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descendants of Ham, in some branches of his family, especially in the line of, Canaan and Cush, have been the veriest slaves to Shem and Japheth. What means the name Ham, Reuben ?
Reuben. You taught us that Ham signifies burnt, or black. The Cushites, the eldest branch of Ham's family, dwelt in the hottest part of Asia, and from them it is believed that the Ethiopians descended. Egypt also was formerly known as the land of Ham.
Olympas. How long after the delivery of this prophecy was it before the Canaanites served the sons of Shem?
Thomas. Thirty Canaanitish kings were subdued by Joshua, who made the Gibeonites and others servants of the Israelites some eight hundred years after this time. The Greeks and the Romans, sons too of Japheth, subdued the Tyrians and Carthagenians, whose offspring have served both the Saracens and the Turks.
Olympas. Some have justified servitude from the fact that it came from the Lord—was foretold and ordained of Heaven. What think you, Reuben-how would you reason this point ?
Reuben. The Lord's foretelling an event does not authorize any one to bring it about; for then Judas would have been innocent in betraying the Lord. If then, the Lord, foreseeing the future fortunes of Canaan, did not interpose to prevent them, but intending to permit them, foretold their occurrence, no person is warranted or allowed to inflict any evil upon them;
Olympas. So the scriptures and right reason teach us. The Lord gives over to their enemies them that have forsaken him, and yet he will
punish them that have afflicted them. But a more accurate attention to the distribution of the three branches of Noah's family will assist us in tracing the fortunes of this people. Let us read the tenth chapter of Genesis, the most valuable piece of ancient history in the world.
[The chapter being read, the conversation is resumed.]
Olympas. With which of the three sons does 'the historian commence when about to show the location of their descendants ?
Susan. With Japheth ?
Susan. Because it is most comely to begin with the eldest, and Japheth was older than either Shem or Ham.
Olympas. How many sons had Japheth, James ?
James. Seven viz.cGomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras.
Olympas. And of their sons how many, William, are named ?
William. Seven also-only, however, the sons of Gomer and of Javan.
Olympas. In profane history tell us, Thomas, who corresponds in name with Japheth ?
Thomas. The ancient Greeks generally, I believe, call Japheth by the name of Japetus.
Olympas. So historians generally concur. The Greeks are therefore sprung from Japheth : the Germans, from Gomer; the Scythians and Tartars, from Magog; the Medes, from Madai; the Ionians, from Javan; the Iberians, from Tubal; the Muscovites, from Meshech; and the Thracians, from Tiras. What countries were settled with them, Thomas ?
Thomas. Europe generally, with the northern extremes of Asia.
Olympas. By these seven sons, and the seven sons of Japheth, were “the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands;" all Europe and the northern parts of Asia Minor, and most probably some parts of ancient America were of the posterity of Japheth. God, then, has fulfilled his promise to Japheth. He said he would enlarge Japhethindeed, the word Japheth signifies enlargement. How many sons of Ham are named, Eliza ?
Eliza. Only four, viz-Cush, and Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.
Olympas. How many grandsons, William ?
William. Twenty-four are named, besides other descendants.
Olympas. From these that are named nations arose, whose countries are sometimes called after them. What countries were settled by the four sons of Ham ?
Thomas. Part of Arabia and Ethiopia was settled by Cush; Egypt, by Mizraim; Lybia, by Phut; and the Promised Land, by Canaan.
Olympas. Amongst the descendants of the third and fourth generation of Ham there are some very renowned names, Reuben.
Reuben. Yes, sir.-Nimrod, Ashur, and Philistim.
Olympas. What great cities were founded by these, Eliza ?
Eliza. Babel, Enoch, Accad, Nineveh, Rehoboth, and Calah.
Olympas. Two of these, Babel and Nineveh, are of great renown; and, indeed, the names of the sons of Ham are inscribed on many countries
--Egypt was formerly called Mizraim; and Seba, Havilah, Sheba, Lybia, Philistina, Sidon, &c. unequivocally declare their origin.
William. Have we not a proof that events are antedated in the narrative, or that the order of narration is not always the order of events, in the sixth and twentieth verses of this chapter,
Olympas. Wherein, William ?
William. We are told in the fifth verse that the Isles of the Gentiles were settled by the sons of Japheth according to their language; and yet there was but one language in the world: for in the first verse of the next chapter we are told the whole earth was of one language and of one speech ?
Olympas. William, I believe you are right; and in the twentieth verse also of the tenth chapter we are informed, as you say, that the sons of Ham according to their tongues settled certain countries —those of one tongue going together.
William. Was I not justified, then, in saying that the ark was one hundred and twenty years in building; for the mention of the birth of Shem, Ham, and Japheth before the narrative of the order to build the ark, no more proves that they were born before the order, than that there were many tongues in the earth before the building of Babel, because we are informed of many languages before we are informed of the building of the tower which occasioned the cleft tongues.
Olympas. I think, William, you are triumphant in this potent fact against all the world, should they attempt to prove either the order of Christian worship or any other events, merely from the uni. formity of historians in narrating things in the
order of occurrence. But to keep to our lesson, tell me, James, how many sons had Shem?
James. Five, sir-Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.
Olympas. What countries, Eliza, think you, are denoted by those five chiefs of the Shemites ?
Eliza. Elam was the ancient name of Persia; Assbur, of Assyria; Arphaxad, of Artacata, first called Arrapacha, in Armenia ; Lud gives Lydia, in Asia Minor, and Aram gives the Aramians, afterwards called Syrians.
Olympas. Very true. We have, then, the Persians, Assyrians, Arminians, Lydians, and Syrians, deriving their names and origin from the five sons of Shem. And what, Sarah, can you tell about the grandsons of Shem?
Sarah. I read of Uz, Hul, Gether, Mash, Salah, and Eber, Peleg, and Joktan.
Olympas. Yes, my daughter; but Eber was the great grandson of Shem, and Peleg and Joktan were the great great grandsons.
Sarah. I think if they were so far off, they should be called the little grandson, and the little little grandsons of Shem.
Olympas. Well, custom says great great grandfather and great grandson, and we cannot change it now; but great applied to ancestors and little to descendants, might perhaps have done as well.
Thomas. Were the Hebrews so called from Eber, their father?
Olympas. What do you say, William ?
William. I think they were, if Eber was one of their progenitors; but I cannot learn that he was from this chapter ; for we have only the descen