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“money for that purpose,”)is any very great nuisance, proceeds to give (as I trust) a most unjust and certainly a very novel explanation cf the principles of the British Constitution, upon the subject of which I may perhaps at afuture day,trouble you with some comments. In the mean time, altho's must confess rotten boroughs are not in the smallest degree objectionable, and sinecure places and pensions on his plan indispensably necessary yet as the theory of his system can only be realized on the ruin of the British Constitution as established at the Revolution, I can by no means become a convert to his political speculations, and take my leave of him with a recommendation that when he shall next be inclined at the expence of sincerity to wield his pen in defence of a system the effects of which he so feelingly deplores, he should be a little more cautious than to place the means of his detection almost line and line with his owth statements. AN Old ENGLIs HMAN. PUBLIC PAPER. DENst arx.-Proclamtition issued on the 16th of August, at Zealand, by Admiral Gambier and Lord Cathcart, commanders in chief of his Majesty's forces by sea and by land, employed in the erpedition,

whereas the present Treaties of Peace, .

and the changes of Government and of Territory, acceded to by so many Powers, have so far-increased the trifluence of France on the continent of Europe, as to render it impossible for Denmark, though it desires to be neutral, to preserve its neutrality, and absolutely necessary for those who continue

to resist the French aggression, to take mea

sures to prevent the arms of Neutral Powers from being turned against them —ln this view, the King camot regard the present

osition of Denmark with indifference, and

is Majesty has sent negociators, with ample powers, to his Danish Majesty, to request, in the most amicable manner, such explanations as the times require, and a concurrence in such measures, as can alone give security against the farther mischiefs which the :h medidate through the acquisition of the Danish Navy.—The King, our royal and most gracious master, has

therefore judged it expedient, to desire the

temporary deposit of the Danish ships of she line, in one of his Majesty's ports—

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The deposit seems to be so just, and so indispensibly necessary; under the relative

circumstances of the Neutral and Belligerent Powers, that his Majesty has further deemed it a duty to himself, and to his People, to opport this demand by a power.

tul fleet, and by an army amply supplied with every preparation necessary for the most active and determined enterprise.—

We come, therefore, to your shores, inha- " bitants of Zealand not as enemies, but in self-defence, to prevent those, who have so : long disturbed the peace of Europe, from

compelling the force of your Navy to be turned against us, -We ask deposit, we have not looked to capture; so far from it, the most solemn pledge has been offered to your Government, and is hereby renewed in , the name, and at the express command of . the King, our master, that if our demand is amicably acceded to, every ship belonging to Denmark, shall, at the conclusion of a General Peace, be restored to her, in the same condition and state of equipment, as when received under the protection of the . British flag—It is in the power of your government, by a word, to sheath our swords,

most reluctantly drawn against you; but if,

on the other hand, the machinations of of France render you deaf to the voice of

| reason and the call of friendship, the inno

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be held sacred.—Property will be respected

and preserved, and the most severe discipline will be enforced.—Every article of supply furnished, or brought to market, will be paid for at a fair and settled price; but as immediate and constant supplies, especially of provision, forage, fuel, and transports, are necessary to all armies, it is well known that requisitions are unavoidable, and must be enforced.—Much convenience will arise to the inhabitants, and much confusion and loss to them will be prevented, if persons in authority are found in the several districts to whom requisitions may be addressed, and through whom claims for payment may be settled and liquidated.— If such persons are appointed, and discharge their duty, without meddling in matters which do not concern them, they shall be respected, and all requisitions shall be addressed to them, through the proper chanfiels, and departments of the navy and arm;;

but as forbearance on, the part of the inha. bitants is essential to the principle of these

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respective habitations, and any peasants, or other persons, found in arms, singly, or in

..small troops, or who may be guilty of any act of violence, must expect to be treated.

with rigour.—The Government of his Da

... nish Majesty having hitherto refused to

i. - - - "... treat this matter in an amicable way, part

of the army, has been disembarked, and the whole force has assumed a warlike atti

tude; but it is as yet not too late for the .

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, DeNMARK.—Proclamation of the Danish Government against England; dated Gluckstadt, August 16, 1807. We, Christian the seventh, by the grace of God, king of Denmark, Norway, of the Wends and Goths, duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Slonnau, and Dietmarschen, also of Oldenburgh, &c. &c. do herewith make known;–That whereas by the English Envoy, Jackson, it was declared to us, on the 13th of this month, that hostilities against Denmark would be commenced ; and whereas at the same time he demanded passports for himself and his suite, consequently, the war between England and Denmark may be considered as actually broken out;

therefore, we herewith call on all our faith

ful subjects to take up arms, whenever it shall be desired, to frustrate the insidious designs of the enemy, and repel hostile attack. —We further here with ordain, that all English ships, as well as all English property, and all English goods, shall be seized by the magistrates, and otherwise, particularly by the officers of the customs wheresoever they may be found. It is further our will, that all English subjects, until, pursuant to our further orders, they can be sent out of the country, shall, without exception, be arrested as enemies of our kingdom and our country; which measure is strictly to be carried into execution by all magistrates, as well as by all subordinate officers, duly to be instructed by them for that purpose. And it is a matter of course, that all English ships and boats which approach ou.

coasts shall be considered and treated a 4. : to that object.: I cannot be irritated against

enemies.—It is also "our will, that all suspi

cious foreigners shall be watched with the

greatest attention; and that all magistrates, as well as all subordinate officers, shall use || to those of its neighbours.-But, whateve

their utmost efforts, as soon as possible, to discover all spies. Lastly, we find it necessary to ordain, that, immediately after pub

arrangements, it is necessary that all man- lication hereof, all correspondence with ..., oner of civil persons should remain at their

English subjects shall entirely cease, and that no payment shall be made to them on any ground whatever, until our further otders, on pain of severe punishment in case of continuation... For the rest we rely on the justice of our cause, and the courage and tried fidelity of our beloved subjects.Given under our Royal Seal, in our fortress of Gluckstadt, the 16th August, 1807– | (L.S.) C. L. Banon Von BRock Doñry, - J. C. MoRitz. , * —----------- - - --------------4---

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FOREIGN OFFICIAL PAPERS,

FRANGE.-Speech of the Emperor Napoleon at the opening of the Meeting of the Le'gislative Body, at Paris, August 16

1807. - . . . . Gentlemen, the Deputies of the Legislative Body; Gentlemen, the Members of the Tribunate, and of my Council of State. —Since your last meeting, new wars, new triumphs, and new treaties of peace, have changed the aspect of the political relations of Europe.—The House of Brandeburg, which was the first to combine against our independence, is indebted, for still being permitted to reign, to the sincere friendship with which the powerful Emperor of the North has inspired me.—A French Prince shall reign, on the Elbe. . He will know how to make the interests of his new subjects form the first and most sacred of his duties.—The House of Saxony has recovered the independence, which it lost fifty years ago. The people of the dukedom of Warsaw, and of the town of Dantzic, are again in possession of their country, and have obtained their rights. All the nations concur in rejoicing, that the pernicious influence, which England exercised over the continent, is for ever destroyed.—France is a united by the laws of the confederacy of the Rhine, with the people of Germany, and by our federative system with the people of |

Spain, Holland, Switzerland, and Italy. Our new relations with Russia are founded upon the reciprocal respect of two greatma: tions.—In every thing I have done, I have only had the happiness of my people in view —that has always been in my eyes far deas" er to me than my own renown.—I wish for peace by sea. No irritation shall ever, have any influence on my decisions with. respect

a nation which is the sport and the victim of

the parties that devourit, and which is misled, as well with respect to its quon affairs an

may be the termination which provident”. has decreed the maritime war shall have, no *

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public treasury, will make known to you.

the prosperous state of our finances. My people will see the contributions, upon real property considerably diminished.—My minister of the interior will give you an account of the public works which are begun or finished ; but those which may still be expected, are much more considerable, since it is my determination that in all parts of my empire, even in the smallest hamlet, the comforts of the citizens, and the value of the lands shall be increased, by the developement of that universal system of inprovement which I have formed.—Gentlemen, Deputies to the Legislative Body, your assistance in the accomplishment of that great object will be necessary to me, and I have a right to reckon upon that assistance with confidence.

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abolished, and all citizens are equal with respect to the law.—II. Of the Government. The Archducal Crown is hereditary in the Kings of Saxony, who are to appoint a Viceroy or President of the Ministerial Council. The property of the Ducal Crown consists, 1. In an annual revenue of seven millions of Polish guelders, one half arising from the royal lands or demesnes, the other half from the treasury; 2d, in the Royal Palace of Warsaw, and the Saxon Palace.—III. Of the Ministers of the Council of State.—The | ministry consists of six members, viz. The Ministers of Justice, of Foreign Affairs, of Religion, of War, of Finances, and of Police. There is also a Secretary of State. The Council of State is formed out of the ministry for the purpose of preparing plans of laws, &c. all of which the King bas the power of rejecting. — IV. Of the General Diet–This body is divided into two chambers, viz. the senate and the representatives. . The Diet is to assemble every second year, for 14 days, when a royal act of convocation calls the members together—-V. Of the Senate.—This chamber has 18-members, consisting of six Bi

appointed by the King, who has also the power of enereasing the number of senators to thirty, if he shalt think fit.—VI. Of the Chamber of Representatives.—Tbese consist of 60 deputies, chosen by the district diets of the nobles, and 40 elected by the towns. The members retain their seats for nine years, but at the end of eyery three years, one-third of the body is renewed.— VII. This section contains regulations for the meetings of the district, diets, &c.— VIII. Of the Division of the Territory.The Duchy is divided into six departments, to each of which there is a prefect, under prefect, mayors, and a departmental council of from 16 to 24 members.--IX. Of the Laws—“The Napoleon Code shall be the civil law of the Duchy of Warsaw.” Each department has a civil and a criminal court. The council of state is the last court of appeal. The judges are appointed by the King.—X. Of the Armed Force.—The standing army consists of 30,000 men. The King can call a part of this force into Saxony, but must replace them by an equal number of Saxons—XI. General Regulations,— All who have not places for life may be dismissed at the pleasure of the King, the deputies only exeepted. None but citizens of the Dukedort can be appointed to public situations. All the acts of the government must be drawn up in the Polish language. All the civic and military orders formerly

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- - . . . . . . . . . * : . . . . . . ~~~

shops, six Palatines, and six Castellans, all changed, but the King is their head.—XII. The present imposts remain until the 1st of January, 1809. No change can be made in the organization of the troops, until regulations be made on that subject by the Diet.We Napoleon, by the grace of God and the Constitution, Emperor of the French, Kung of Italy, and Protector of the Rhenish Confederacy, have approved, and hereby do approve of the above constitutional act, which has been submitted to us for carrying into. effect the 5th Article of the Treaty of Tilsit, and which we consider as calculated to fulfil our engagements to the people of Warsaw. and Great Poland, by reconciling their freedom and privileges with the tranquillity of the neighbouring states.---Given in the Royal Palace of Dresden, this 22d. day of July, 1807. (Signed). Napoleow.

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fice your lives, your fortunes, and the sacred ties of nature, for the happiness of your Country, and to again obtain the name of Poles. A single word from his Majesty the Emperor of the French has armied you all. His vast genius insures you victory. By your firmness all your enterprizes will be crowned with success. Despise all the false reports which the inveterate enemies of your Country circulate. The greatness of soul of Napoleon is your AEgis. Our fate cannot be determined at this moment; an impenetrable veil must conceal it for some time from our eyes. Let us adore the sublime wisdom of him who commands half of the world. Banish the .despair of your hearts. Be penetrated with obedience, and resign yourselves to the confidence you ought to have in his goodness: your happiness depends on it. The least murmur, the least opposition to his will, may destroy all that you have hitherto done. Our new born power cannot exist without this—we can only obtain existence from the amiable Napoleon, a man equally great in politics and war, determines and executes every thing in the profundity of his wisdom, withopt our being able to penetrate his motives; let us place in him unbounded confldence; this is the ouly means which can secure to us his benevolence; and let us

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Fonted by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Great Queen Street, and oblished Garden, where former Numbers may be had:

employ quietly and patiently the time which peace affords us to render ourselves perfect in every thing relative to the service of our Country.—Luaienski, President.

Russia.--Answer to the Note of Count Marveld, (the Austrian Ambassadory “ The Emperor Alexander has fully appreciated the motives which have induced his Majesty the Emperor and King to offer bis mediation and his good offices to the principal Belligerent powers, for which, on his part, he is happy in the opportunity of exssing his gratitude to his Imperial and yal Majesty.—The frequent and unequivocal proofs which the Emperor of all the Russias has afforded, of his earnest desire to see the termination of the calamities which have so long desolated Europe, might have convinced his Imperial and Royal Majesty of the earnestness with which the eourt of St. Petersburg would receive every proposal tending to promote so important an object. . His Imperial Majesty of all the Russias will always be animated by the same disposition; and he will be ready to accept the proffered mediation, whenever it shall be in the power of his Majesty the Emperor and King to communicate to him the grounds upon which the French government may be inclined to enter into negociation ; and that it shall appear these grounds are of such a nature, as may afford a prospect of the attainment of that end, which is the object of all the endeavours of his Imperial Majesty of all the Russias, as is already sufficiently known to the Court of Vienna. (Signed,) Andre de Budberg. Bartenstein, April 16, 1807."

C O B B E T 'T' S Parliamentary History • OF

E NG LAN D,

From the Norman Conquest in 1066, to the Year 1803. From which last mentioned period it is continued downwards in the work entitled “ Cobbett's Parliamentary * Debates." *** The Second Volume comprising the Period from the Accession of Charles the First in 1625, to the Battle ..of -hill in 1642, is ready for delivery. |Published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Covent Garden; and sold also by J. Budo' Pali Mail, and by all the Booksellers and Newsmen in the United Kingdom.-Of whom may be had Complete Sets of “C” Barr's PARLIAM ent Aav Dasares,” does. Suco, o

by R. Bagshiw, sold alie by J. Budd, end Mitre,

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“Did not the keeping of this station breed fear to our greatest enemies, and make out faint friends the : more sure and loather to break 2 Yea, hath not the winning and keeping of this bred throughout ot Europe an honourable opinion and report of our English nation ? Again, what one thing so much pre* served and guarded our merchants, their traffic and intercourses. or hath been so great a help for the well uttering of our chief cerionodities; or what, so much as this, hath kept a great part of our sea“coasts from spoiling and robbing 2" Lon D. Keert R's Speech, at opening the Parliament, in the 1st

** 8. Elizabeth's reign.-Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England, Vol. I. p. 640.

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SUMMARY OF POLITICS. DANIsh WAR.— The Danes having, not only declared war, but issued orders to their vessels to take and destroy our vessels, it would, I should think, be difficult to give any *atisfactory reasons for our not having declared war too. Ships and goods taken from an enemy, previous to a declaration of war, are called “Droits of Admiralty;” and, in this way used, droit seems to mean forfeiture, or prize; but, why the ships and goods, taken under such circumstances, should not go to the captors, as well as ships and goods, taken ofter a declaration of war, I can see no rea

son. The real truth is, however, that this. .." droit of Admiralty,” is a prize for the

ling, who, under an old custom, claims such ships and goods as his own private property, aid, accordingly, he claimed an immense sum, which, as my readers will recollect, was taken from the Spaniards, previous to a declaration of war, and which claim did greatly surprise me, because I thought, that, since

nation had taken upon itself to defray, out of its taxes, all the expences, of every ort, necessary to the support of the king and every branch and member of his family; this being the case. I thought that these “droits of Admiralty,” like the rent of crown-lands and other revenues formerly belonging to the king, came, of course, into the public exchequer. I am very sorry, that this is not the case; for, is, upon some future occasion, a grasping or prodigal king were to meet with a set of supple slaves for counsellors, be might, for years, carry on a war, in fact, without declaring war; or, at the least, take core to have the prime of the captures, to sack the first haul of doublooms, and leave the straggling ones to the fleet; upon some Joture occasion, and when I say future, I neau a long while hence, because, as must be evident to every one, the qualities, which I have here supposed possiule in a king, be

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What ' When we have made a forcible entry

into their territory; when we have besieged, and, perhaps, bombarded, their capital, not declare war against them That is to say, not call it war that we are carrying on 1 This is so grossly inconsistent, that it is impossible not to suspect, that there is some unfair motive at bottom. Upon the ground of this war, or, rather, of this enterprize to sieze on the Danish fleet and naval arsenals, I thought enough had been said before; but, after a week or two of silence, the Morning Chronicle, that steady adherent of the rump of Whiggism, has come forth with a regular pleading against the measure; and, as I really do not entertain for the writings of Mr. Spankie any portion of that sort of contempt, which he says he entertains for mine, I shall here insert this pleading, and shall state, as well as I can, the reasons why, upon this subject, I differ in opinion with its author “We have, from the first, en“ tertained considerable doubts, both of the “justice and the policy of the attack on '' Denmark. It is true, that since the “ French revolution, and since the iii, mense “ power of France has led her to violate those principles of the Laws of Nations, from which she thinks she herself will “ never be obliged to seek protection, (be“-cause, like all cther jaws, the law of na“ tions is for the benefit of the weak against the strong), the law of nations is treated

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“ by some as a creature of the imagination,

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and not at all binding. This o of ar

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