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CHAPTER CXCIV.

Pago

Meeting of Congress — Washington's Official Summary of the Events of the Year — Cordial Response of the Senate — Partial Demur of the House — Washington's Position and Feelings with regard to England, as shown by himself — Mr. Adet presents the Colours of France — The Treaty returned — Proceedings thereupon — Thomas Pinckney resigns as Minister at London — Eufus King appointed in his Place — Washington's View of the Political Campaign—Jefferson's Fears of an Attempt to sow Dissension between him and Washington — Mr. Monroe recalled, and C. C. Pinckney appointed in his stead — Resentful Policy of France 1615

CHAPTER CXCV.

Washington's Farewell Address — Meets the two Houses of Congress for the last time — His Speech — Replies of the Senate and House — Mr. Giles — Andrew Jackson — Offensive Publication of the French Minister — John Adams declared President —Washington's Letter to Knox on the eve of his Retirement — The spurious Letters — His Farewell Dinner — John Adams takes the Oath of Office — Greetings of Washington at the Close of the Ceremony ------- 1625

CHAPTER CXCVI.

Washington at Mount Vernon — Influx of strange Faces — Law, rence Lewis — Miss Nelly Custis—Washington's Counsel in Love Matters — A Romantic Episode — Return of George Washington Lafayette -------1634

CHAPTER CXCVII.

Parting Address of the French Directory to Mr. Monroe — The new American Minister ordered to leave the Republic — Congress convened — Measures of Defence recommended — Washington's Concern—Appointment of three Envoys Extraordinary

— Doubts their Success — Hears of an old Companion in Arms

— The three Ministers and Talleyrand — Their degrading Treatment — Threatened War with France — Washington appointed Commander-in-Chief ■—■ Arranges for three Major Generals — Knox aggrieved ------- 1641

CHAPTER CXCVIII.

Washington taxed anew with the Cares of Office —Correspondence with Lafayette — A Marriage at Mount Vernon — Appointment of a Minister to the French Republic — Washington's Surprise

— His Activity on his Estate — Political Anxieties — Concern about the Army 1654 CHAPTER CXCIX.

Page

Washington digests a Plan for the Management of his Estate —
His Views in regard to a Military Academy — Letter to Hamil-
ton—His last Hours—The Funeral —The Will —Its Provi-
sions in regard to his Slaves — Proceedings of Congress on his
Death — Conclusion _____ -1659

APPENDIX.

I.—Washington's Farewell Address; 1671

II.—Proceedings of Congress in consequence of the Death of

Washington ______ -1690

III.—Washington's Will _____ -1695

Index

1707
LIFE OF WASHINGTON.

CHAPTER I.

GENEALOGT OP THE WASHINGTON FAMILY.

The Washington family is of an ancient English stock, the genealogy of which has been traced up to the century immediately succeeding the Conquest. At that time it was in possession of landed estates and manorial privileges in the county of Durham, such as were enjoyed only by those, or their descendants, who had come over from Normandy with the Conqueror, or had fought under his standard. When William the Conqueror laid waste the whole country north of the Humber, in punishment of the insurrection of the Northumbrians, he apportioned the estates among his followers, and advanced Normans and other foreigners to the principal ecclesiastical dignities. One of the most wealthy and important sees was that of Durham. Hither had been transported the bones of St. Cuthbert from their original shrine at Lindisfarne, when it was ravaged by the Danes. That saint, says Camden, was esteemed by princes and gentry a titular saint against the Scots.1 His shrine, therefore, had been held in peculiar reverence by the Saxons, and the see of Durham endowed with extraordinary privileges.

William continued and increased those privileges. He needed a powerful adherent on this frontier to keep the

1 Camden, Brit, iv., 349.

B

restless Northumbrians in order, and check Scottish invasion; and no doubt considered an enlightened ecclesiastic, appointed by the crown, a safer depositary of such power than an hereditary noble.

Having placed a noble and learned native of Loraine in the diocese, therefore, he erected it into a palatinate, over which the bishop, as Count Palatine, had temporal as well as spiritual jurisdiction. He built a strong castle for his protection, and to serve as a barrier against the Northern foe. He made him lord high-admiral of the sea and waters adjoining his palatinate, lord warden of the marches, and conservator of the league between England and Scotland. Thenceforth, we are told, the prelates of Durham owned no earthly superior within their diocese, but continued for centuries to exercise every right attached to an independent sovereign.8

The bishop, as Count Palatine, lived in almost royal state and splendour. He had his lay chancellor, chamberlains, secretaries, steward, treasurer, master of the horse, and a host of minor officers. Still he was under feudal obligations. All landed property in those warlike times implied military service. Bishops and abbots, equally with great barons who held estates immediately of the crown, were obliged, when required, to furnish the king with armed men in proportion to their domains: but they had their feudatories under them to aid them in this service.

The princely prelate of Durham had his barons and knights, who held estates of him on feudal tenure, and were bound to serve him in peace and war. They sat occasionally in his councils, gave martial splendour to his court, and were obliged to have horse and weapon ready for service; for they lived in a belligerent neighbourhood, disturbed occasionally by civil war, and often by Scottish foray. When the banner of St. Cutbbert, the royal standard of the province, was displayed, no armed feudatory of the bishop could refuse to take the field.5

Some of these prelates, in token of the warlike duties of

1 Annals of Roger de Hovedon. Hutchinson's Durham, vol. ii. Collectanea Curiosa, vol. ii., p. 83.

3 Robert de Graystanes, Anglia Sacra, p. 746.

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their diocese, engraved on their seals a knight on horseback armed at all points, brandishing in one hand a sword, and holding forth in the other the ai ms of the see.4

Among the knights who held estates in the palatinate on these warlike conditions was William De Heetbuen, the progenitor of the Washingtons. His Norman name of VVilliam would seem to point out his national descent; and the family long continued to have Norman names of baptism. The surname of De Hertburn was taken from a village on the palatinate which he held of the bishop in knight's fee; probably the same now called Hartburn, on the banks of the Tees. It had become a custom among the Norman families of rank, about the time of the Conquest, to take surnames from their castles or estates; it was not until some time afterwards that surnames became generally assumed by the people.5

How or when the De Hertburns first acquired possession of their village is not known. They may have been companions in arms with Eobert de Brus (or Bruce), a noble knight of Normandy, rewarded by William the Conqueror with great possessions in the North, and, among others, with the lordships of Hert and Hertness, in the county of Durham.

The first actual mention we find of the family is in the Bolden Book, a record of all the lands appertaining to the diocese in 1183. In this it is stated that William de Hertburn had exchanged his village of Hertburn for the manor and village of Wessyngton, likewise in the diocese; paying the bishop a quit-rent of four pounds, and engaging to attend him with two greyhounds in grand hunts, and to furnish a man-at-arms whenever military aid should be required of the palatinate."

* Camden, Brit, iv., 349.

5 Lower on Surnames, vol. i., p. 43. Fuller says, that the custom of surnames was brought from France in Edward the Confessor's time, about fifty years before the Conquest; but did not become universally settled until some hundred years afterwards. At first they did not descend hereditarily on the family.—Fuller, Church History. Moll of Battle Abbey.

6 The Bolden Book. As this ancient document gives the first trace of the Washington family, it merits especial mention. In 1183, a survey was made by order of Bishop de Fusaz of all the lands of the

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