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Schuyler at Fort Edward, and to Putnam at Peekskill—Advances

with his main army to the Clove—His hopeful spirit manifested 779


Particulars of the Evacuation—Indian Scouts in the vicinity of

the Fort—Outposts abandoned by St. Clair—Burgoyne secures

Mount Hope—Invests the Fortress—Seizes and occupies Sugar

Hill—The Forts overlooked and in imminent peril—Determina-

tion to evacuate—Plan of Retreat—Part of the garrison depart

for Skenesborough in the Flotilla—St. Clair crosses with the

rest to Fort Independence—A conflagration reveals his retreat—

The British Camp aroused—Fraser pursues St. Clair—Burgoyne

with his Squadron makes after the flotilla—Part of the fugitives

overtaken—Flight of the remainder to Fort Anne—Skirmish of

Colonel Long—Retreat to Fort Edward—St. Clair at Castleton—

Attack of his Rear-guard—Fall of Colonel Fraucis—Desertion of

Colonel Hale—St. Clair reaches Fort Edward—Consternation of

the Country—Exultation of the British - 789


Capture of General Prescott—Proffered in exchange for Lee—

Reinforcements to Schuyler—Arnold sent to the North—Eastern

Militia to repair to Saratoga—Further Reinforcements—Generals

Lincoln and Arnold recommended for particular services—Wash-

ington's measures and suggestions for the Northern Campaign—

British Fleet puts to sea—Conjectures as to its destination—A

feigned letter—Appearance and disappearance of the Fleet-

Orders and counter orders of Washington—Encamps at German-

town—Anxiety for the security of the Highlands—George Clinton

on guard—Call on Connecticut - - - - - 798


Gates on the alert for a Command—Schuyler undermined in Con-

gress—Put on his guard—Courts a Scrutiny but not before an

expected Engagement — Summoned with St. Clair to Head-

quarters—Gates appointed to the Northern Department—Wash-

ington's Speculations on the Successes of Burgoyne—Ill-judged

meddlings of Congress with the Commissariat—Colonel Trum-

bull resigns in consequence ------ 807


Washington's perplexities about the British Fleet — Putnam and
Governor Clinton put on the alert in the Highlands—Morgan
and his Riflemen sent to the North—Washington at Philadelphia
—His first interview with Lafayette — Intelligence about the
Fleet—Explanations of its Movements—Review of the Army—
Lafayette mistakes the nature of his Commission — His alliance
with Washington—March of the Army through Philadelphia—
Encampment at Wilmington - - - - 812



Burgoyne at Skenesborough—Prepares to move towards the Hud-

son—Major Skene the Royalist—Slow March to Fort Anne—

Schuyler at Fort Miller—Painted Warriors—Langlade—St. Luo

—Honour of the Tomahawk—Tragical story of Miss McCrea—

Its results—Burgoyne advances to Fort Edward—Schuyler at

Stillwater—Joined by Lincoln—Burgoyne deserted by his Indian

allies --------- 819


Difficulties of Burgoyne—Plans an Expedition to Bennington—St.

Leger before Fort Stanwix— General Herkimer at Oriskany—

High words with his officers—A dogged march—An ambuscade—

Battle of Oriskany—Johnson's Greens—Death of Herkimer—

Spirited sortie of Colonel Willett—Sir John Johnson driven to

the river—Flight of the Indians—Sacking of Sir John's Camp—

Colonel Gansevoort maintains his post—Colonel Willett sent in

quest of aid—Arrives at Schuyler's Camp - 825


Schuyler hears of the affair of Oriskany—Applies for Reinforce-

ments—His appeal to the Patriotism of Stark—Schuyler super-

seded—His Conduct thereupon—Relief sent to Fort Stanwix—

Arnold volunteers to conduct it — Change of encampment —

Patriotic determination of Schuyler—Detachment of the Enemy

against Bennington—Germans and their Indian allies—Baum,

the Hessian leader—Stark in the field—Mustering of the Militia

—A belligerent Parson—Battle of Bennington—Breyman to the

rescue—Routed—Reception of the news in the rival Camps—

Washington urges New England to follow up the blow - - 833


Stratagem of Arnold to relieve Fort Stanwix—Yan Yost Cuyler—

The Siege pressed — Indians intractable — Success of Arnold's

stratagem—Harassed retreat of St. Leger—Moral effect of the

two blows given to the Enemy — Brightening prospects in the

American Camp—Arrival of Gates—Magnanimous conduct of

Schuyler—Poorly requited by Gates—Correspondence between

Gates and Burgoyne concerning the Murder of Miss McCrea - 843


Landing of Howe's Army on Elk River—Measures to check it—Ex-
posed situation of Washington in reconnoitring—Alarm of the
Country—Proclamation of Howe—Arrival of Sullivan—Foreign
Officers in camp—Deborre—Conway—Fleury—Count Pulaski —
First appearance in the Army of ' Light-horse Harry' of Virginia
—Washington's appeal to the Army—Movements of the rival
Forces—Battle of the Brandywine—Retreat of the Americans—
Halt in Chester—Scenes in Philadelphia during the Battle—


General Howe neglects to pursue his advantage—Washington re-

treats to Germantown—Recrosses the Schuylkill and prepares

for another action—Prevented by storms of rain—Retreats to

French Creek—Wayne detached to fall on the enemy's rear—

His pickets surprised—Massacre of Smallwood's men—Ma-

noeuvres of Howe on the Schuylkill—Washington sends for rein-

forcements—Howe marches into Philadelphia - 802


Dubious position of Burgoyne—Collects his forces—Ladies of dis-

tinction in his Camp—Lady Harriet Ackland—The Baroness de

Riedesel—American Army reinforced—Silent movements of

Burgoyne—Watched from the summit of the hills—His march

along the Hudson—Position of the two Camps—Battle on the

19th Sept.—Burgoyne encamps nearer—Fortifies his camp—

Promised co-operation by Sir Henry Clinton—Determines to

await it—Quarrel between Gates and Arnold—Arnold deprived

of command—Burgoyne waits for co-operation - 868


Preparations of Sir Henry Clinton—State of the Highland defences

—Putnam alarmed—Advance of the Armament up the Hudson

—Plan of Sir Henry Clinton—Peekskill threatened—Putnam

deceived—Secret March of the Enemy through the Mountains—

Forts Montgomery and Clinton overpowered—Narrow escape of

the Commanders—Conflagration and Explosion of the American

Frigates—Rallying efforts of Putnam and Governor Clinton—

The Spy and the Silver Bullet—Esopus burnt—Ravaging pro-

gress of the Enemy up the Hudson - 881


Scarcity in the British Camp—Gates bides his time—Foraging

Movement of Burgoyne—Battle of the 7th October—Rout of the

British and Hessians—Situation of the Baroness Riedesel and

Lady Harriet Ackland during the battle—Death of General

Fraser—His funeral—Night Retreat of the British—Expedition

of Lady Harriet Ackland—Desperate situation of Burgoyne at

Saratoga—Capitulation—Surrender—Conduct of the American

troops—Scenes in the Camp—Gallant courtesy of Schuyler to

the Baroness Riedesel—His magnanimous conduct towards Bur-

goyne—Return of the British Ships down the Hudson - - 890


Washington advances to Skippack Creek—The British Fleet in the


Delaware—Forts and Obstructions in the river—Washington
meditates an attack on the British Camp—Battle of Germantown 909


Washington at White Marsh—Measures to cut off .the Enemy's
Supplies—The Forts on the Delaware reinforced—Colonel
Greene of Rhode Island at Fort Mercer—Attack and defence of
that Fort—Death of Count Douop - - - - 917


De Kalb commissioned Major-General—Pretensions of Conway—
Thwarted by Washington—Conway cabal—Gates remiss in cor-
respondence—Dilatory in forwarding Troops—Mission of Hamil-
ton to Gates—Wilkinson bearer of despatches to Congress—A
tardy traveller—His reward—Conway Correspondence detected
—Washington's apology for his army - 922


Further hostilities on the Delaware—Fort Mifflin attacked—
Bravely defended—Reduced—Mission of Hamilton to Gates—
Visits the camps of Governor Clinton and Putnam on the Hud-
son—Putnam on his hobby-horse—Difficulties in procuring
reinforcements—Intrigues of the Cabal—Letters of Lovell and
Mifflin to Gates—The works at Red Bank destroyed—The
Enemy in possession of the Delaware - 928


Question of an attack on Philadelphia—General Reed at Head-
quarters—Enemy's works reconnoitred—Opinions in a Council
of War—Exploit of Lafayette—Receives command of a division—-
Modification of the Board of War—Gates to preside—Letter of
Lovell—Sally forth of General Howe—Evolutions and Skirmishes
—Conway Inspector-General—Consultation about Winter-quar-
ters—Dreary March to Valley Forge—Hutting—Washington's
vindicatory Letters—Retrospect of the year - 938


Gates in the ascendant—The Conway Letter—Suspicions—Conse-
quent Correspondence between Gates and Washington—Warn-
ing Letter from Dr. Craik—Anonymous Letters—Projected
Expedition to Canada—Lafayette, Gates, and the Board of War 952


Gates undertakes to explain the Conway Correspondence—Wash-
ington's searching Analysis of the Explanation—Close of the
Correspondence—Spurious Letters published—Lafayette and
the Canada Expedition—His perplexities—Counsels of Wash-
ington --------- 960

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More trouble about the Conway Letter—Correspondence between
Lord Stirling and Wilkinson—Wilkinson's honour wounded—
His passage at Arms with General Gates—His seat at the Board
of War uncomfortable—Determines that Lord Stirling shall
bleed—His wounded honour healed—His interview with Wash-
ington—Sees the Correspondence of Gates—Denounces Gates,
and gives up the Secretaryship—Ts thrown out of employ—
Closing remarks on the Conway Cabal - 969


Committee of Arrangement—Reforms in the Army—Scarcity in

the Camp— The Enemy revel in Philadelphia—Attempt to sur-

prise Light-horse Harry—His gallant defence—Praised by Wash-

ington—Promoted—Letter from General Lee—Burgoyne returns

to England—Mrs. Washington at Valley Forge—Bryan Fairfax

visits the Camp—Arrival of ihe Baron Steuben—His character

—Disciplines the Army—Greene made Quartermaster-General - 976


Fortifications of the Hudson—Project to surprise Sir Henry Clin-

ton—General Howe forages the Jerseys—Ships and Stores burnt

at Bordentown—Plans for the next campaign—Gates and Mifflin

under Washington's command—Downfall of Conway—Lord

North's conciliatory Bills—Sent to Washington by Governor

Tryon—Resolves of Congress—Letter of Washington to Tryon

—Rejoicing at Valley Forge—The Mischianza - 987


Lafayette detached to keep watch on Philadelphia—His position at

Barren Hill—Plan of Sir Henry to entrap him—Washington

alarmed for his safety—Stratagem of the Marquis—Exchange of

General Lee and Colonel Ethan Allen—Allen at Valley Forge—

Washington's opinion of him—Preparations in Philadelphia to

Evacuate—Washington's measures in consequence—Arrival of

Commissioners from England—Their disappointment—Their

proceedings—Their failure—Their manifesto - 997


Preparations to Evacuate Philadelphia—Washington calls a Coun-

cil of War—Lee opposed to any Attack—Philadelphia Evacuated

—Movements in pursuit of Sir Henry Clinton—Another Council

of War—Conflict of opinions—Contradictory conduct of Lee

respecting the Command—The Battle of Monmouth Court

House—subsequent March of the Armies - 1005


Correspondence between Lee and Washington relative to the Affair
of Monmouth—Lee asks a Trial by Court Martial—The Verdict
—Lee's subsequent History ------ 1020

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