Inhabitants of Lisbon," he of that period, and the work itseif said, “I come to save your port and bears the strongest marks of vera your prince from the malignant incity.
fluence of England. The prince, According to this writer, the cir. Otherwise respectable for his vircumsiance which made the prince tues, has permittced himself to be ol brazil resolve upon retiring to drawn away by perfidious counselhis vast empire in America, was the lors, to be delivered by them to his communication of the secret treaiy enemies; they aiarmed him for his of Fontainbicau from the English personal safety; his subjects were court. Haci this measure been ear regarded as nothing, and your interlier resolved on, the act itself might ests were sacrificed to the cowarhave been one of the subiimest spec- dice of a few courtiers. People of tacles recorded in history; but the Lisbon, remain at peace in your haste with which it was conducted, houses; fcar nothing from my army, rendered it a scene of confusion. On nor from me; our enemics and the the part of the emigrants, nothing criminal are the only persons who was to be seen but hurry and disor ought to fear us. The great Napoder; on the part of the peopie, asto leon, my master, sends me to pronishment and dismay Sir Sidney tect you. I wiii protect you.” Smith offered to bring his teet The first act of this protection
was to seize the fortresses upon the those fidalgos who accompanied the river, and fire upon the ships which prince, and of the principal merhad not yet got out. The shops were chants; and, as the first fruits of that shut; the streets full of people, and the protection, which the religion of the discount upon
the paper money rose country was to experience, all perto 50 per cent. The next day, De sons in the great convents of Jesus, cember 1, was the anniversary of the Paulistas, and S. Francisco da the acclamation; of that revolution Cidade, who had any relations by which restored the crown of Portu whom they could be housed, were gal to its rightful heir. What a day ordered to turn out, that the French for those inhabitants of Lisbon who soldiers might be quartered in their loved their country, and were fami- apartinents. On the 3d the mer. liar with the history of its age of chants were called on for a forced glory! Powder wagons were now
loan of two millions of cruzados, creaking through the streets; the and this at a time when their ships patroies and the whole force of the had been seized in France, when a police were employed in calining British squadron blockaded the port and controlling the people who be. of Lisbon, when the ships from Braheld all this with indignation, and zil were warned off by that squadron an instinctive longing to vindicate and sent to England, and all foreign themselves The parish ministers commerce utterly clestroyed! Every went from house to house, informing day, almost evcry hour, brought with the inhabitants that they must pre- it some new mark of French pro. pare to quarter the French officers, tection. Account was taken of the and collecting mattresses and blank- property of ail those persons who ets for the men. In the midst of all followed the prince, that it might this, so violent a storm of wind be confiscated. M. Hermann was arose, that it shook the houses like added to the regency, and made an eartnquake; and in the terrour minister of finance, and of the inte. which it occasioned, many families riour, by an appointment of Buona. fed into the open country. Many parte, which by its date sufficiently buildings were injured; the treasury proved, if any proof had been needand arsenal unroofed; and the tide ed, that whatever the conduct of the suddenly rose twelve feet. The cir- prince mnight be, that tyrant had recumstance was noted in the Paris solved to usurp the kingdom. The papers; and, in the spirit of those edict which Junot had issued, on his writers who speak of the tempest first entrance into Portugal, was which occurred at Cromwell's death, now printed and circulated in Lisas something supernatural, it was bon. Beginning in the usual style of added, that no sooner had the French French hypocrisy, it ended with their flag been hoisted, than the elements usual insolence and cruelty. Every were calmed, and the sun broke Portuguese, it said, who, not being a forth in all his splendour. This in- soldier of the line, was apprehended terpretation, however, could not be in an armed assembly, should be current at Lisbon, because the shot. If any Frenchman was killed French flag was not hoisted there in the country, the town or village, tili ten days after the storm. to which the district belonged where
The troops entered Lisbon mostly the murder was committed, should by night, and without beat of drum. be fined in not less than three times Eleven thousand were now posted the amount of its whole annual in the city, from Belem to the Grilo, rents, and the four principal inhabiand from the castle to Arroios. The tants taken as hostages for the pay- . generals of division and brigade ment. And as an exemplary actof justook possession of the houses of tice, the first city, town, or village,
in which a Frenchman was assassi- footing as the grand arıny, in connated, should be burnt to the ground. sequence of which they would reguWhen this decree was issued, the larly receive extraordinary pay sufprince of Brazil was in alliance with ficient to defray all their expenses. France, and Junot protested that he This edict was in the true spirit of was entering as a friend, expressing the French generals; it was somehis confidence that the fine city of thing to be published in foreign Lisbon would joyfully receive an newspapers, as a proof of the good army, which alone could preserve it order which they observed; meanfrom becoming the prey of the En- time all the superiour officers, not glish.
merely compelled those upon whom The next measure was an edict they had billetted themselves, to furfor the confiscation of English nish a table, but every kind of progoods, ordering all persons who vision also for the entertainments had any English property in their which they thought proper to give. possession, to give an account of Many persons gave up their houses it within three days, on pain of to these insolent guests, and retired being fined in a sum ten times into the country; still they were the amount of the property con- obliged to support the establishcealed, and even of corporal pu- ment; and answer all the demands nishment, if it was thought proper which the intruders chose to make. to inflict it. On the same day, the There now appeared a pastoral use of fire arms in sporting was letter from the cardinal patriarch of prohibited throughout the whole Lisbon, written at the request, that kingdom, and any person detected is to say, under the orders of Junot. in carrying fowling pieces, or pis. The author of this journal apologitols, without a license from general zes for its abject and servile lanLaborde, the commandant of Lisbon, guage. Its secret meaning, he says, was to be considered as a vagabond will be apparent if it is read with and highway murderer, carried be- attention; and its effect was, as the vefore a military commission, and nerabie pastor intended, to strengthpunished accordingly The next day en the veneration of the Portugueze all kinds of arms whatsoever were for their religion, and tend to the prohibited; and the winesellers were destruction of the impious wretches ordered to turn out all soldiers at who were profaning it. It is to be seven in the evening, on pain of a regretted that so faithful and patri. heavy fine, and of death for the otick a writer should, in his wish to third offence. The troops, as they excuse another, attempt to justify continued to arrive, were quartered what ought not even to be published. in all the convents, and their women For whatever may have been the pawith them, as if to insult the reli. triarch's secret desires, and however gious feelings of the people. Com- his language may have belied his plaints were made that the officers heart, certain it is that he now be. required those persons upon whom trayed his country, and, as far as in they were billeted, to keep a table him lay, contributed to its degrada, for them. An order was issued, in tion and destruction. He told the which Junot expressed his displea- Portuguese that the French were sure, saying that the French officers come to assist them; that they were in Portugal were to consider them- under the protection of Napoleon the selves as in garrison, and had no Great, whom God had destined to right to demand any thing more support and defend religion, and to than lodging, fire, and lights. He constitute the happiness of his peoreminded them also that the empe. ple. “ You know him," said he; "the i'çur had placed them on the same whole world knows him; confide
therefore, with unalterable security who were his guests, fled to their in this prodigious man, whose like own houses. The tumult continued has not been seen in any age. He about three hours. It was then so will diffuse over us the blessings of far suppressed that Junot, with most peace,
if you respect his determina- of his generals, went to the opera, tions.” In this manner, exhorting and there displayed the French flag, them passively to submit to whatever as if in triumph. The greater part might occur, he entreated all his of the few Portugueze who were clergy, by the bowels of Christ Je- present left the theatre. While this sus, to concur with him in impress. bravado was going on, cannon were ing upon them the duty of resigna- planted at head-quarters, and guntion and submission. This address boats stationed so as to command was intended to prepare the people some of the market places and for what followed; and on the suc streets. At daybreak the streets were ceeding day the French flag was full of soldiers, horse and foot, pahoisted upon the arsenal. It is the trolling the town; but wherever a system of Buonaparte, and the infa- Frenchman ventured to appear alone mous ministers of his tyranny, to he was immediately attacked. Many break down, by a series of insults, families fled into the country. Junot the spirit of every nation which is published an edict, ordering that unhappy enough to be brought un. every person taken in arms should der his yoke. Two days the French be carried before a military commis. colours remained flying there; on sion. He prefixed to it this sentence, the 3d, the French troops were as a text for his bloody laws: “ Re. drawn up in the square of the Ro- bellion is the greatest of all crimes.” cio, when Junot thanked them, in He then fortified the castle, threw the emperour's name, for the con- up new works, and planted batteries, stancy with which they had endured from which he threatened to destroy the hardships of their march. Hea. Lisbon if the insurrection was reven, said he, has favoured us in our newed. object of saving this fine city from These disturbances were not atthe oppression of the English, and tended with much bloodshed, and no we have now the glory of seeing the executions followed them. The Por. French flag planted in Lisbon. He tugueze troops had not joined the then called upon them to cry, long people, for no plan had been conlive the emperour Napoleon! At the certed, and the resistance, when at. same moment the French colours tempted, was perfectly hopeless. were hoisted on the castle, a salute Their disposition, however, was well of twenty guns was fired, and re known; and the regiments which had peated by all the forts upon the ri- been called from the provinces by ver. This was about mid-day; the the prince immediately before his Portuguese had been murmuring embarkation, were now ordered back from the moment the flag appeared to their respective stations. It was upon the arsenal, and this new insult found that the decree for the discoincreased their shame and indigna- very and confiscation of English protion. Without plan, without leaders, perty and goods had produced little without other arms than sticks, and effect; the three days allowed for stones, and knives, they attacked the giving in an account elapsed on the guards, in the great square, between 7th, and on the 8th the term was five and six in the evening. Junot prolonged for eight days more, with was giving a grand dinner, in honour heavy denunciations against those of some victory; it was abruptly persons who should attempt to evado ended; his officers hastened to their it. That part of the decree which posts, and the Portugueze traitors, related to English property might