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Akticles of CAPITULAT! on for the town and citadel of Copenhagen, agreed upon between Major-General the right hon. Sir A. Wellesley, K. B., Sir Home Popham, Knight of Malta and Captain of the Fleet, and Lieut. Col. George Murray, Deputy -Quarter-Master-General of the Rritish Forces, being thereto duly authorised by ‘James Gambier, Esq., Admiral of the Biue, and Commander in Chief of his Britannic Majesty's ships and vessels in the Baltic sea, and by Lieut. Gen. the right hon. Lord Cathcart, Knight of the Thistie, Commander in Chief of his Britannic Majesty's Forces in Zealand and the North cf the Continent of Europe, ou the one part, and by Major-General Walterstorff, Knight of the Order of Dannebrog, Chamberlain to the King, and Col. of the North Zealand Regiment of Infantry, Rear-Admiral Lurken, and I. H. Kerchoff, Aiddu-Catup to his Danish Majesty, being duly authorised by his Excellency MajorGeneral Peyman, Knight of the Order of Donnebrog, and Commander in Chief of His joinish Majesty's Forces in the Island of Zealand on the other part —Art. J. When the capitulation shall have been signed and ratified, the troops of his Britannic Majesty are to be put in possession of the citadel. Art. II. A guard of his Britannic Majesty's troops shali likewise be placed in the dockyards. Art. III. The ships and vessels of war of every description, with all the naval stores belonging to his Danish Majesty, shall be delivered into the charge of such persons as shall be appointed by the commander in
chief of his Britannic Majesty's forces, and .
they are to be put in immediate possession of
the dock-yards, and all the buildings and
storehouses belonging thereto. Art. IV.The store-ships and transports in the service of his Britanic Majesty are to be allowed, if necesary, to come into the harbour for the purpose of emba:..ing such stores and troops as they have brought into this island. Art. V. As soon as the ships shall have been removed from the dock-yard, or within six weeks from the date of this capitulation, or sooner, if possible, the troops of his Britannic MaJesty shall deliver up the citadel to the troops of his Danish Majesty, in the state in which it shall be found when they occupy it. His Britannic Majesty's troops shall likewise, within the before-mentioned time, or sooner, it possible, be embarked from the island of Zealand. Art. VI. From the date of this capitulation, hostilities shall cease throughout the island cf. Zealand. Art. VII. No person whatsoever shall be molest. ed, and all properly, public or privăte, with the exception of the ships and vessels of war,
and the naval stores before mentioned, belonging to his Danish Majesty, shall be respected; and all civil and military officers in the service of his Danish Majesty shall continue in the full exercise of their authority throughout the lsland of Zealand; and every thing shall be doiwe which can tend to produce union and harmony between the two nations. Art, V111. All prisoners taken on both sides shall be unconditionally restored, and those officers who are prisoners on parole, shall be released from its effect. Art. IX. Any English property that may have been sequestered in consequence of the existing hostilities, shall be restored to the owners —This capitulation shall be ratified by the respective commanders in chief, and the ratsfications shall be exchanged before twelve o'clock at noon this day.—Done at Copenhagen, this 7th day of Sept. 1807. (Signed) Arthur Wellesley, Hoxie Po PHAM, George Murray. Ratifié par moi (signée) PEY MAUN. - Admiralty-office, September 16, 1807.Captain Collier, of His Majesty's ship the Surveillante, arrived at this Office this morning with a dispatch from Admiral Gambier, Commander in Chief of His Majesty's ships and vessels in the Baltic, addressed to the Honourable William Wellesley Pole, Secretary of the Admiralty, dated Prince of Wales, in Copenhagen-Road, 7th Sept., 1807, of which the following is a co y : Sir—The communications which I have already had the honourtotransmit to you, will have made the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty acquainted with the proceedings of the fleet under my command, down to the 2d instant ; I have now to add, that the mortar batteries which had been erected by the army in the several positions they had taken round Copenhagen, together with the bomb vessels, which were placed in convenient situations, began the bombardment in the morning of that day, with such power and effect, that in a short time the town was set on fire, and by the repeated discharges of our artillery, was kept in flames in different places, till the evening of the 5th, when a considerable part of it being consumed, and the inflagration having arrived at a great height, threatening the speedy distruction of the whole city, the General commanding the garrison sent out a flag of truce desiring an armistice, to afford time. to treat for a capitulation. After some, correspondence had passed between the Denish General and Lord Cathcart and myself, certain articles were agreed upon, of which I have the honour to transmit you a copyFrom these their Lordships wili perceive • that all the Danish ships and vessels of we a
(of which I inclose a list), with the stores in the arsenal, were to be delivered up to such persons as should be appointed to receive them on the part of his Majesty. I accordingly appointed Sir Home Popham for this purpose, and having made the necessary arrangements for equipping them with the utmost dispatch, I have committed the execution of this service to Vice-Admiral Stanhope, in whose ability and exertions I can place the fullest confidence.—I am happy on this occasion to express the warm sense I entertain of the cordial co-operation of the army, by whose exertions, with the favourable concurrence of circumstances, under Divine Providence, ever since we left England, our ultimate success has been more immediately obtained. I must also convey to their Lordships, in terms of the highest approbation and praise, the conspicuous zeal and earnest indeavours of every officer and man under my command for the accomplishment of this service; and although the operatious of the fleet have not been of a nature to afford meageneral and brilliantocca sion foradding freshtestimony to thenumerous records of the bravery of British seamen and marines, yet the gallantryand energy displayed by the advanced squadron of sloops, bombs, gunbrigs, &c. which were employed under the command of Captain Puget to cover the operations of the left wing of the army from the Danish flotilla, ought not to be passed over in silence. I have beheld with admiration the steady courage and arduous exertion with which, on one occasion, in particular, they sustained, for more than four hours, a heavy and incessant cannonade with the Danish batteries, block ships, praams, and gunboats, in a situation, where, from the shoalness of the water, it was impossible to bring any of the large ships to their support—I feel it my duty to make a particular acknowledgement of the aid I have derived from Sir Home Popham, Captain of the Fleet, whose prompt, resources and complete $nowledge of his profession, especially of that branch which is connected with the operations of an army, qualify him in a particular manirer for the arduous and various duties with which he has been charged.—I herewith inclose an account of the killed and wounded.—I beg leave to refer their lordships to Captain Collier, whom I have charged with this dispatch, for any further particulars they may desire to know.—I have the honour to be &c. J. GAMBIER. . An account of killed and wounded on board the advanced squadron, on the 23d of August, 1807 –Cruizer Lieut. Woodford,
killed : "Featless 2 seamen killed; lieut. Wil
liams (slightly) 1 seaman, and 4 marines
wounded : Indignant 1 seaman killed; 1 seaman wounded: Urgent 1 seaman and 1 marine wounded: Valiant's Launch 3 seamen wounded : Africaine's Boat 1 seaman wounded : total 4 killed, 13 wounded. List of the killed and wounded by the explosion of the Charles armed transport, attached to the advanced squadron, on the 31st August, 1807–Belonging to the Valiant 2 seamen, killed; , lieut. N. Rowe, Mr. Philip Tomlinson, master's mate (since dead of his wounds,) and 12 seamen, wounded—Belonging to the Transport—Mr.James Moyase, master, and 7 seamen, killed; 7 seamen, wounded. J. GAMBIE R. A list of the Danish ships and vessels delivered up by the Capitulation of Copenhagen to his Majesty's forces, Sept 7, 1807. Christian the seventh, of 96 guns, built in 1803; Neptune, of 84 guns, built in
.1789; Waldemaar, of 84 guns, built in
1798; Princess Sophia Frederica, of 74 guns, built in 1775; Justice, of 74 guns, built in 1777; Heir Apparent Frederick, of 74 guns, built in 1782; Crown Prince Frederick, of 74 guns, built in 1784; Fuen, of 74 guns, built in 1787; Oden, of 74 guns, built in 1788; Three Crowns, of 74 guns, built in 1780; Skiold, of 74 guns,
built in 1792; Crown Princess Maria, of
Wrinted by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Great Queen S
- Cosent Garden, where former Numbers may be had: sold also by J. Budé, Crown and Mitro, rall M*
vol. XII. No. 13.] LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1807. [Price lon.
“Look at Scotland: Sec her enviable state with regard to her Poor: That country is the theme of panegyric “ amongst all who have visited her, on account of the situation of her labouring classes. The Poor-Low's
“ are almost totally in disuse, and all is regularity ** and calmed her troubles? Education.
and order: Wrat was the day-star which shone forth
Such was the effect of Education upon Scotland, and I will
“ prove to you that that effect was produced by Education alone."— Mr. Whitbicad's Speech on the reaciled Scotland; but, as that would be .
SUMMARY OF POLITICS. Poor Laws (continued from page 338). —When, at the page, here referred to, I made some observations upon the unjust reflection, which, in the preamble to his bill for the education of the poor of England, Mr. Whitbread had thrown upon this conntry, I was pretty certain, that those remarks would not be long without calling forth the animadversions of some Scotch correspondent; for, an aident zeal on the side of their own particular part of the kingdom is one of the laudable characteristics of the inhabitants to the north of the Tweed. My expectations were not disappointed. A letter, which will be found immediately after this Summary, will shew the reader, that what I said has been felt, and that it has kindled some little anger. The writer does, indeed, throw out a sort of threat, that, unless I insert his letter, he will cause it to be inserted elsewhere, a threat which bas made me balance for some time, whether I should print it or throw it into the fire. A similar threat, but more distinct, has been sent me by way of post-script to a most rude and insolent letter, coming evidently from one of the Berwick Smack statesmen, whose letter I wiłł, however, publish, if he will send me, instead of the fictitious name of “AN“ TI-CAPIToll Nus,” his real name and place of abode. — The first of these letters I have inserted, because it contains what one defender, at least, of Mr. Whitbread's project has to say; but, I think it right here to observe, once for all, that, of all those, who choose to make use of threats to “print else“ where, and shame the rogue,” I shall shew my contempt by leaving them to execute their threats. If “ ANri-CApitolt NUs" will send me, post paid. to No. 5. Panton Square, his abusive letter, leaving out the threats of publication elsewhere, I will publish it; otherwise I shall leave him to his other means of publication. Before I enter upon my reply to the letter of ScotoBritan Nus, which is the name taken by the Scotch correspondent above-mentioned, --- -, *
[482 it may not be amirs to insert the preamble to Mr. Whitbread's bill, which preamble has given me, and all those who think with me, upon this subject, so much offence: “Whereas the instruction of youth tends “ most materially to the promotion of morality and virtue, and to the formation of “good members of society, whereof we “ have the most convincing proof, by long “experience, in that part of the United “ Kingdom, called Scotland; and, it is ex“ pedient, that provision should be made “for the instruction of the children of the poor “, of England and Wales; may it please your * Majesty, that it maybe enacted, &c." Now, if this means anything describeable, it means, that the poor of Scotland are more moral, more virtuous, and better members of society than the poor of England are; and this, I say, is false, and grossly insulting to the people of England. The article, which I have referred to, at the beginning of this sheet, contains my reasons for this assertion, and also my reasons for objecting to Mr. Whitbread's project of parochial schools. Scoto-Britannus differs from me upon both points, as the reader will see, choosing, however, to invert the order, which 1 followed, and to attack first that which he regarded as hostile to his own country. Indeed, he has followed no order at all; and, really, one might well be excused from replying to any answer, wherein a confusion in the arrangement of the several points necessarily renders the reply four or five times as long as it otherwise might be-I will follow my arrangement, and will, taking argument by argument, see how each has been answered by ScotoBritannus. I. I expressed my dislike to the assumption, that the poverty of the labouring people arose from their vices, and observed, that no position could be more convenient for those, who, from whatever motive, were desirous of supporting the taxing system. I added, that the paupers of England and Wales had increased three| fokl, since Pitt became uninister; that, to
this argument of experience might be added the undeniable truth, that, if, by any systenn, no matter wharit be called; the fruit of the labour of some be drained away to keep others without labour, the poverty of those who labour must thereby be increased. —Scoto-Britannus says, that I have admitted the fact, that vice is the cause of poverty. This is not true in the way that he represents it, l have not admitted, but have positively denied, that the poverty complained of by Mr. Whitbread has arisen from the vices of the people; and have, in terms most distinct, ascribed it to the other natural and all-pervading cause, the increase of taxation. In answer to this argument relative to the effects of the taxing system, Scoto-Britannus, first observes, that the taxes bear equally hard upon the people of both countries; then he asserts, that the labourers in Scotland are in most delightful condition. This is his argument of experience; but, between mine and his there is this little difference, that I, in stating the increase of paupers, refer to documents which have been laid before parliament, whereas he refers merely to his own observation, confined, in all probability, to a small part of Scotland, and, therefore, here his arguincht is at once demolished by my denying the fact upon which it rests, and, I thiik, I am warranted in so doing, when I am able to shew, that the Scotch labourers are, in part, fed from the fruit of the labour of o, sent to them in grants annually made by parliament. But, aware of the weakness of this ground, he resorts to reasons drawn from the nature of the case, and says, “ that the English la“ bourer, if he chooses to be industrious “ and seconomical, may make a very com“ fortable livelihood; and that his profits are not drained away by taxes, because .* his establishment and income are so smail, “ that they do not come within the range of the taring system.” Upon reading this, one might almost be led to hope, that this system, as established here, has not yet.
too much to hope, we must conclude, either that the poor in Scotland wear no shoes, no shirts, no bats; that tiley use neither tea
nor coffee her sugar nor spirits morbeer nor
candles nor soap; that, in short, they go naked by day, lay upon the bare grotiud by night, dig up their food with their snouts or catch it for the manner of the hawk or the fox, and that their drink is pure water; this we must conclude, or we must conclude that Scoto-Britantius, who writes in so dogma
tical a style, who quotes Latin, and who, to
shew his contempt of it, I suppose, does, in several instances, scorn to write English, has never reflected, or is incapable of reflecting with advantage, upon the operation and ef. fects of the taxing system.—II. But,
said I, supposing for argument's sake, that
vice has greatly increased, amongst the poor, of late years, schools, books, magazines, newspapers, &e, have increased ten-fold since the fatal reign of Pitt began; how,
then, can Mr. Whitbread expect to eradi
cate vice, and thereby reduce the number of paupers by adding about twelve thousand to the number of schools already existing? Scoto-Britannus, with his usual modesty, begins his answer to this argument by asserting, that it is fallacious ; “ for,” says he, “ the increase of the epublications has not “ proceeded from the extension of the art of “ reading, but from some of those, who “ were able to read sormerly, reading more “ than they did; and from a very numer“ ous class, who could read formerly, now “ using these publications, whereas they “ never thought of them some years ago.” He seems to have overlooked the great and glaring increase of schools in England and Wales, whence, I think, we may presume that there is a great increase of readers; and, indeed, for a writerseriously to contend, that: the readers have not increased, does expose. him to imminent danger of being set down for a person more intent upon contradiction than upon the discovery of truth. But, at. any rate, reading has increased, the mass of reading has increased with the mass of vice; for, observe, it is he who contends that vice has increased, that being the very basis of the project; and, then, I repeat my question, if vice has increased with the increase of reading, how are we to ho that vice will be diminished by a further increase of reading 2—III. I said, that, if taught to read the Bible, the would not stop there; that they would read publications very well calculated to add to the stock of vice; and that, as to political matters, the little learned must derive injury from the works issuing from a press, under laws, by which a man may be put half to death for writing, or publishing, the truth. —To this Scoto-Britannus gives no answer at all; but, in one part of his letter, he has the following observations: “It is “very plain, that, in a civilized period of society, as we are, unless a habit of mental amusement is acquired, the only entertainment will consist in animal, and, consequently, vicious gratification. Now, “ from this indubitable principle, it mani“ festly follows, that, even the plough
" man, unless he can read, so as to thousand ploughmen, set them down to “ amuse himself when his work is oyer, the their good books, after their day's work is
“ale-house will be his resort, where he “brings himself aud his family to beggary. "You may say, indeed, that his reading “will corrupt his principies, both moral and “Political; but, rely upon it, his want of “reading-will., lead him farther astray. "Pimps and demagogues and hireling de“claimers are now too numerous, too anx“ious, and too successful in deluding igno“rance. The peasant's time would, at “least, harmlessly be spent in reading the “most immoral, and factious, publications; “and, I am fully convinced, would not be " in such danger as if he were left in igno" rance", (this is to say, without reading them). “A taste, and a sight, of vice, be: “fore the deceiver comes, is the best anti“...dote against it”. Go, go, thou Scotch Philosopher 1, Keep thy pimping books, thy Primmers of debauchery and blasphemy, amongst the lads and lassies of thy own county;...fortify them against the deceiver by giving them a foretaste of vice; but, come not, I pray thee, on this side the Tweed . As to the ale-house, properly used, it is as good as the bake-house, or bacon-house. The Bible will tell your pupils, that wine was given by God “to glad men's heart"; and, they will readily conclude, that, those who cannot get wine for that purpose, may safely take beer, without any offence to him who made it and them. But, upon the supposition, that the poor man's heart should never, eyen for one nament, he cheered by liquor, aid that he never ought to set his foot into quale-house, what, let me ask, is so likely talead him thither as the news-paper? And, where will, you find an ale-house without one of Ask the landlord, why he takes the news-paper, he will tell you, that it attracts People to his house.; and, in many cases, its
attractions are much stronger than those of .
the liquor there drunk, thousands upon thoulands of men having become sots to. the attractions ofolo. vehicles of novelty and falsehood—The principle, that, all guinal ai thoggh “ indubitable” with this northern Philosopher, is a little doubtful with me;
ind, indeed, if one may venture to express.
an opinion in opposition to that of a writer, who speaks in so authoritative a tone, I should think, that animal aniusements, generally *peaking, are the least likely of the two to *gender wice; and, as to the ploughman, illing down to read his good book, after his aboo is obe, the idea never could have to: way into the mind of any one who Aew what a ploughman was, Take a
entents are necessarily vicions,
done, and, in less than ten minutes, the whole
, thousand will be asleep. Animal amuse
ment is the only amusement that such men can enjoy. They are up long before the sun; and, in the eyening of the day, if they are not engaged in bodily exercise, they must be asleep, and asleep they would be, though a torrent of the philosophy of Scoto-Britannus were pouring down upon their devoted heads.-I asked, whether, within these last twenty years, liberty had increased with the increase of schools 2 Scoto does not answer this question, but he drops in upon the subject thus : , “Would not reading", says he, “ render the poor more upright, by ena“ bling them the better to understand those “ instructions, which every Sunday, the “ church affords them Ignorance" (which is a want of reading, observe) “ has ever “ been the constant attendant of slavery “ and bigotry; and, on this account, uni“ versal education" (that is reading), “as “ it would add to the beauty, so it would “ also add to the security of the British “Constitution".--This word constitution is a very fine word. Scoto does not say to the security of person and property; because, perhaps, he was aware, that I should ask him what improvement that had received from his system of parish schools in Scotland; and that I should have put a question or twe about the powers of a Lord Advocate, when exercised by a man of “an ardent “, wind", as Pitt called it. That Scoto, who is, clearly enough, a schoolmaster bimself, should see great beauty in the British Constitution I am not at all surprised, especially when I recollect, that the appointment of Scotch Schoolmasters is perfectly a political affair, as it would, in all likelihood, very soon become in England. At the }. effect of reading the Bible I beore hinted; and, I think, it must be clear to every man who attentively considers the matter, that such reading, if universal, could lead to nothing short of universal schism, which, at present, is prevented, only by the general want of what unay be called study in reading it. Those, amongst the mass of the people, who read the Bible, read it because they are told it is their duty so to do. Having i. over the words, they think they have one their duty, without troubling themselves as to the sense. This is an evil, because, they are apt to regard it as a work of propitiation, and the effect is much about the same as that produced by the lioman Catho, lic's bidding of his beads. The Bible is a book for learned historians and profound