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> ing friends to liberty; for, be assured, that, if they could destroy the navy of England they would ; and, though it is possible that they might love liberty themselves, if they could get it, they would not stir one incli to save us from dungeons and chains; but, on the contrary, when they saw us manacled, would laugh at our folly. This tender feeling, Gentlemen, for the interests and honour of foreign nations, is a feeling of modern date in the English patriot's breast. The motto, which I have taken for this paper, contains the sentiments of one of those, who assisted in overturning the kingly government of England. His were not notions of universal equality amongst nations. The men of that day understood what liberty was, full as well as my friend of the Independent Whig. They were no court sycophants. They spared not their blood in the cause of liberty at home; but, never did it enter into their minds, that all nations were entitled to equal rights upon the seas. They gave up none, no not one, of the rights or the honours of England; but, they restored, re established, and confirmed those rights and honours, which the preceding pusillanimous kings had suffered to wither and decay. There are some other important points, upon which I shall, in my next letter, trouble you with some observations, such, for instance, as the danger, which this writer apprehends, from the closing of the American ports against us, in which he happens most harmoniously to coincide in expression with those whom, I hope, he most despises. The character of the Americans, too, and especially that of their sea-faring people, he has adventurously taken upon him to vindicate. The probable number of our seamen on board of American ships I shall be able to state with a little more accuracy than he has done. In the meanwhile, suffer me to exhort you, not to let your resentment against our calumniators carry you one inch towards an indifference with respest to the fate of our country from without ; for, be assured, that "if a conqueror were to take possession of it, we should be the principal sufferers, and not they, who would readily enlist in his ser. vice, and who would be gladly received, as ready-made instruments in his works of rapacity and plunder. - I am, Gentlemen, Your faithful friend, - - and obedient Servant, Botley, 13th Aug. WM. Cobb ETT. 1807. -- "
FOREIGN OFFICIAL PAPERS.
Costinental WAR. — Eightieth Bulletin of the Grand French Army. (Concluded from page 224.)
The Emperor of Russia remained three weeks at Tilsitt with the King of Prussia. On receiving advice of the battle of Friedland, they both left the place with the utmost haste.
No. I. The General in Chief Benningsen, to his Ercellency the Prince Bagrathion.
After the torrents of blood which have lately flowed in battles as sanguinary as frequeñtly repeated, I could wish to assuage the evils of this destructive war by proposing an armistice, before we eater into a conflict, into a new war, perhaps still more terriole than the former. I request you, Prince, to make known to the chiefs of the French army this intention on my part, of which the consequence may have effects more salutary, as a general congress has already been proposed, and may prevent a useless effusion of human blood. You will afterwards transmit to me the result of your proceedings, and believe me to be with the most distinguished consideration, , your. Excellency's most humble and most obedient servant B. BENNINGSEN. - •
No. II. His Ercellency the Prince Bagrathion to the General in Chief Benningsen. .
General,—The General Commander in Chief has addressed to me a letter relative to the orders which his Excellency has received from his Majesty the Emperor, directing me to communicate its contents: I think I cannot better comply with his intentions than by transmitting to you the original. I request you, at the same time, to send me your answer; and accept the assurance of the high consideration with which, I am, General, your most humble and most obedient servant, BAGRATHIon.—June 6-18th.
rents, their accustomed relations of friendship, hospitality, and commercial intercourse. Taking no part in the questions which animate these powers against each other, nor permitting themselves to entertain a wish but for the restoration of general peace, they have observed with good faith the neutrality they assumed, and they believe that no instance of a departure from its duties can be justly imputed to them by any nation. A free use of their harbours and waters, the means of refitting and of refreshment, of succour to their sick and suffering, have, at all times, and on equal prin
ciples, been extended to all, and this too amidst a constant recurrence of acts of insu
bordination to the laws, of violence to the persons, and of trespasses on the property of
our citizens, committed by officers of one of
the belligerent parties received among us. In truth these abuses of the laws of hospitality have, with few exceptions, become habitual to the commanders of the British armed vessels hovering on our coasts, and frequenting our harbours. They have been the subject of repeated representations to their gevernment. Assurances have been given that proper orders should restrain them within the limit of the rights and of the respest due to a friendly nation: but those orders and assurances have been without effect; no instance of punishment for past wrongs has taken place. At length, a deed, transcending all we have hitherto seen or suffered, brings the public sensibility to a serious crisis, and our forbearance to a necessary pause. A frigate of the United States, trusting to a 'state of peace, and leaving her harbour on a distant service, has been surprised and attacked by a British vessel of superior force, one of a squadron then lying in our waters, and covering the transaction, and has been disabled from service, with the loss of a number of men kili, d and wounded. This enormity was not only without Provocation or justifiable cause, but was committed with the avowed purpose of taking by force, from a ship of war, belonging to the United States, a part of her crew,
and that no circumstance might be wanting to mark its character, it had been previously ascertained, that the seamen demanded were native citizens of the United States. Having effected his purpose, he returned to anchor with his squadron within our jurisdiction. Hospitality, under such circumstances, ceases to be a duty; and a continuance of it, with such uncontrouled abuses, would tends only, by multiplying injuries and irritations, to bring on a rupture between the two nations. This extreme resort is equally opposed to the interests of both, as it is to assurances of the most friendly dispositions on the part of the British government, in the . midst of which this outrage has been committed. In this light the subject cannot but present itself to that government, and strengthen the motives to an honourable reparation of the wrong which has been done, and to that effectual controul of its naval commanders, which alone can justify the government of the United States, in the exercise of those hospitalities it is now constrained to discontinue. — In consideration of these circumstances, and of the right of every nation to regulate its own police, to provide for its peace, and for the safety of its citizens, and consequently to refuse the admission of armed vessels into its harbours or waters, either in such numbers or of such descriptions as are inconsistent with these, or with the maintenance of the authority of the laws, I have thought proper, in pursuance of the authorities specially given by law, to issue this my proclamation, hereby requiring all armed vessels bearing commission under the government of Great Britain, now within the waters or harbours of the United States, in mediately and without any delay . to depart from the same, and interdicting. the entrance of all the said harbours and waters to the said armed vessels, and to all others bearing commissions under the antherity of the British government——And if the said vessels, or any of them, hall fail to depart as aforesaid, or if they, or any others, so interdicted, shall hereafter enter the harbours or waters aforesaid, I do, in that case, forbid all intercourse with them, or any of them, . their officers or crews, and do prohibit all supplies and aid from being furnished to them or any of them —And I do declare and make known, that if any person from, or within the jurisdictional limits of the United States, shall afford any aid to any such vessel, contrary to the prohibition contained in this proclamation, either in repairing any such vessel, or in furnishing her, her officers, or crew, with supplies of any kind, or in any manner whatsoever, or if any pilot shall assist in uavigating any of the said aru.e4 ves
and penalties by the laws provided for such
offences.—And I do hereby enjoin and reuire all persons bearing office, civil or military, within or under the authority of the United States, and all others, citizens or inhabitants thereof, or being within the same, with vigilance and promptitude to exer: their respective authorities, and to be aiding and assisting to the carrying this proclamation, and every part thereof, into full effect.— Provided nevertheless, that if any such vessel shall be forced into the harbours or waters of the United States, by distress, by the dangers of the sea, or by the pursuit of an enemy, or shall enter them charged with dispatches or business from their government, or shall be a public packet for the conveyance of letters and dispatches, the commanding officer immediately reporting his vessel to the collector of the district, stating the object or causes of entering the said harbours or waters, and conforming himself to the regulations in that case prescribed under the authority of the laws, shall be allowed the benefit of such regulations respecting repairs, supplies, stay, intercourse and departure, as shall be permitted under the same authority.——In testimony whereof I have caused the Seal of the United States to be affixed to these presents, and signed the saint”. Given åt the City of Washington, the 2d day of July, in the year of our Lord, 1807, and of the sovereignty and independ nee of the United States the thirty-first;Thomas JEFFERson, By the President.— JAMEs Madison, Secretary of State. "
TREATY: BETwo EN FRANCE ANd Russi A.— To eaty of Peace between his Majesty the Emperor of the French, the King j}. and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias. Done at Tilsit, July 7, 1807. His Majesty, the Emperor of France, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, and his Majesty the Emperor of Russia, animated with the same into rest in putting an end to the devastations of war, have, for this purpose, nominated and furuished with full power on the part of his Majesty the Emperor of France and King of Jtaly, Charles Maurice Talleyrand, Prince of 13enevento, his Great Chamberlain, and Miinister of Foreign Affairs, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, Knight of the Prussian order of the flock and of the fied Eagle of whe'Order of St. Hubert.-His Majesty, the
| Emperor of all the Russias, has, on his part, appointed Prince Kourakin, his actual Privy | Counsellor; Member of the Council of | State, and of the Senate; Chaucellor of all the Orders in the Empire; Ambassador Extraordinary, and Plenipotentiary of his Majesty of all the Russins to his Majesty the
Emperor of Austria; Knight of the Russian Order of St. Audrew , of St. Alexander; of St. Aube; of the first class of the Order of St. Wolodimir, and of the second class of the Prussian Orders of the Black and Red Eagle; of the Bavarian Order of St. Hubeit ; of the Danish Order of Dannebrog, and the Perfect Union, and Bailiff and Grand Cross of the Sovereign Order cf St. John of Jerusalem; and Prince Demety Labanoff Van Rostoff, Lieut. General of the Armies of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; Knight of the first class of the Order of St. Anne, of the Military Order of St. Joris, and of the third class of the order of Wolodimir.The abovementioned, after exchanging their full powers, have agreed upon the following Articles: Art. I. From the day of exchanging the ratification of the present treaties, there shall be perfect peace and amity between his Majesty the Eamperor of the French and King of Italy, and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias. – Art. II. Hostilities shall immediately cease at all points by sea or land, as soon as the intelligence of the present treaty shall be officially received. In the mean while, the high contracting parties shall dispatch couriers ex: traordinary to their respective generals, and commanders.-Art. III All ships of war or other vessels, belonging to the high contracting parties of their subjects, which may be captured after the signing of this treaty, shall be resored. In case of these vessels being sold, the value shall be returned.-Art. IV. Out of esteem for his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and to afford to him a proof of his sincere desire to unite both nations in the bands of immutable confidence and friendship, the Emperor Napo: leon wishes that all the countries, towns, and territory, conquered from the King of Prussia, the ally of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, should be restored, namely, that part of the Duchy of Magdeburg, ... tuated on the right bik of the Rhine, the Mark of Prignitz; the Uker Mark i. the Middle and New Mark of Brandenburg, with the exception of the Circle of Kotovo. in Lower Alsace; the Duchy of Pomeo ; Upper, Lower, and New Silesia, and the County of Glatz; that part of the District of the Netze, which is situated to the northward of the road of Driesen and Scheide: muhl, and to the rorthward of a line *
from Schneidemuhl through Waldau to the: Vistula, and extending along the frontier of
the Duchy of Warsaw, the territory between the present confines of Russia, from the Bug to the mouth of the Lassona, shall extendin a fine from the mouth of the Lassona along. the towing path of the said river; and that of the Bobra, up to its mouth; that of the Narew from the mouth of that river as far, as Suradiz, from Lissa to its source near the village of Mien ; from this village to Nurzeck, and, from Nutzeck to the mouth of that river beyond Nurr; and finally, along the towing path of the Bug upwards, to extend as far as the present frontiers of Russia. This territory is for ever united to the Empire of Russia—Art. X. No person of any. rank or quality whatever, whose residence or property may be within the limits stated in, the above-mentioned article, nor any inha-. bitant in those provinces of the ancient kingdom of Poland, which may be given up to . his Majesty the King of Prussia, or any person possessing estates, revenues, pensions, , or any other kind of income, shall be molested in his person, or in any way whatever, on account of his rank, quality, estates, revenues, pensions, income, or otherwise, or in consequence of any part, political or mili- . tary, which he may have taken in the events, of the present war—Art. XI. All contracts and engagements between his Majesty the King of Prussia and the ancient possessors, relative to the general imposts, the ecclesiastical, the military or civil benefices, of the creditors or pensioners of the old Prussian government, are to be settled between the Emperor of all the Russias and his Majesty the King of Saxony; and to be regulated by their said Majesties, in proportion to their . acquisitions, according to articles V. and IX. . Art. XII. Their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Saxe Cobourg, Oldenburg, and Mecklenburgh Schwerin, shall each of them be restored to the complete and quiet possession of their estates; but the ports in the Duchies of Oldenburgh and Mecklenburgh shall remain in the possession of French garrisons till the definitive treaty shall be signed between France and England.—Art. XIII. His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon accepts of the mediation of the Emperor of all the Russias, in order to negociate and conclude a definitive treaty of peace between France and England; however only upon condition that this mediation shall be accepted by | England in one month aster the exchange of the ratification of the present treaty.—Art. § the Emperor of all the Russias belng desirous on his part to mani
the circle of Bromberg, and the navigation |
of the river Netze and of the canal of Bremberg, from Driesen to the Vistula and back, . must remain open and free of all tolls; Pometelia; the island of Nogat; the country on the right bank of the Vistula and of the Nogat to the West of Old Prussia, and to the Northward of the circle of Calm; Ermeland. Lastly, the kingdom of Prussia, as it was on the 1st of January, 1772, together with the fortresses of Spandau, Stettin, Custrin, Glogau, Breslau, Schweidnitz, Neisse, Brieg, Kosel, and Glatz, and in ge. neral all fortresses, citadels, castles, and strong holds of the countries above-named, in the same condition in which those fortresses, citadels, castles, and strong holds may be at present; also, in addition to the above, the city and citadel of Graudentz.— . Art. V. Those provinces which, on the 1st of January, 1772, formed a part of the kingdom of Poland, and have since, at different times, been subjected to Prussia (with the exception of the countries named or alluded to in the preceding article, and of those which are described below the 6th article), shall become the possession of his Majesty the King of Saxony, with power of possession and sovereignty, under the title of the Duchy of Warsaw, and shall be governed according to a regulation, which will insure the liberties and privileges of the people of the said Duchy, and be consistent with the security of the neighbouring states. ——Art. VI. The City of Đă:ntzic, with a territory of two leagues round the same, is restored to her former independence, under the protection of his Majesty the King of Prussia, and his Majesty the King of Saxony; to be governed according to the laws by which she was governed at the time when she ceased to be her own mistress.--—Art. VII. For a cornmunication betwixt the king: dom of Saxony and the Duchy of Warsaw, his Majesty the King of Saxony is to have the free use of a military road through the states of his Majesty the King cf. Prussia. This road, the number of troops which are allowed to pass at once, and the resing places, shall be fixed by a particular agree ment between the two sovereigns, under the mediation of France.—Art. VIII. Neither his Majesty the King of Prussia, his Majesty the King of Saxony, nor the city of autoic, shall oppose any obstacles oatover to the free navigation of the Vistijäui: or the name of toils, rigos, or duties.-An IX. In order is faio, pole to està: blish a natural boundaryJosé
Joseph Napoleon, King of Naples, and his Majesty Louis Napoleon, King of Holland. —Art. XV. His Majesty the Fumperor of all the Russias, acknowledges the Confederation of the Rhine, the present state of the possessions of the princes belonging to it, and
the titles of those which were conferred
upon them by the act of confederation, or
by the subsequent treaties of accession. His
said Majesty also promises, information be
ing communicated to him on the part of the Emperor Napoleon, to acknowledge those A sovereigns who may hereafter become mem
bers of the confederation, according to their rank specified in the act of confederation.— Art. XVI. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias cedes , all his property in the right of sovereignty to the Lordship of Jevor, in East Friesland, to his Majesty the King of Holland.-Art. XVII. The present treaty of peace shall be mutually binding, and in force for his Majesty the King of Naples, Joseph Napoleon, his Majesty Louis Napoleon, King of Holland, and the Sovereigns of the Confederation of the Rhine, in alliance with the Emperor Napoleon.—Art. XVIII. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias also acknowledges his Imperial Highness, Prince Jerome Napoleon, as King of Westphalia. Art. XIX. The Kingdom of Westphalia shall consist of the provinces ceded by the King of Prussia on the left bank of the Elbe, and other-states at present in the possession of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon. Art. XX. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias engages to recognize the limits which shall be determined by his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, in pursuance of the foregoing XIXth article, and the cessions of his Majesty the King of Prussia (which shall be notified to his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias), together with the state of possession resulting therefrom to the sovereigns for whose behoof they shall have been established.—Art. XXI. All hostilities shall immediately cease between the troops of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias and those of the Grand Seignior, at all points, wherever official intelligence shall arrive of the signing of the present treaty. The high contracting parties shall, without delay, dispatch couriers extraordinary to convey the intelligence, with the utmost possible expedition, to the respective generals and conmanders —Art. XXII. The Prussian troops shall be withdrawn from the Provinces of
occupied by the troops of the Grand Seignior, till after the exchange of the ratifications of the future definitive treaty of peace between IRussia and the Ottoman Porte.
| Art. XX. H. His Majesty the Emperor of
all the Russias accepts the mediation of his Majesty the Emperor of France and King of Italy, for the purpose of negociating a peace advantageous and honourable to the two powers, and of concluding the same. The respective plenipotentiaries shall repair to that place which will be agreed upon by the two powers concerned, there to open the negociations, and to proceed there with. Art. XXIV. The periods, within which the high contracting parties shals withdraw their troops from the places which they are to evacuate pursuant to the above stipulations, as also the manner in which the different stipulations contained in the present treaty, shail be executed, will be settled by a special agreement.—Art. XXV. His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, mutually ensure to each other the integrity of their possessions, and of those of the powers included in this present treaty, in the
state in which they are now settled, or fur
ther to be settled, pursuant to the above stipulations.—Art. XXVI. The prisoners made by the contracting parties, or those included in the present treaty, shall be restored in a mass, and without any cartel of exchange on both sides.—Art. XXVII. The commercial relations between the French Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdoms of Naples and Holland, and the Confederated States of the Rhine, on one side; and the Empire of Russia on the other, shall be replaced on the same footing as before the war.——Art. XXVIII. The ceremonial between the two courts of the Thuilleries and Petersburgh, with respect to each other, and also their respective ambassadors, ministers, and envoys, mutually accredited to each other, shall be placed on the footing of complete equality and reciprocity.—Art XXIX. The present treaty shall be ratified by his Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; the ratifications shall be exchanged in this city within the space of four days.Done at Tilsit, 7th July, (25th June), 1807.
(Signed) C. MAU Rice TALLEY RAND,
Pr. of Benevento.—Prince Alex ANDEa
Koukaki N.—Prince DIMITRY LABA NoFF VAN Rostoff.--—A true &opy, (Signed)
C. M. T.All Ex RAND, Prince of Benevento.